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Published on March 11, 2014

Author: mr.luisalvarez1988

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The Foundation of American Government: The Foundation of American Government POLITICAL BEGINNINGS What you will learn: What you will learn You will learn how the origins of our democratic government can be traced back to ancient Greece, Rome and England. You will read the words of influential political thinkers such as John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, Niccolo Machiavelli, and William Blackstone. Prompt #1: Prompt #1 A Prompt is an activity we compose in our history notebooks. Open notebooks to page one and position the page landscape. You will create a mind map titled Roles of Government . In the middle of the page write the word government. Now identify six possible roles of the government and how it affects your life, give possible real-world example. Example: Example What is Government?: What is Government? Government is the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies (i.e., education, defense, health and human services, trade, laws, infrastructure, etc.) There are many types of governments but all has and exercises three basic kinds of power: Legislative power, Executive power, and Judicial power. PowerPoint Presentation: One size does not fit all There are many forms of government in existence. For the most part the type of government a state has reflects that particular state’s values, culture, and shared history. However, this is not always the case. Here is a list of different types of governments. Absolute Monarchy – Monarch rules unhindered, i.e., France 17 th and 18 th century. Communist – an economic system and type of government – one-party state control, centrally planned economies and state ownership of means of production, i.e., China Today Democracy – a form of government in which the supreme power is retained by the people, i.e., The United States of America (sort of, federal republic) PowerPoint Presentation:  One size does not fit all Constitutional Monarchy – Monarch is guided by a constitution in written law or by custom, i.e., The United Kingdom Direct Democracy - People decide policy initiatives direct, opposed to a representative democracy in which people vote for representatives, i.e., Ancient Athens, California (referendum, initiative, recall). Republic – a representative democracy in which the people’s elected representatives, not the people themselves, vote, i.e., Ancient Rome Totalitarian – Government that seeks to subordinate the individual to the state by controlling attitudes, values and beliefs as well as political and economic matters, i.e., Nazi Germany. Major Political Ideas: Major Political Ideas The Divine Right Theory - Widely accepted in much of the Western world from the fifteenth through eighteenth centuries. It held that God created the state and that God had given those of royal birth a “divine right” to rule. The Social Contract Theory – It holds that the state exists only to serve the will of the people, that they are the sole source of political power, and that they are free to give or to withhold that power as they choose. Major Political Ideas cont.: Major Political Ideas cont. Philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, James Harrington, John Locke and Jean Jacaues Rousseau developed upon this theory in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. We will review these men as well as Sir William Blackstone and Machiavelli ahead. Ancient Greek and Roman Contributions: Ancient Greek and Roman Contributions Similarities?: Similarities? Ancient Greece: Ancient Greece The cities of ancient Greece were organized into city-states, Athens was a city-state. They developed a political system now known as direct democracy . People not only vote for leaders, but actually serve in the government. Greek leaders developed the idea of Citizenship – the status of a citizen, or member of a country, with all its duties, rights, and privileges. A Republic in Ancient Rome: A Republic in Ancient Rome Ancient Rome was the first nation to create a Republic . A republic is a form of government in which people elect representatives to govern them. Roman citizen demanded that laws governing their lives be written down. Many Romans believed that codified, or written, laws would prevent Roman leaders from abusing their power. Analysis: Analysis Directions: The next slide will contain a political cartoon. In your history notebooks please right down the following questions which you will answer once the next slide appears. What form of government is represented by the King in this Cartoon? What does this cartoon imply about the origins of Democracy? English influence on American Gov.: English influence on American Gov. The first European nation to experiment with democracy was England. By the 12 th century the English political system began to change. The progression from an Absolute M onarchy to a Constitutional Monarchy has been facilitated by English common law , The Magna Carta , Parliament , and the English Bill of Rights . Landmark Documents: Landmark Documents English common law – originally derives from the late 12 century and credited to King Henry II of England. King’s judges created a unified common law throughout England based on the collective judicial decisions reasoned by tradition, custom and precedent. Gradually these laws were written down and became the basis for common law which applied to all English citizens. The Magna Carta – The King’s barons, or lords, resented the development of King Henry’s court system-it took away some of their traditional powers, i.e., their own courts. King John imposed new taxes on the barons and by 1215 the barons joined together and forced King John to sign a charter that spelled out their rights and created a great council of barons. It simply guarantee their traditional rights and privileges but showed that a monarch’s power could be legally limited by the citizenry. Landmark Documents: Landmark Documents Parliament – The creation of the Great Council and signing of the Magna Carta were the first steps in the development of representative in Britain. The Great Council would evolve into Parliament which by early 17 th century become more of an equal partner in English government, sharing power with the monarchy. The Bill of Rights - by the mid 17 th century the power struggle between the monarchy and Parliament led to civil war. The monarchy was abolished for 10 years but re-established in 1660. By the 1680s Parliament presented the crown to William and Mary. After William invasion during he Glorious Revolution. Signed in 1689 the English Bill of Rights limits the powers of the crown and sets out the rights of Parliament. Enlightenment Philosophers: Enlightenment Philosophers John Locke: John Locke English political philosopher. First and second Treatises on Government All people had the inalienable “right to life, liberty, and property” People created government and chose to be governed in order to live in an orderly society. Government arose from an agreement, or contract (Contract Theory), between the ruler and the ruled A ruler only had power as long as he or she had the consent of the governed Reflection: Reflection Open your textbooks to page 40. Read the first two paragraphs of the Declaration of Independence. In your history notebooks write down parts of the passage that compares to John Locke philosophy on “Social Contract” Montesquieu: Montesquieu Charles-Louis Montesquieu, French social commentator and political thinker The Spirit of Laws Suggests Limited Government Believed that the best way to ensure that the government protects the natural rights of citizens is to limit its powers Best way to limit government’s powers is to divide government’s basic powers among a number of authorities. Sir William Blackstone: Sir William Blackstone British jurist and legal scholar. Commentaries on the Laws of England (1765-1769) These Commentaries provided an introduction to English law in a clear style that was easily understandable to the public. Immediately successful in Both England and the colonies. Machiavelli: Machiavelli Wrote a book about political power named The Prince in 1512. Italian Machiavelli believed that most people were evil and corrupt. A centralized government with a strong lead would be the best type of government. The leader, according to Machiavelli, should do anything necessary to achieve what is best for the country “The ends justify the means”

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