Published on January 24, 2008
POTENTIAL OF BIOMASS UTILISATION FOR ENERGY IN ASIA PACIFIC SHARING OF SPECIFIC EXPERIENCE OF PHILLIPINES SITUATION: POTENTIAL OF BIOMASS UTILISATION FOR ENERGY IN ASIA PACIFIC SHARING OF SPECIFIC EXPERIENCE OF PHILLIPINES SITUATION WHY KONG HOI FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE KEPONG, 52100, KUALA LUMPUR MALAYSIA ALTERNATIVE ENERGY IN PHILIPPINES: ALTERNATIVE ENERGY IN PHILIPPINES Solar energy Many SE Asian nations receives high solar radiation - estimated that Philippines receives solar radiation around 500 to 700 Wm2 with an average of 6.2 solar hours per day Solar energy applications thermal system that changes solar radiation to heat energy Hot Water Solar System Solar Drying System photovoltaic system that changes solar radiation to electrical energy Slide3: Biogas biological reaction or micro organism reaction with human or animal waste with no oxygen produces methane and carbon dioxide gases may cause global warming with biogas digester (large container shaped like a well) or anaerobic fermentation, can produced methane gas and nitrogen rich fertilizer Slide4: Wind energy traditional energy source that have been used for centuries Philippines, wind energy studies were focused around beach and mountain areas that are thought to have high wind a 150 kW wind generator system is very suitable in Philippines WIND ENERGY AS ECO PRODUCTS: WIND ENERGY AS ECO PRODUCTS Slide6: Hydro technology has long been used especially to irrigate agriculture lands ASEAN 20% of hydro energy source has already been used to supply energy Flowing rivers can be used to generate electricity as long as enough water supply to move a turbine Slide7: Hydro a small powered hydro generator does not need a large water reservoir supply, building and maintenance – little impact on the environment 90% of renewable energy from hydro do not have a big impact on the environment RENEWABLE ENERGY: RENEWABLE ENERGY Biomass Biomass energy comes from plants that can be replanted Generates 13% of the total world energy - in ASEAN, 16% of the overall energy used comes from biomass A variety of usage, from firewood stoves for homes to the brick industry and electrical power generators RENEWABLE ENERGY: RENEWABLE ENERGY Biomass Electricity generation – plantation waste, municipal waste Main issue in generating biomass energy - inefficient burning system and the inefficient waste disposal from the burning Heating Values of Selected Fuels: Heating Values of Selected Fuels Sources of biomass available in Phillipines: Sources of biomass available in Phillipines Conversion of Biomass to Energy: Conversion of Biomass to Energy Biomass can be converted to energy by the following processes. Combustion (Burning): Traditional open burning – This is discouraged because it causes environmental problems and health hazards. High temperature combustion – This is suitable for industrial applications as shown previously. Conversion to charcoal – Charcoal is a better fuel for cooking compared with firewood. Conversion of Biomass to Energy: Conversion of Biomass to Energy Biomass can be converted to energy by the following processes. 2. Production of combustible gas: Heating in limited air – the process is called pyrolysis or gasification. Anaerobic fermentation – production of biogas. 3. Production of alcohol: Fermentation of plant carbohydrates. Fermentation of plant sugar. Production of charcoalin a ‘bee-hive’ kiln: Production of charcoal in a ‘bee-hive’ kiln The kiln is built using bricks, clay and sand. Large quantities of charcoal is made in this type of kilns. This operator uses mangrove wood as the raw material. It takes 32 to 40 days for the carbonization to be completed. Production of charcoal in transportable metal kilns: Production of charcoal in transportable metal kilns This type if kiln is made of mild steel. It can be transported to different locations where raw material is available, especially where rubber trees or coconut shells are being cut down for replanting or near a saw mill. Other uses of charcoal: Other uses of charcoal Charcoal is not only used for cooking. Charcoal is used in iron smelting. Here iron ore, lime and charcoal are mixed together and heated in the furnace. In this process