Published on January 15, 2008
Slide1: USING THE M-44 IN CONTROL OF CANIDS Slide3: Training Includes: Safe Handling and Restrictions Use of Antidote Proper Placement Required Record Keeping Slide10: Carried by Trapper: Antidote Kit Instructions for Obtaining Medical Assistance Coyote Damage Management: Coyote Damage Management Using the M-44 Steve Spitler South Dakota Dept. Of Agriculture Basic Information: Basic Information Coyotes Basic Information: Basic Information Coyotes: Principle predator of sheep and increasingly on calves Population increases most when large % of both sexes are more than seven years old Known animals of habit Set M-44s along known trails Basic Information: Basic Information Coyotes: Acute sense of smell, eyesight, hearing and are extremely adaptable Generally kill by biting the prey's head and/or neck Kill: What they need to survive More than what they need to survive Excessive numbers of prey when feeding pups And without ever feeding on the prey Basic Information: Basic Information The M-44 Device Basic Information: Basic Information M-44 History Adopted in 1967 as a replacement for the Coyote Getter 1972 - Nixon through Executive Order banned all uses of the M-44 1974 -1975 EPA issued nine experimental use permits for research Sept. 16, 1975 EPA issued full registration but placed 26 restrictions on its use Basic Information: Basic Information M-44 General Overview Applicators are required by EPA to receive specialized training Private or Commercial Applicator certification is based upon occupation Private: Landowner or ranch employee Use on neighbors property w/o compensation Commercial: Payment for hire Integral part of employment Use on property not owned by the applicator Basic Information: Basic Information M-44 General Overview Non-Government Applicators are allowed to place devices on private & state land only. Only trained and certified: Private Commercial Government Applicators may purchase and use Sodium Cyanide Capsules Basic Information: Basic Information M-44 General Overview Summer months - least effective Fall and Winter - most effective Expulsion of cyanide is by a spring & plunger Reduces initial alarm Closer recovery of animal Basic Information: Basic Information M-44 General Overview More selective to canines than cats Due to behavior Response to carrion Method of accepting food Dogs, coyotes, foxes all can be taken w/ the M-44 Occasionally bobcats will pull Basic Information: Basic Information M-44 General Overview The device may misfire due to: Moisture Temperature Design Affects the ejection of the cyanide The M-44 will kill or injure humans if the proper precautions are not taken Basic Information: Basic Information Sodium Cyanide Basic Information: Basic Information Sodium Cyanide Restricted-Use Pesticide Each capsule contains: Approximately 1 Gram or 15 Grains of Sodium Cyanide Inert Marking Agent Yellow DayGlo Marker Aids in kill determination, will fluoresce under UV light Acute-single dose toxicant Basic Information: Basic Information Sodium Cyanide Most rapidly acting predacide Offers lowest secondary poisoning hazard to non-targets Lethal dose for coyotes is: 20-30 mg/kg Or approximately 300 mg for a 33 pound coyote Sodium Cyanide forms hydrocyanic acid (HCN) when in contact with: Water, saliva, weak acids, perspiration Basic Information: Basic Information Sodium Cyanide As with any pesticide, when handling, applicators should wear: Gloves Eye Protection Do not look directly over the device when setting/inspecting/servicing Keep wind to your back Hand cupped over the device Sodium Cyanide: Sodium Cyanide Toxic Effects Sodium Cyanide: Sodium Cyanide Toxic Effects Three routes of intoxication: Inhalation Ingestion Absorption Affects the cellular activities: Prevents utilization of oxygen at the cellular level Sodium Cyanide: Sodium Cyanide Toxic Effects Lethal Dose: Inhalation or ingestion Unconscious in a few seconds Rapid breathing, slowing to low and gasping Convulsions may or may not occur Coma and death within minutes Sodium Cyanide: Sodium Cyanide Toxic Effects Sub-lethal Dose: Absorption Weakness Dizziness Confusion Headache Vomiting Coma Convulsions may or may not occur Sodium Cyanide: Sodium Cyanide First Aid Use of Antidote Kit Sodium Cyanide: Sodium Cyanide First Aid Administer the Amyl Nitrite antidote Each pearl: 15 seconds - on/off 5 times (you will use five pearls) Remove any contaminated clothing Call physician immediately PROMPT TREATMENT IMPORTANT Sodium Cyanide: Sodium Cyanide First Aid If taken internally: Administer Amyl Nitrite antidote kit Induce vomiting 1 tbs salt/cup water Syrup of ipecac PROMPT TREATMENT IMPORTANT Sodium Cyanide: Sodium Cyanide First Aid If in eyes: Flush with water for 15 minutes Administer the Amyl Nitrite antidote if necessary Call physician immediately PROMPT TREATMENT IMPORTANT Sodium Cyanide: Sodium Cyanide First Aid Do not: Give alcohol Use amyl nitrite near open flames Use snow on face Use eye wash unless prescribed by physician PROMPT TREATMENT IMPORTANT Handling and Storage: Handling and