may 2007 research models

Information about may 2007 research models

Published on September 27, 2007

Author: Kiska

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Slide1:  Federal Demonstration Partnership 25 May 2007 Norka Ruiz Bravo, Ph.D. NIH Deputy Director for Extramural Research A proactive The Use of Animal Models in Biomedical Research: Challenges and Opportunities NIH supports the use of a variety of animal models in research…:  NIH supports the use of a variety of animal models in research… Today’s conversation…:  Today’s conversation… The use of animal models is critical to biomedical research and to NIH’s ability to fulfill its mission. Relation to NIH mission NIH role in funding and oversight The use of animal models in research is facing major challenges. Social, legal, and ethical context We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges. Animal models are critical to biomedical research…:  Animal models are critical to biomedical research… Genes Molecular pathways Computer modeling … inform but cannot replace an understanding of processes in the whole organism. The reality for biomedical research…:  The reality for biomedical research… The use of animal models is critical to the present and future of biomedical research because: Animal models provide whole-organism knowledge that cannot be replicated in any other way at this time. Whether invertebrate or vertebrate, non-mammalian or mammalian, animal models highlight the common evolutionary threads that link organisms and their physiological processes. The use of animal models in basic or clinical research is an appropriate precursor to safe and ethically sound research using humans (as described in the Nuremberg Code). The best science relies on research to evaluate and continually redefine how best to use animal models in research, including the development of alternative non-animal models. NIH’s ability to fulfill its mission depends on the use of animal models…:  NIH’s ability to fulfill its mission depends on the use of animal models… Mission of NIH “Science in pursuit of fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems & the application of that knowledge to extend healthy life & reduce the burdens of illness and disability.” In carrying out its mission, NIH… Encourages the use of the most appropriate models for biomedical research, including animal models; Applies scientific knowledge to improve human health; Communicates the knowledge gained; Upholds federal regulations and guidelines. NIH has a major role in the funding of biomedical research…:  NIH has a major role in the funding of biomedical research… NIH supports investigators in every state and throughout the world. NIH oversees the humane care and use of animals in biomedical research…:  NIH oversees the humane care and use of animals in biomedical research… Oversees compliance with PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals Institutional Animal Care & Use Committee (IACUC) training Supports publication of Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals NIH oversees the humane care and use of animals in biomedical research…:  NIH oversees the humane care and use of animals in biomedical research… 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s AWA Health Research Extension Act REVISEDPHS POLICY NIH Revitalization Act ‘02 ‘66 ‘85 PHS POLICY ‘93 ‘00 ICCVAM Authorization Act ‘73 require PHS assurance ‘79 US Gov’t Principles ‘86 require IACUC * ‘70 * ‘76 * * * ‘90 * = AWA amended REVISEDPHS POLICY NIH oversees the humane care and use of animals in biomedical research…:  NIH oversees the humane care and use of animals in biomedical research… 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s ILAR Guide for the Care & Use of Animals 1st AVMA Panel on Euthanasia ‘63 ‘93 ‘00 ‘68 ‘78 ‘96 ‘65 ‘72 * = new edition 2nd AVMA Panel on Euthanasia * * * * ‘82 ILAR Monoclonal Antibody Production ‘99 ILAR The Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates ‘98 * * * ILAR Recognition and Alleviation of Pain & Distress in Laboratory Animals ‘92 Incorporation of AAALAC 1st PRIM&R animal care & use meeting ILAR Guidelines for the Care & Use of Mammals in Neuroscience & Behavioral Research ‘03 1st SCAW animal welfare conference ‘86 ARENA/OLAW IACUC Guidebook ‘02 ARENA/OLAW IACUC Guidebook (revised) ACLAM Adequate Veterinary Care in Research, Testing & Teaching Use of animal models in biomedical research is facing major challenges…:  Use of animal models in biomedical research is facing major challenges… Immediate challenges Terrorism – threats and violence against investigators and institutions Long term challenges Push to change to the legal status of animals Social and cultural changes to the roles of animals in daily life Immediate challenge: violence and threats to investigators…:  Immediate challenge: violence and threats to investigators… The Animal Zealotry That Destroyed Our Lab By Mark S. Blumberg Washington Post Sunday, July 17, 2005; B03 IOWA CITY, Iowa - …”With this break-in, my department had become the latest poster child of the animal rights movement. After years of escalating attacks on research facilities in the United Kingdom, animal rights and environmental extremists have turned to North America, which is fast becoming a breeding ground for their type of violence. But because the number of individuals affected is still relatively small, most Americans remain unaware of the seriousness of the threats. As my experience shows, even among decision-makers, few are taking it seriously enough.”… Immediate challenge: violence and threats to investigators…:  Immediate challenge: violence and threats to investigators… 61.6%: report no opportunity to discuss research with the general public 60.2%: institution neither encourages nor discourages discussion of research with the general public 71.3%: more discussion w/in the biomedical community about the use of animals in research is needed. 