charcoal acts as a reducing agent. At very high temperature carbon in the charcoal combines with oxygen in the iron ore producing carbon dioxide gas, leaving molten iron in the furnace which is then poured out and cooled to form iron rods or iron sheets. Charcoal is also used to make activated carbon, which is a carbon product with very high porosity. Activated carbon is used to make filters because it is a very good absorber of chemicals. Wood Gasification: Wood Gasification Conversion of biomass into gaseous products by pyrolysis The Updraft Gasifier: The Updraft Gasifier In the gasifier the biomass goes through distinct regions: oxidation, reduction and pyrolysis. In the updraft gasifier air is introduced at the bottom while the gases are drawn out at a higher level The Downdraft Gasifier: The Downdraft Gasifier In the downdraft gasifier air is introduced at the upper level while the gases are drawn out at the bottom. Production of Biogas: Production of Biogas Anaerobic Digestion Anaerobic Digestion: Anaerobic Digestion Anaerobic bacteria decompose biomass material producing methane and carbon dioxide. This mixture of gases is called biogas because of its biological origin. Methane is a gaseous fuel . Another name for methane is natural gas. Anaerobic digestion is carried out in a digester. Digesters: Digesters The digestion process is carried out by bacteria. The process is assisted by heating and stirring. The digestion is carried out in a closed tank so that the gas can be collected and the conditions controlled. Types of Digesters: Types of Digesters There are many types of digesters. They are generally: Batch – filled up in one go, allowed to digest and the gas collected, then emptied and prepared for another batch. Continuous flow – filled initially, then more waste is added and the digested products removed regularly or continuously. Industrial Digester: Industrial Digester The picture on the left shows an example of a large digester found in many countries in northern Europe, China and Australia. Alcohol Production: Alcohol Production Fermentation Fermentation of Biomass to Produce Alcohol: Fermentation of Biomass to Produce Alcohol Ethanol: Ethanol Chemical Formula: CH3CH2OH Fermentation process is represented by the equation: C6H12O6 2CH3CH2OH + 2CO2 (4.3) Carbohydrate Ethanol Carbon dioxide Yeast Heat Industries Using Biomass Fuel: Industries Using Biomass Fuel Some Examples Gutherie MDF Sdn Bhd, Fibre Board Factory in Kulim, Kedah: Gutherie MDF Sdn Bhd, Fibre Board Factory in Kulim, Kedah This factory burns wood waste and saw dust to generate steam for drying the fiber board Sim Hoe Sdn. Bhd. Window Frame Factory in Bentong, Pahang: Sim Hoe Sdn. Bhd. Window Frame Factory in Bentong, Pahang In this factory wood waste is burnt to produce steam for wood processing and generation of 1.5MW electricity Ban Heng Bee Sdn. Bhd., Rice Mill in Pendang, Kedah: Ban Heng Bee Sdn. Bhd., Rice Mill in Pendang, Kedah In this mill rice husk is burnt to produce steam for drying the rice and generating 450kW electricity United Bell Sdn. Bhd. Palm Oil Mill in Pontian, Johor: United Bell Sdn. Bhd. Palm Oil Mill in Pontian, Johor In this mill oil palm wastes are burnt to produce steam for processing the palm fruits and generating 1.2MW electricity Heveafil Sdn. Bhd. Rubber Factory in Batang Kali, Selangor: Heveafil Sdn. Bhd. Rubber Factory in Batang Kali, Selangor In this factory anaerobic digestion of mill effluent produces biogas which is then burned to produce steam. COGEN IN PHILLIPINES: COGEN IN PHILLIPINES Use of rice husk for generation of power using low-pressure boiler steam engine systems is quite widely practiced The realistic potential aggregate contribution of ricehull-fired capacity in the Philippines is conservatively placed at 40 MW At least two ricehull-fired power plants have been operated namely: 2 MW rice-hull-fuelled power station in lloilo and the 2 MW ricehull-fired power station in Tacurong, Sultan Kudarat. . Future of Alternative Source of Energy : Future of Alternative Source of Energy Philippines has an abundance of biomass resources. The government should encourage the use of biomass for energy generation. There are various technologies for converting biomass into fuel or energy.