Storage Capsules Store in a locked, marked box Do not store with human food or livestock feed Capsules are very susceptible to heat damage Store at room temperature or where the temperature stays fairly constant Capsules deteriorate faster with wide temperature fluctuations Handling and Storage: Handling and Storage Capsules Store capsules in an airtight container with moisture absorbing desiccant Capsules sealed with petroleum hydrocarbon wax Keep capsules out of sunlight and away from heat Handling and Storage: Handling and Storage Capsules Take only enough capsules that you will need that day Do not keep capsules in the glove box, floor board or where extreme temperatures occur The label on each capsule MUST REMAIN on the capsule Handling and Storage: Handling and Storage Capsules New capsules, or capsules that have been in storage should be inspected for the following prior to using: Handling and Storage: Handling and Storage Capsules Caking: Tip capsules back and forth Contents should be free flowing Test fire if necessary Sticking or clumping - contents is caking Handling and Storage: Handling and Storage Capsules Overfull: Capsules have air space of 1/10 inch Cyanide expands when exposed to water Overfull capsules likely exposed to moisture Will be partly caked Handling and Storage: Handling and Storage Capsules Age: Check the date of manufacture on box Purchase what you will use in 6 months Older capsules are more likely to be defective Handling and Storage: Handling and Storage Capsules Flare or Swelling: Caused by chemical reaction between wax sealant and plastic Reaction accelerated by heat Capsules should slide in easily into holder, if not the capsule may be flared and defective Handling and Storage: Handling and Storage Ejectors Lubrication and Cleaning: Ejectors need to be kept cleaned & lubricated Suggested lubricants: silicone spray, mineral oil, food machinery lubricants B glycerine is not recommended Handling and Storage: Handling and Storage Ejectors Lubrication and Cleaning: Cyanide is extremely corrosive Once fired, any cyanide should be removed with a wire brush and lubricated Current ejectors use a retaining pin to hold the spring in place B this can be removed for further cleaning and lubricating Handling and Storage: Handling and Storage Ejectors Frequency of Servicing: Set M-44s should be lubricated and reset at least once a month if they haven't been pulled You may also carefully test fire some to assure proper functioning Handling and Storage: Handling and Storage Ejectors Trigger Pull Force: New ejectors have a stronger pull force To reduce trigger pull: Set the trigger at a right to the ejector Lubricate the trigger and plunger Dry fire the ejector against a wood scrap Handling and Storage: Handling and Storage Stakes Driving Stakes: Never hammer on the stake, use a driving rod inside the stake In hard soil, make a pilot hole first with the driving rod or a 3/4" bit & brace Handling and Storage: Handling and Storage Antidote Kits Check expiration date to assure you have a current kit Keep it on your person at all times while setting or servicing devices Do not leave it on the dashboard or where it is exposed to heat and light Handling and Storage: Handling and Storage SAFETY FIRST! B Accidental Discharge Never put yourself in a position where the cyanide will hit you in the face or eyes Work upwind Do not kneel or stand over the device While servicing, place a plastic bag or thumb from a glove over the capsule holder to confine any cyanide Application of theM- 44: Application of the M- 44 Selecting the Site Selecting the Site: Selecting the Site Plan your application strategy What type of set to make? Above ground or recessed Knowledge of the coyotes habits in the area increases success Coyotes tend to use the easiest & most convenient route such as livestock trails. Set the device off to the side of the trail, never on it Selecting the Site: Selecting the Site Mark the pastures w/ required signs Use a lure made for the M-44 Biting/chewing response Changing lures Use caution when setting, leave as little of your own odor as possible Draw stations & bone piles help Be sure to follow the 26 use restrictions Additional Suggestions: Additional Suggestions M-44 Additional Suggestions: Additional Suggestions Keep prepared holders, ejectors & stakes in separate containers Use one pair of gloves for setting M-44s, another pair for other ranch duties Limit leaving signs of your presence/odor Coyotes often visit M-44s, roll on it and return again before pulling If sign of visit is present, leave device alone Additional Suggestions: Additional Suggestions If no target predator has visited the site for 30 days and losses continue: Relocate the M-44 to another site Change lures & holders Recovery distance of the target predator varies dependent upon the quality of the capsule used Typical recovery is within eyesight of the device Additional Suggestions: Additional Suggestions Dog training capsules available Use same lure(s) as those you are using in the field Removing devices: To