Published on August 2, 2014
Male Infertility : Male Infertility Dr. Qiu Yiqing The second affiliated hospital of Zhejiang University Definition: Definition inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse. 15% of couples. 40%: male; 40%: female; 20%: both Hypothalamic- Pituitary- Gonadal Axis: Hypothalamic- Pituitary- Gonadal Axis Testis function: Testis function Endocrine: testosterone, 2% free, 98% bound to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Estrogen, thyroid hormone: decrease SHBG, increase free T; Androgen, growth hormone, obesity: on the contrary Exocrine: sperm Spermatogenesis: Spermatogenesis Sertoli cell: tight junction. The strongest intercellular barriers in the body: blood-testis barrier; nurse cells Germ cells: spermatogonia; primary spermatocytes; secondary spermatocytes, spermatid. Mitosis and meiosis cycles: cycles within the human testis, 60 days; sperm maturation: 10-15 days Fertilization: Fertilization Middle of the female menstrual cycle, the cervical mucus changes Acrosome reaction, zona reaction Diagnosis of male infertility: Diagnosis of male infertility History Duration of infertility; earlier pregnancies Sexual history, timing and frequency, lubricants Medical and surgical history fever, acute infection, surgical procedure of bladder, retroperitoneum, pelvis, hernia Childhood diseases: mumps, cryptorchidism Medication, pesticides, radiation, tobacco, cocaine, marijuana, androgenic steroids, hot tubs or saunas Family history Physical examination: Physical examination Virilize: body hair, gynecomastia Scrotal contents Testis: size and consistency Epididymis; vas deferens; varicocele Other abnormalities Laboratory tests: Laboratory tests Urinalysis Semen analysis Semen collection: 48-72 hours of sexual abstinence. Seminal fructose and postejaculate urinalysis Fructose: derived from the seminal vesicle Hormone assessment FSH and testosterone Adjunctive tests: Adjunctive tests semen leukocyte analysis; antisperm antibody test; hypoosmotic swelling test; sperm penetration assay; sperm chromatin structure; chromosomal studies; genetic analysis PowerPoint Presentation: Radiologic testing scrotal ultrasound, transrectal ultrasound CT scan or MRI of the pelvis Testis biopsy & vasography Fine-needle aspiration ‘ mapping ’ of the testes Semen culture Mapping of testes: Mapping of testes Causes of male infertility: Causes of male infertility Pretesticular Testicular posttesticular Pretesticular causes of infertility: Pretesticular causes of infertility Testicular causes of infertility: Testicular causes of infertility Medications associated with infertility: Medications associated with infertility Ketoconazole, spironolactone, alcohol inhibit T synthesis Cimetidine: androgen antagonist Marijuana, heroin, methadone: lower T levels Pesticides, estrogen like activity Chemotherapy Calcium channel blockers; sulfasalazine; colchicine; allopurinol; alpha-blockers; nitrofurantoin; antipsychotics; antidepressants varicocele: varicocele Normal: 15%; infertility: 40% Posttesticular causes of infertility: Posttesticular causes of infertility Posttesticular causes of infertility : Posttesticular causes of infertility Treatment of male infertility (Surgical treatments): Treatment of male infertility (Surgical treatments) Varicocele: Vasovasostomy or epididymovasostomy Ejaculatory duct obstruction: TURED Electroejaculation spinal cord injury; pelvic or retroperitoneal surgery injured the pelvic sympathetic nerves. Sperm aspiration: vas deferens, epididymis, or testicle. Orchidopexy: within two years of age Testicular torsion; the unaffected, contralateral testis can become infertile after torsion of its mate. Sympathetic orchidopathia, immunologic in nature. Pituitary ablation Elevated serum prolactin levels stemming from a pituitary adenoma can be treated medically and surgically. Surgical management of male infertility: Surgical management of male infertility Testis biopsy Surgical management of male infertility: Surgical management of male infertility Vasography: Surgical management of male infertility: Vasography Surgical management of male infertility Surgical management of male infertility: Surgical management of male infertility Vasovasostomy Surgical management of male infertility: Surgical management of male infertility Vasovasostomy Surgical management of male infertility: Surgical management of male infertility Vasoepididymostomy Surgical management of male infertility: Surgical management of male infertility Transurethral resection of the ejaculatory ducts Treatment of male infertility (Nonsurgical treatments): Treatment of male infertility (Nonsurgical treatments) Pyospermia: evaluate the patient for sexually transmitted diseases, penile discharge, prostatitis, or epididymitis Coital therapy Immunologic infertility Corticosteroid suppression, sperm washing, IUI, IVF, and ICSI. Medical therapy : Medical therapy Hyperprolactinemia; hypothyroidism; congenital adrenal hyperplasia; testosterone excess/ deficiency: Kallmann syndrome, HCG, FSH Empiric medical therapy clomiphene citrate: antiestrogen, increase secretion of GNRH, FSH, and LH. Low sperm count antioxidant therapy: vit E growth hormone Assisted reproductive technologies: Assisted reproductive technologies Intrauterine insemination (IUI): Cervical factors; low sperm quality, immunologic infertility, poor sperm delivery. At least 5-40 million motile sperm in the ejaculate In Vitro Fertilization and Intracytoplasmic sperm injection IVF: controlled ovarian stimulation and ultrasound-guided transvaginal egg retrieval from the ovaries before normal ovulation. 500,000 to 5 million sperms are required ICSI: one viable sperm Eliminate many natural selection barriers that exist during natural fertilization, genetic defects that caused the infertility are expected to be passed on to offspring unabated. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis PowerPoint Presentation: ICSI IUI IVF PowerPoint Presentation: THANK YOU!!!