70.7%: “believe that the animal rights movement makes it difficult for a researcher to voice a nuanced opinion on animal research” 1700 respondents 38% N. Am, 46% UK Nature registered readers Immediate challenge: violence and threats to investigators…:  Immediate challenge: violence and threats to investigators… Don Kennedy’s editorial in Science Sept. 15, 2006 (313[15]:1541) Long term challenge: push to change the legal status of animals…:  Long term challenge: push to change the legal status of animals… International legal campaigns to give animals rights Guardianship and civil court cases AP Photo/Lilli Strauss Hiasl, 26 y/o chimp in Vienna, Austria Long term challenge: push to change the legal status of animals…:  Long term challenge: push to change the legal status of animals… Source: http://biz.yahoo.com/weekend/doglife_1.html; accessed 14 May, 2007. Posted by LuvMyDogs07: Has anyone seen this article on Yahoo's homepage? It appears my babies life (sic) is not priceless. Judge says they are worth no more than a TV or microwave oven …. Is this sad or what? Cache: http://community.eons.com/groups/topic/101494-How-much-is-your-dogs-life-worth-; accessed 14 May, 2007; emphasis mine. Reply posted by ChiBabiesMom: I understand, class action suits are being filed against those responsible for the contaminated food, and they will be suing for more than the medical costs involved in the victim pets' care. They will try to recover the true value of these pets (and their suffering) and their owners pain and suffering. I wish them luck in this endeavor--the outcome may effect change in the laws in the rest of the country. Cache: http://community.eons.com/groups/topic/101494-How-much-is-your-dogs-life-worth-; accessed 14 May, 2007; emphasis mine. Long term challenge: push to change the legal status of animals…:  Long term challenge: push to change the legal status of animals… Funding animal-rights oriented law programs Long term challenge: changes to the roles of animals in daily life…:  Long term challenge: changes to the roles of animals in daily life… Social and cultural changes in how people view animals - from … co-laborers predators protectors pests raw material nourishment Dog-powered tread mill, circa late-1800s http://www.americanartifacts.com/smma/advert/ay184g.jpg; last accessed January 4, 2007 Long term challenge: changes to the roles of animals in daily life…:  Long term challenge: changes to the roles of animals in daily life… A PROACTIVE NIH AGENDA FOR ANIMAL MODELS IN RESEARCH “Fit-fur-life” dog treadmill, circa 2006 http://www.fit-fur-life.co.uk/Images/Fullsize/Home.jpg; last accessed January 4, 2007 … toward limited perceptions and roles: Family members Icons for natural world Faceless food Faceless raw material We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges…:  We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges… http://verena.nomadlife.org/uploaded_images/ostrich-759977.jpg Harley Soltes – Seattle Times We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges…:  We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges… UCLA Chancellor appointed a Task Force UCLA is in process of implementing Task Force recommendations What are other institutions doing? We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges…:  We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges… 5-years legal and political effort coalition-building and outreach We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges…:  We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges… Critically important legislation: Expanded scope of victims Increased criminal penalties Recognize activities as domestic terrorism … changes the rules of the game! We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges…:  We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges… AETA – changes in penalties We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges…:  We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges… Legal protections Codes of ethics Source: http://www.covance.com/animalwelfare/media-resources.php, accessed 14 May 2007. Source: http://www.covance.com/animalwelfare/index.php, accessed 14 May 2007. We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges…:  We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges… What does NIH do (generally speaking)? Encourage research through funding. Participate in national discussions of the role of animal models in research, their care and use, and alternatives. Promote humane practices through education, outreach, and assurances. Bring institutions “into compliance” rather than penalizing. Avoid overregulation and respect the unique needs of the diverse institutions we fund. What can NIH not do? NIH cannot lobby. NIH cannot forget that it is a publicly funded organization and therefore must be sensitive to a broad diversity of public viewpoints An investigator expresses his/her needs…:  An investigator expresses his/her needs… “ Every year around December, we are being submerged by a nasty and dishonest and gradually worsening campaign against animal research ("no such experiments have nor will ever cure a genetic disease“ …). We have decided not to answer frontally, but to prepare ourselves to questioning of various kinds. For this we want to assemble documents proving the opposite, demonstrating beyond any doubt the impact of such research in translational medicine (or to paraphrase another idiom, from animal models to the hospital's bed). I am sure that … some … NIH body must have gone through this already. My question thus if this material could be shared with us, whether you could send it to us or give us the right contacts. I thank you in advance for your help and look forward to hearing from you.” We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges…:  We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges… OER “Toolkit”: focused on two communities … Resource for extramural program staff: Consult with investigators to prepare for and reduce the risk of threats/harassment Understand how to respond when contacted by a PI or institution experiencing threats/harassment Resource for extramural researchers & institutions: Understand regulations and responsibilities of researchers & their research “home” Prepare for and reduce risk Respond to threats/harassment Help investigators communicate to lay audiences about their research We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges…:  We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges… Educate the community about regulatory basis of roles & responsibilities: We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges…:  We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges… Educate the youth about the role of animals in research: We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges…:  We must work together to meet and overcome these challenges… Long term vision Strong coalitions Data Communication

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