disarm, cover the holder with gloved hand PUSH DOWN and unscrew the holder from the ejector Remove device Remove stake and gate signs Purchasing Requirements: Purchasing Requirements M-44 Purchasing Requirements: Purchasing Requirements Order Form Record of Livestock Loss Must be documented prior to application of the device Delivery of Sodium Cyanide & Hardware Sodium Cyanide can be surface mailed only Record Keeping Requirements: Record Keeping Requirements M-44 Record Keeping: Record Keeping South Dakota has a monthly reporting requirement No report necessary if no devices are in use Rule of thumb is: Document everything Record Keeping: Record Keeping Everything on the reporting form must be completed to meet EPA requirements Record of Livestock Loss must be completed Adjoining Landowner Permission Form (private applicators only) Record Keeping: Record Keeping Usual and customary information: Name, address, license number # Records must include but not limited to: Number of devices placed Location of each device Date of placement & inspection Number discharged & reason for discharge Species of animals taken Any accidents to humans/domestic animals In addition, the following needs to be documented: Record Keeping: Record Keeping In addition, document the following on the M-44 report: Size of treatment area Method of disposal Records must be kept by the applicator for a minimum of three years EPA Use Restrictions: EPA Use Restrictions M-44 Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 1. Use of the device shall conform to all applicable Federal, State, and local laws and regulations. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 2. Applicators shall be subject to such other regulations and restrictions as may be prescribed from time-to-time by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 3. Each applicator of the M-44 shall be trained in: (1) safe handling of the capsules and device, (2) proper use of the antidote kit, (3) proper placement of the device, and (4) necessary record keeping. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 4. M-44 devices and sodium cyanide capsules shall not be sold or transferred to, or entrusted to the care of any person not supervised or monitored, by the South Dakota Department of Agriculture. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 5. The M-44 device shall only be used to take wild canids: (1) suspected of preying on livestock and poultry, (2) suspected of preying on Federally designated threatened or endangered species, or (3) that are vectors of a communicable disease. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 6. The M-44 device shall not be used solely to take animals for the value of their fur. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 7. The M-44 device shall only be used on or within 7 miles of a ranch unit or allotment where losses due to predation by wild canids are occurring or where losses can be reasonably expected to occur based upon recurrent prior experience of predation on the ranch unit or allotment. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 7. (Continued) - Full documentation of livestock depredation, including evidence that such losses were caused by wild canids, will be required before applications of the M-44 are undertaken. This restriction is not applicable to government-run programs in which wild canids are controlled to protect Federally designated threatened or endangered species or are vectors of a communicable disease. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 8. The M-44 device shall not be used: (1) In areas within national forests or other Federal lands set aside for recreational use, (2) areas where exposure to the public and family pets is probable, Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 8. (Continued) - (3) in prairie dog towns, or, (4) except for the protection of federally designated threatened or endangered species, in National and State Parks; National or State Monuments; federally designated wilderness areas; and wildlife refuge areas. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 9. The M-44 device shall not be used in areas where federally listed threatened or endangered animal species might be adversely affected. Each applicator shall be issued a map, prepared by or in consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which clearly indicates such areas. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 10. One person other than the individual applicator shall have knowledge of the exact placement location of all M-44 devices in the field. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 11. In areas where more than one governmental agency is authorized to place M-44 devices, the agencies shall exchange placement information and other relevant facts to ensure that the maximum number of M-44s allowed is not exceeded. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 12. The M-44 device shall not be placed within 200 feet of any lake, stream, or other body of water, provided that natural depression areas which catch and hold rainfall only for short periods of time shall not be considered "bodies of water" for purposes of this restriction. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 13. The M-44 device shall not be placed in areas where food crops are planted. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 14. The M-44 device shall be placed at least at a 50-foot distance or at such a greater distance from any public road or pathway as may be necessary to remove it from the sight of persons and domestic animals using any such public road or pathway. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 15. The maximum density of M-44s placed in any 100 acre pastureland areas shall not exceed ten (10); and the density in any one (1) square mile of open range shall not exceed twelve (12). Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 16. No M-44 device shall be placed within 30 feet of a livestock carcass used as a draw station. No more than four M-44 devices shall be placed per draw station, and no more than five draw stations shall be operated per square mile. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 17. Supervisors of applicators shall check the records, warning signs, and M-44 devices of each applicator at least once a year to verify that all applicable laws, regulations, and restrictions are being strictly followed. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 18. Each M-44 device shall be inspected by the applicator at least once every week, weather permitting access, to check for interference or unusual conditions and shall be serviced as required. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 19. Damaged or nonfunctional M-44 devices shall be removed from the field. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 20. An M-44 device shall be removed from an area if, after 30 days, there is no sign that a target predator has visited the site. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 21. All persons authorized to possess and use sodium cyanide capsules and M-44 devices shall store such capsules and devices under lock and key. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 22. Used sodium cyanide capsules shall be disposed of by deep burial, or at a proper landfill site. Incineration may be used instead of burial for disposal. Place the capsules in an incinerator or refuse hole and burn until the capsules are completely consumed. Capsules may be incinerated using either wood or diesel fuel. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 23. Bilingual warning signs in English and Spanish shall be used in all areas containing M-44 devices. All such signs shall be removed when M-44 devices are removed. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 23. (Continued) - (a). Main entrances or commonly used access points to areas in which M-44 devices are set shall be posted with warning signs to alert the public to the toxic nature of the cyanide and to the danger to pets. Signs shall be inspected weekly to ensure their continued presence and ensure that they are conspicuous and legible. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 23. (Continued) - (b). An elevated sign shall be placed within 25 feet of each individual M-44 device warning persons not to handle the device. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 24. Each authorized or licensed applicator shall carry an antidote kit on his person when placing and/or inspecting M-44 devices. The kit shall contain at least six pearls of amyl nitrite and instructions on their use. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 24. (Continued) - Each authorized or licensed applicator shall also carry on his person instructions for obtaining medical assistance in the event of accidental exposure to sodium cyanide. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 25. In areas where the use of the M-44 device is anticipated, local medical people shall be notified of the intended use. The notification may be through a poison control center, local medical society, the Public Health Service, or directly to a doctor or hospital. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 25. (Continued) - They shall be advised of the antidotal and first-aid measures required for the treatment of cyanide poisoning. It shall be the responsibility of the supervisor to perform this function. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 26. Each authorized M-44 applicator shall keep records dealing with the placement of the device and the results of each placement. Such records shall include, but need not be limited to: Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 26. (Continued) - The number of devices placed. The location of each device placed. The date of each placement, as well as the date of each inspection. Use Restrictions: Use Restrictions 26. (Continued) - The number and location of devices which have been discharged and the apparent reason for each discharge. Species of animals taken. All accidents or injuries to humans or domestic animals.