Published on October 10, 2007
Literary Terms ContinuedSound and Rhyme: Literary Terms Continued Sound and Rhyme Rhyme, End Rhyme, Internal Rhyme, Half Rhyme or Slant Rhyme How do good writers use the sounds of words as well as the meanings to enhance their writing?: How do good writers use the sounds of words as well as the meanings to enhance their writing? How do good writers use the sounds of words as well as the meanings to enhance their writing?By using rhyme …: How do good writers use the sounds of words as well as the meanings to enhance their writing? By using rhyme … Rhyme: Rhyme Like other tools of sound, rhyme may be used to Make a phrase or line more memorable An early use of rhyme may have been to help priests memorize verses to recite for the congregation Add a lyrical, musical or harmonious effect Draw attention to a line/phrase Rhyme: Rhyme Repetition of identical sounds at the ends of two or more different words The SOUNDS, not the letters, make the rhyme Also spelled “rime” (but not in this class) Not limited to poetry Rhyme: Rhyme True Rhyme requires Same number of syllables Same accented syllables The rhyme spelled the same way Eye Rhyme (as in it looks like it would rhyme) Tough/though, one/tone, ice/juice, choose/goose Is not really any “rhyme,” just a coincidence Identical Rhyme Words spelled differently that rhyme Ease/sneeze, twice/precise, bruise/blues/use/chews Also called “rime riche” Rhyme: Rhyme And then there’s … Masculine rhyme Feminine Rhyme Double Rhyme Triple Rhyme Rhyme Royal And so much more … We only get to scratch the surface this year Rhyme: Rhyme Knowing all these details about specific rhymes probably won’t impress anyone other than (possibly) English majors, who probably already know this … and are still looking for a practical use for such trivia Rhyme: Rhyme Examples: Fair and square Rough and tough Moaning and groaning Shilly-shally Hocus-pocus Walkie-talkie Fender-bender Super-duper See you later, Alligator … After while, Crocodile You’re a poet and don’t know it ‘til you show it Rhyme: Rhyme Is found in virtually every language from the beginnings of recorded language Is so important in some languages (Latin, Japanese), that words endings are deliberately limited so that many words rhyme with each other Is not always carried over from translated poetry Is a practiced skill, like acrobatics, unicycle riding, painting, etc. Rhyme: Rhyme Can be used for fun or to set expectations, such as in limericks, where the punch line hinges on the last word, or in an outrageous Ogden Nash poem (next two pages) Here the rhyme is emphasized and essential the fun Compare this to Song of Hiawatha, where de-emphasis of the rhyme is important Slide12: The Camel has a single hump, The dromedary two, Or else the other way around, I'm never sure - are you? A panther looks like a leopard, Except that it hasn't been peppered. Should you behold a panther crouch, Prepare to say ouch, Better yet, if called by a panther, Don't anther. Slide13: The Jellyfish Who wants my jellyfish? I'm not sellyfish! The Cow The cow is of bovine ilk; One end is moo, the other is milk. The Dog The truth I do not stretch or shove When I state that the dog is full of love. I've also found, by actual test, A wet dog is the lovingest. The Fly The Lord in His wisdom made the fly, And then forgot to tell us why. The Eel I don't mind eels Except as meals. And the way they feels. End Rhyme: End Rhyme … or just “rhyme” Also known as tail rhyme End Rhyme: End Rhyme I would not like them here or there. I would not like them anywhere I do not like green eggs and ham. I do not like them, Sam-I-am. --Green Eggs and Ham by Dr. Seuss End Rhyme: End Rhyme Poetry does not have to rhyme! Good Rhyme ≠ Good poetry Bad rhyme can be tedious (boring) and clichéd Bad rhyme distracts from the poem’s meaning Bad rhyme (or rhyme handled amateurishly) adds a sing-song unnaturalness Read the next page aloud without making it sound like Dr. Seuss Slide17: Should you ask me, whence these stories? Whence these legends and traditions, With the odors of the forest With the dew and damp of meadows, With the curling smoke of wigwams, With the rushing of great rivers, With their frequent repetitions, And their wild reverberations As of thunder in the mountains? I should answer, I should tell you, "From the forests and the prairies, From the great lakes of the Northland, From the land of the Ojibways, From the land of the Dacotahs, From the mountains, moors, and fen-lands Where the heron, the Shuh-shuh-gah, Feeds among the reeds and rushes. -- from the Introduction to the Song of Hiawatha by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Internal Rhyme: Internal Rhyme Rhyme pretty much anywhere but at the end of the lines. Rhyme in the middle of two successive lines Rhyme in the middle of a line and at the end of the same line Rarely called leonine rhyme Internal Rhyme: Internal Rhyme Examples: I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers (Percy Bysshe Shelley) Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary … (Edgar Allan Poe) Internal Rhyme: Internal Rhyme Example: The best oh yes I guess suggest the rest should fess Don’t mess or test your highness Unless you just address with best finesse And bless the paragraph I manifest --Big Daddy Kane Internal Rhyme: Internal Rhyme With a squeak and a creak and a toot and a sigh, With an extra hope and an extra try, He would not stop – now he neared the top – And strong and proud he cried out loud, “I think I can, I think I can, I think I can!” --from “The Little Blue Engine” by Shel Silverstein Slant Rhyme: Slant Rhyme Not-quite rhyme Complementary; not jarring If done well, does not draw attention to itself Not obviously not rhyming (does that make any sense?) Usually the substitution of assonance or consonance for true rhyme Slant Rhyme: Slant Rhyme Also known as half rhyme, sprung rhyme, near rhyme, off-rhyme, pararhyme, partial rhyme, imperfect rhyme, oblique rhyme … Is a hallmark of Emily Dickenson Slant Rhyme: Slant Rhyme What did the carrot say to the wheat? “ ‘Lettuce’ rest, I’m feeling ‘beet.’ ” What did the paper say to the pen? “I feel quite all ‘write,’ my friend.” What did the teapot say to the chalk? Nothing, you silly … teapots can’t talk! --“What Did” by Shel Silverstein Slant Rhyme: Slant Rhyme The carpenter, he tried with pliers, The telephone man he tried with wires, The firemen, they tried with fire, But couldn’t melt that peanut-butter sandwich --from “Peanut-Butter Sandwich” by Shel Silverstein (with bonus assonance) Slant Rhyme: Slant Rhyme Example: “Arms and the Boy” by Wilfred Owen Note the masterful consonance on the next page The same letters are repeated with different vowel sounds bl-d, fl-sh, l-ds, -pple Slide27: Let the boy try along this bayonet-blade How cold steel is, and keen with hunger of blood; Blue with all malice, like a madman’s flash; And thinly drawn with famishing for flesh. Lend him to stroke these blind, blunt bullet-heads Which long to muzzle in the hearts of lads. Or give him cartridges of fine zinc teeth, Sharp with the sharpness of grief and death. For his teeth seem for laughing round an apple. There lurk no claws behind his fingers supple; And God will grow no talons at his heels, Nor antlers through the thickness of his curls.