Published on April 16, 2008
Chapter 12: Chapter 12 Managing Relationships and Building Loyalty Four Stages of Brand Loyalty in a Consumer: Four Stages of Brand Loyalty in a Consumer Cognitive loyalty – perception from brand attribute information that one brand is preferable to its alternatives Affective loyalty – developing a liking for the brand based on cumulatively satisfying usage occasions Conative loyalty – commitment to rebuying the same brand Action loyalty – exhibiting consistent repurchase behavior Loyalty is Important to Profitability : Index of Customer Profits over Time (Fig. 12.1): Loyalty is Important to Profitability : Index of Customer Profits over Time (Fig. 12.1) Based on data from Reichheld and Sasser What Makes Loyal Customers More Profitable? : What Makes Loyal Customers More Profitable? Tend to spend more as relationship develops customer’s balances may grow may consolidate purchases to one supplier Cost less to serve less need for information and assistance make fewer mistakes Recommend new customers to firm (act as unpaid sales people) Trust leads to willingness to pay regular prices vs. shopping for discounts Analyzing Why Customers Are More Profitable over Time (Fig. 12.2): Analyzing Why Customers Are More Profitable over Time (Fig. 12.2) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Year Profit from price premium Profit from references Profit from reduced op. costs Profit from increased usage Base Profit Source: Reichheld and Sasser Measuring Customer Equity:Calculating Life Time Value of Each Customer: Measuring Customer Equity: Calculating Life Time Value of Each Customer Value at Acquisition revenues (application fee + initial purchase) Less costs (marketing +credit check + account set up) Annual Value (project for each year of relationship) revenues (annual fee + sales + service fees + value of referrals) Less costs (account management + cost of sales + write-offs) Net Present Value Determine anticipated customer relationship lifetime Select appropriate discount figure Sum anticipated annual values (future profits) at chosen discount rate Customer Equity is total sum of NPVs of all current customers Customer-Firm Relationship: Customer-Firm Relationship Database Marketing: Involves the use of technology by delivering differentiated service levels to consumers and subsequently tracking the relationship. Interaction Marketing: Usually in B2B context where people and the social process also add mutually beneficial value. Network Marketing: Common in B2B context where companies commit resources to develop positions in a network of relationships with the stakeholders and relevant agencies. Today’s marketers seek to develop long-term relationships with customers. Relationship marketing includes: Types of Relationships with Customers (Table 12.1): Types of Relationships with Customers (Table 12.1) Type of Relationship--Firm and Customer Nature of Service Delivery “Membership” No formal relationship Continuous Cable TV Radio station Insurance Police College enrollment Lighthouse Discrete transactions Subscriber phone Pay phone Theater subscription Movie theater Warranty repair Public transport Basic Segmentation Issues: Building an Appropriate Customer Portfolio : Basic Segmentation Issues: Building an Appropriate Customer Portfolio Target customers whose needs match firm’s capabilities Focus on value of prospective customers within each segment, not just numbers Avoid targeting customers who might abuse: our employees, facilities other customers Create a mix of segments to reduce risks of volatility during swings of economic cycles Service-Relevant Segmentation Variables: Service-Relevant Segmentation Variables Timing of service use (e.g., by hour, day, season) Level of skill and experience as co-producer/self-server Preferred language in face-to-face contact Access to electronic delivery systems (e.g., Internet) Attitudes toward use of new service technologies Identifying and Selecting Target Segments (Mgt Memo 12.2): Identifying and Selecting Target Segments (Mgt Memo 12.2) User characteristics demographics psychographics geographic location benefits sought User behavior when, where, how services used quantity/value of purchases frequency of use profitability of relationship sensitivity to marketing variables Portfolio of Professional Assignments (Fig. 12.4): Portfolio of Professional Assignments (Fig. 12.4) Analytical Work on Project Data “Bread and Butter” Projects Significant Projects “Pacesetters” Major, State-of-the-art challenges for the firm’s principals that give the firm high visibility Demanding client assignments offering a learning experience for the firm’s most experienced associates Routine client projects shared among principals and associates Entry-level tasks for new associates or for research assistants & paraprofessionals The Customer Pyramid (Fig. 12.5): The Customer Pyramid (Fig. 12.5) Lead Iron Gold Which segment sees high value in our offer, spends more with us over time, costs less to maintain, and spreads positive word-of-mouth? Which segment costs us in time, effort and money, yet does not provide the return we want? Which segment is difficult to do business with? Platinum Good Relationship Customers Poor Relationship Customers How Customers See Relational Benefits in Service Industries (Research Insights 12.1): How Customers See Relational Benefits in Service Industries (Research Insights 12.1) Confidence benefits less risk of something going wrong, less anxiety ability to trust provider know what to expect get firm’s best service level Social benefits mutual recognition, known by name friendship, enjoyment of social aspects Special treatment benefits better prices, discounts, special deals unavailable to others extra services higher priority with waits, faster service The Customer Satisfaction-Loyalty Relationship (Fig. 12.6): The Customer Satisfaction-Loyalty Relationship (Fig. 12.6) 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 Loyalty (Retention) Very dissatisfied Dissatisfied Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied Satisfied Very Satisfied Satisfaction Near Apostle Zone of Defection Zone of Indifference Zone of Affection Terrorist Apostle The Wheel of Loyalty (Fig. 12.7) : The Wheel of Loyalty (Fig. 12.7) 1. Build a Foundation for Loyalty 2. Create Loyalty Bonds 3. Reduce Churn Drivers Customer Loyalty Be selective in acquisition Conduct churn diagnostic Segment the market Use effective tiering of service. Deliver quality service. Deepen the relationship Give loyalty rewards Build higher level bonds Implement complaint handling & service recovery Address key churn drivers Increase switching costs Enabled through: Frontline staff Account managers Membership programs CRM Systems Rewarding Value of Use, Not Just Frequency at British Airways (Best Practice in Action 12.2): Rewarding Value of Use, Not Just Frequency at British Airways (Best Practice in Action 12.2) Dedicated reservations Reservations assurance Priority waitlist and standby Advance notification of delays exceeding 4 hours Upgraded check-in Preferred boarding Special services assistance Bonus air miles Upgrade for two Drivers of Service Switching (Fig. 12.9): Drivers of Service Switching (Fig. 12.9) Service Switching Service Encounter Failures Uncaring Impolite Unresponsive Unknowledgeable Response to Service Failure Negative Response No Response Reluctant Response Pricing High Price Price Increases Unfair Pricing Deceptive Pricing Inconvenience Location/Hours Wait for Appointment Wait for Service Competition Found Better Service Ethical Problems Cheat Hard Sell Involuntary Switching Customer Moved Provider Closed Value Proposition Others Service Failure / Recovery Core Service Failure Service Mistakes Billing Errors Service Catastrophe Unsafe Conflict of Interest Common CRM Applications (Mgt Memo 12.2): Common CRM Applications (Mgt Memo 12.2) Signifies the whole process by which relationships with customers are built and maintained. CRM as an enabler, offering a “unified customer interface” and allow firms to better understand and segment the customers etc. Applications include: Data collection Data analysis Sales force automation Marketing automation Call center automation Customer Relationship Strategies with CRM Systems: Key Questions: Customer Relationship Strategies with CRM Systems: Key Questions How should our value proposition change to increase customer loyalty? How much customization or one-to-one marketing and service delivery is appropriate and profitable? What is the incremental profit potential of increasing share of wallet with current customers? How much does this vary by customer tier and/or segment? How much time and resource can we allocate to CRM right now? If we believe in CRM, why have we not taken steps in that direction before? What can we do today to develop customer relationship without spending on technology?