Published on April 24, 2008
Cities and Climate Change: Lessons for and from London : Cities and Climate Change: Lessons for and from London Farhana Yamin Institute of Development Studies Sussex University May 12, London, 2007 Presentation Outline: Presentation Outline Climate Change is real The past The future – a short movie! Likely impacts Cities as leaders Big contributors but also vulnerable Key arenas for citizens to create local/global solutions What’s happening in other cities? London as CC leader Adding momentum to national/international political log jam What’s happening to Kyoto? The significance of London’s CC Plan worldwide The Past: 1000 Years of Changes in Carbon Emissions, CO2 Concentrations & Temperature: The Past: 1000 Years of Changes in Carbon Emissions, CO2 Concentrations & Temperature The future: next 100 year in one minute: The future: next 100 year in one minute IPCC 2007 Insert climate movie Source: Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies - http://atm-phys.nies.go.jp/~emori/movie/ Cities as leaders: big contributors to CC: Cities as leaders: big contributors to CC Cities are centres of population & engines of economies… 2.9 billion people lived in urban areas, comprising 47 % of the world population (2000). 4.9 billion are expected to live in urban areas, or 60 % of the world by 2030 (United Nations Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), 2003) Cities are high emitters… 75% of global GHGs in local government boundaries 50% of these in major cities 20-50% of emissions are influenced by local government decisions. (Boston, 2006, Oxford University) Cities have lots of authority, affluence and influence… Local governments have legal & budgetary powers over many GHG and adaptation related processes/activities: housing, transport, waste, water are big emitting sectors Cities have affluence (lifestyles leaders) And lots of political influence over regional and national governments & increasingly internationally Cities as leaders…as cities are vulnerable too: Cities as leaders…as cities are vulnerable too Key economic sectors may be adversely affected or positively (London a major hub in carbon markets) Physical infrastructure & industries may be at risk E.g. energy transmission/distribution systems, agriculture, tourism and construction) Population, especially already vulnerable, may be at risk health wise 2003 heatwave killed appx 35 000 (!) in Europe –many elderly people in cities Cities are vulnerable to CC impacts…: Cities are vulnerable to CC impacts… A number of urban areas have already begun to think about adaptation: London and Manchester in the UK New York City, Boston, Seattle, and Miami in the US Vancouver, Halifax and Toronto in Canada Ontario Province, Canada has recently legislated (Bill 148) – that all municipalities have to undertake a vulnerability assessment and submit a climate change adaptation action plan by 2008 Why these urban areas and region? Almost all coastal cities concerned about sea level rise, storm surges and flooding Several have experienced intense and damaging storms attributed in part to climate change CC will make things worse in year to come… Why Cities & Citizens Should Support CC action?: Why Cities & Citizens Should Support CC action? Energy savings and renewable revenue Economic development New jobs and industries Urban livability Reduced congestion Improved air quality Improved Health Reduced long term risks AND reduced GHGs Cities as Leaders: Remove Your Tie – Save the Planet, : Cities as Leaders: Remove Your Tie – Save the Planet, Japan Times 30 April 2005 Cities as leaders: Beijing: Cities as leaders: Beijing 2000 Beijing 10-year plan on environmental protection designed to bring Beijing's environmental level up to State standards and the standards of the Olympic Games! Plan involves cutting coal, increasing annual natural gas supply from 300 million cubic meters to 700 million cubic metres, reducing car-emission related nitrogen dioxide and establishing additional pollution treatment centres On September 22nd 2007, 100 Chinese cities take part in the country's first official urban "car-free day", barring automobiles from selected areas and ordering officials to swap their black sedans for public transport. In 2006 Beijing ordered about 800,000 of the capital's 2.8m cars off the roads for three days last during an international summit, and local nitrogen oxide air pollution fell by 40 per cent Cities as leaders: Curritiba and Sao Paulo, Brazil: Cities as leaders: Curritiba and Sao Paulo, Brazil 1965, Jaime Lerner, former mayor of Curitiba, Brazil and his colleagues established the Urban Planning Institute of Curitiba (IPPUC) as an independent agency to supervise and implement planning. Curitiba is known internationally as a sustainable and ecological city and calls itself “the city of all of us” even with its population doubling to 1.6 million over the past 30 years. Curitiba holds high rates of recycling, large