Lesson 6 Search for Professionalism

Information about Lesson 6 Search for Professionalism

Published on January 10, 2008

Author: Renato

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Sea Power and Maritime Affairs:  Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 6: The United States Navy, 1815-1860: The Search for Professionalism Period of Expansion:  Period of Expansion Monroe Doctrine -- 1823 No European colonization or intervention in the Americas Manifest Destiny “Our manifest destiny is to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions.” John L. O'Sullivan, 1845 Andrew Jackson Elected President in 1828 Indian Tribes forced to assimilate or move west Increased immigration from Europe Reorganization of the Navy:  Reorganization of the Navy Postwar Navy increases in size Funding continues to increase: Pride in wartime accomplishments Secretary of the Navy calls for “Board of Commissioners” Civilian secretary needs help managing larger Navy Primary mission of the Navy = “Gunboat Diplomacy” Protect expanding U. S. commercial interests overseas - “Showing the flag.” Naval Warfighting Doctrine Focus on Commerce Raiding - “Guerre de Course” Command of the sea: de-emphasized Coastal defense - Army forts constructed at entrances to ports Board of Commissioners:  Board of Commissioners Three senior Captains (Hull, Porter, Rodgers; Bainbridge and Decatur later) Formed to assist in following areas: Logistical responsibilities Advising ship deployments Assist SECNAV in deployment of forces and personnel Permanent Overseas Squadrons:  Permanent Overseas Squadrons With increased strength, able to maintain multiple squadrons abroad: Mediterranean Squadron West Indies Squadron Brazil Squadron Pacific Squadron East Indies Squadron African Squadron Permanent U.S. Navy Squadrons:  Permanent U.S. Navy Squadrons Mediterranean Squadron:  Mediterranean Squadron Revived to deal with Barbary corsairs Dey resumed capturing American merchantmen 1812, U.S. declared war on Algiers Decatur convinced Dey of Algiers and pasha of Tripoli and Tunis that U.S. would not pay any more tribute; would not be subject to piracy Considered most favorable assignment Continuing Problems with Barbary States:  Continuing Problems with Barbary States West Indies Squadron:  West Indies Squadron Created to protect shipping against piracy James Biddle first commander; David Porter successful in raiding pirate’s havens in Cuba with shallow draft vessels 1824 Fajardo incident: One of Porter’s officers briefly in jail Porter landed with 200 men and demanded mayor make public apology or town destroyed Porter relieved Became CINC of Mexican Navy Other Squadrons:  Other Squadrons Brazil Squadron Formed to assist South American countries fighting Spain’s Squadron and to prevent seizure of U.S. ships Enforcing Monroe Doctrine Pacific Squadron Support diplomatic efforts with Argentina and Chile Recover captured U.S. ships Other Squadrons:  Other Squadrons East Indies Squadron Protect expanding U.S. trade in Asia Pirates in Sumatra, 1838 – American merchantmen slaughtered African Squadron Formed with Britain in order to suppress the slave trade LT Wilkes Expedition, 1838-1842:  LT Wilkes Expedition, 1838-1842 Squadron of 6 vessels Gathered significant amount of scientific knowledge Charted Fiji, Samoa, Gilberts, Antarctica, and North American West and Northwest Coast The expedition recognized the strategic and trade importance of San Francisco and whole West Coast Natural science collections became basis of Smithsonian Institute collections The “Wilkes Expedition”:  The “Wilkes Expedition” LT Matthew F. Maury:  LT Matthew F. Maury Naval Oceanographer “Pathfinder of Seas” He studied old logs and compiled the data Allowed preparation of detailed charts He determined the best routes for maximum speeds & optimum conditions Cut New York to San Francisco route by 47 days The “Bureau System”:  The “Bureau System” Secretary of the Navy Abel P. Upshur -- 1841-42 Proponent of expansion, modernization, and reform. Five “bureaus” established to replace the Board of Commissioners in 1842. Bureau of Navy Yards and Docks Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography Bureau of Construction, Equipment, and Repair Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Bureau of Provisions and Clothing Problems in Navy:  Problems in Navy Rough, ignorant sailors Disciplined by fear Flogging common; chief reward  grog Stagnation in officer corps Heroes of 1812 filled top positions Dueling common Inadequate training M.C. Perry’s apprentice experiment on board the brig, Somers, was a failure; crew almost mutinied United States Naval Academy:  United States Naval Academy Problems with training of midshipmen Navy more technologically advanced “Screening” process required United States Military Academy at West Point Highly successful in training Army officers Naval School at Philadelphia Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft moves the Naval School to Annapolis - 1845 First Superintendent: Franklin Buchanan Renamed Naval Academy in 1850 United States Naval Academy:  United States Naval Academy Annapolis, Maryland The Mexican American War:  The Mexican American War Due to Westward expansion: Texas became part of U.S. upon their request Independence 1836, annexed 1845, statehood 1846 Border dispute with Mexico (Nueces vs. Rio Grande) U.S. annexed California and New Mexico Not recognized by Mexico Slide20:  “We have tried every effort at reconciliation… But now, after reiterated menaces, Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States (Rio Grande), has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon American soil…. The two nations are at war.” Mexican-American War 1846-48:  Mexican-American War 1846-48 General Zachary Taylor Operations against Mexican Army in Texas – 1846 Pacific Squadron under Commodore John Sloat. Monterey and San Francisco captured by joint American forces - Army, Navy, and Marine Corps. Commodore Robert Stockton - Los Angeles. California and Oregon occupied by the end of the war. Gulf of Mexico - 1847:  Gulf of Mexico - 1847 U.S. Navy establishes command of the sea Blockade and capture of Mexican ports Marines used as a garrison force Combined Army-Navy operations at Vera Cruz Home Squadron under Commodore M.C. Perry Amphibious landing including Marines General Winfield Scott marches to Mexico City Accompanied by a regiment of Marines Marines in the Battle of Chapultepec “The Halls of Montezuma” Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo - 1848 Rio Grande established as Texas-Mexico border Western United States ceded from Mexico ($15M) Battle of Vera Cruz:  Battle of Vera Cruz U.S. Navy Expedition to Japan - 1854:  U.S. Navy Expedition to Japan - 1854 Acquisition of California and Oregon - 1848 U.S. is now a power in the Pacific Ocean Japan Island nation closed to foreign influence Commodore M.C. Perry U.S. Navy squadron to Japan - 1853 Returns to Tokyo Bay - 1854 Treaty of Kanagawa - 1854 Protection of American seamen Two ports opened to American shipping Technological Developments:  Technological Developments New blood officers experimented with new technology & methods; M.C. Perry, Maury, Stockton Advancements were made in the areas of: Steam Propulsion Gunnery Armor Industrial Revolution:  Industrial Revolution Affects naval technology: Propulsion Sail to Steam Armor Wood to Iron Weapons Solid Shot to Shell Technological Developments:  Technological Developments Steam Propulsion Maury and M.C. Perry: leading advocates of steam propulsion In 1842 the Mississippi and Missouri were completed; steam-powered, wooden-hulled, paddlewheelers which gave the US an early lead in steam. Technological Developments:  Technological Developments Steam Propulsion Advantages/Disadvantages Increased mobility Inefficient engines and fuel now had to be carried Paddlewheels were inefficient Commercial ships made the greatest strides in steam. Demologous First steam ship warship Robert Fulton Technological Developments:  Technological Developments Fulton II, 1837 Second U.S. steamship. Perry used this ship & convinced Congress to advocate the use of steam Commissioned 3,220 ton Mississippi and Missouri Princeton, 1842 Screw propeller designed by Smith (England) and Ericcson (Sweden) Oversaw construction of first screw driven warship. The screw driven warship was soon deemed superior to the paddlewheel  France and England follow suit with Napoleon and Agamemnon US launches the Merrimack class fast screw frigate Crimean War 1854-56:  Crimean War 1854-56 Russian invasion of Ottoman Empire in Europe Battle of Sinop Russian fleet annihilates Turkish fleet by use of shell fire Proves wooden-hulled ships are obsolete -- unable to withstand explosive shell fire Great Britain and France allied with Ottoman Turks Sevastopol Campaign Sailing ships inadequate compared to steam ships for maneuver Importance of proper planning and coordination of amphibious assaults Kinburn Ironclad (17” wooden hulls with 4.5” iron plates) armor on French ships used for protection ushered in age of armor The Black Sea:  The Black Sea Crimean Peninsula:  Crimean Peninsula Armor:  Armor French ironclad frigate Gloire - 1859 36 guns in broadside 5,600-tons displacement Wooden hull with iron armor plating 4.75” thick British ironclad battleship Warrior - 1860 40 guns in broadside 9,000-tons displacement Iron hull with iron armor plating First “modern” warship -- sometimes referred to as first battleship Marked the end of wooden warship era HMS Warrior:  HMS Warrior Portsmouth, England First “Modern” Warship Ordnance:  Ordnance Primary weapon was still cast-iron, smoothbore, solid-shot muzzle loader, 300-2500 yds USS Princeton ordnance demonstration - 1844 Ericcson’s “Oregon” and Stockton’s “Peacemaker” “Peacemaker” improperly reinforced subsequent explosion kills six, including the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy U.S. naval ordnance development suspended John Dahlgren -- “Father of Modern Naval Ordnance” “Dahlgren Gun” - 1850’s Nine inch shell gun, mounted on Merrimac - class frigates Bore is smooth - still inaccurate at longer ranges Based on curvature of gun shaft creating pressures from expanding gas that originated from gunpowder Experiments with “rifled” cannon begin Ordnance:  Ordnance Built-up gun barrel replaces Dahlgren gun Development of gun turret to protect gunners  Monitor Enhancement of shell shot Attempts at rifling produced intense pressures that cannon could not withstand John Dahlgren:  John Dahlgren Father of Modern Naval Ordnance The “Peacemaker”:  The “Peacemaker” Conclusion: 1815-1860:  Conclusion: 1815-1860 Period of territorial and commercial expansion Navy grew in earlier years, but professionalism and technology remained relatively stagnant after 1850 This was time of relative peace throughout period U.S. held defensive and isolationist policy in relation to Europe. People lost interest in the Navy over the years Sectional division over slavery paralyzed naval development Conclusion: 1815-1860:  Conclusion: 1815-1860 Heading into the Civil war the Navy unprepared once again in 1860 Ships were still mostly sail and even steamships used sail--the propeller was mostly for auxiliary power, 8-10 knots max. speed. There were few new weapons The fleet was also small and aging However, tradition of global support of commercial expansion Porter in Caribbean Wilkes’ exploration Maury’s contributions to navigation Overseas squadrons Perry in Japan Slide47:  Next time: The Civil War

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