amounts of green space, a model transit system including 200 km of bike paths and social programs reaching all members of the community. The per capita income is 66% higher than the Brazilian average and has a 7% growth rate over the past 30 years. (ICLEI, 2002) São Paulo developed biofuels in 1970 s after oil shocks. Biofuels from sugar cane industry has become an iconic example to ROW on reducing oil dependency, creating local jobs (around 100, 000). UK/Europe now learning from Brazil which already has low carbon emitting cars & extensive RD on production/use of biofuels California & other USA states…: California & other USA states… “Governator” Arnold Schwarzenegger, California, has enacted Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 establishing a statewide greenhouse gas emissions cap & target of reducing carbon emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2020. That's a 25% reduction. And by 2050, to reduce emissions to 80% below 1990 levels. Use of cap/trade & offsetting now being explored 9 other states in USA in NorthEast have set up regional cap/trade scheme called RGGI Portland, Oregon: Portland has been developing public transit, reducing investment in infrastructure for highways/roads and establishing an urban containment boundary to reduce sprawl. In 1993, Portland was the first local government in the U.S. to adopt a plan to address climate change. The Local Action Plan on Global Warming targeted the following six areas: land-use planning, transportation, energy efficiency, renewable energy, solid waste and recycling, and urban forestry. Since 1990, cooperative energy conservation efforts involving privately-owned electric utilities, the State of Oregon, and local government have avoided 2.5 Mt of CO2 emissions. In the last two years an absolute reduction in emissions has been achieve during a time when its local economy expanded by more than 60%. Portland, Oregon Toronto, Canada: Toronto, Canada Toronto's Atmospheric Fund created crucial local partnerships with businesses, civic agencies, and community groups to drive effective climate protection projects 5 five partnership between the City of Toronto and Transportation Options. This relationship has led to the two pilot projects testing the viability of new mobility strategies locally, nationally, and internationally. The projects have linked the government and business sector through its extensive communications network on new mobility initiatives and strategies. (ICLEI, 2002) Why Cities Matter Internationally: Why Cities Matter Internationally National governments out of touch with climate science: nice speeches but too little action on the ground too slowly Cities are acting with foresight to link CC to “local issues” to create better housing, transport, reduce waste, new jobs in carbon trading, green energy… ICLEI created in 1990. Cities for Climate Protection (CPP) Campaign assists local governments achieve their emissions reduction goals. More than 800 local governments are part of the campaign and represent 10% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions.- their pledge to cut GHG emissions. More than 1000 local authorities in Europe have committed to climate protection since 1990 by joining the Climate Alliance (CA) which partners Amazonian indigenous rainforest people, linking local-level initiatives with international policy on climate change, biodiversity, and forestry. (ICLEI, 2002) What’s happening to Kyoto…: What’s happening to Kyoto… USA – no action till regime change (2009 or 2010 earliest) causing stagnation even as science is telling us to step up the action Overall gap between rich countries’ actual emissions & their rhetoric is getting very large! Vanishing credibility cos many countries emissions not on track for Kyoto targets (Japan, Canada, most of Europe…) Responsibility for maintaining momentum resting with EU/developing countries. Some good news EU unilateral target at least a 20% reduction by 2020, 30% if other Annex I take action UK unilateral legally binding CO2 target - 60% reduction by 2050 and a 26 to 32% reduction by 2020 Urgently wanted! Policy solutions that are popular, really work & can be scaled up or applied in ROW!!! London as a CC leader…: London as a CC leader… London CC Plan: reduce emissions levels by 60 per cent below 1990 levels by 2025 Plan’s implementation will be watched by other cities/actors cos good example of how to… Frame/develop CC strategies for local champions Engage staff, stakeholders & citizens Mobilize local finance & management Give importance of adaptation in terms of energy security, infrastructure vulnerability, health effects& risks of flooding London as a CC leader…: London as a CC leader… London CC Plan Strong message to national/international leaders to do their bit to tackle issues that cannot be dealt with locally (e.g. aviation) The proof will come with its implementation…if it’s effective, popular it will be taken up worldwide Good luck!