Published on March 21, 2008
Mental Spaces: Mental Spaces In Greece, Kiki is happy. In 1970, we didn’t have e-mail. Sandy thinks Chris has green eyes. In the picture, Chris has green eyes. In the movie, Eliza Doolittle may end up marrying Henry Higgins. Mrs. Higgins hopes that Eliza Doolittle will end up marrying Henry Higgins. Sue knows that Eliza Doolittle doesn’t end up marrying Henry Higgins (in the play). In the picture, Chris has green eyes: In the picture, Chris has green eyes In 1970 we didn’t have e-mail.: In 1970 we didn’t have e-mail. Sandy thinks Chris has green eyes.: Sandy thinks Chris has green eyes. Space builders: Space builders Max thinks… Chris hopes… Actually… (in reality, in fact,…) In that story/movie/play/picture…. In 1950… When you finish the book… If it rains… Space builders: Space builders Negation. Too bad you were never christened. Your godmother could have taken care of you now. I don’t have a car, or I’d certainly offer you a ride. There’s no milk in the fridge. I am not a crook. “The girl with blue eyes has green eyes”: “The girl with blue eyes has green eyes” The Access Principle: The Access Principle If two elements are linked by a connector F such that b = F(a), then element b can be identified by naming, describing, or pointing to its counterpart a. The ham sandwich wants another coke. In the picture, the girl with blue eyes has green eyes. Romeo is dating Lady Montague (i.e, the two actors playing these roles are dating). Pragmatic functions: customers and orders: Pragmatic functions: customers and orders Pragmatic functions: authors and books: Pragmatic functions: authors and books Trans-spatial operators: Trans-spatial operators BE, and other verbs like BECOME, REMAIN, etc. These set up mappings between spaces. Max is Romeo and Chris is Juliet. Juliet is the Capulets’ only child. The little girl in that photo is my grandmother. The little girl in that photo is solemn. The little girl in that photo is Madeline Blackmore. Trans-spatial operators, 2: Trans-spatial operators, 2 Metaphoric BE: You’re my sunshine. Small is the new black. (Mini Cooper ad) If the Golden Gate is the thoroughbred of the Bay’s bridges, the Bay Bridge is the workhorse. Role-Value BE: Cindy is a 50-year-old woman. Cindy is a professor of linguistics. Cindy is a proud aunt. Cindy is my friend. Elements in spaces: Elements in spaces The girl in the picture is my grandmother. THE X means “there’s already an established element in some accessible space which I can describe as X.” I want the book Joe is reading. I want a book to read. A(N) X means “you need to set up a new element in some space, which can be described as X.” Sally is looking for a mouse, part 1.: Sally is looking for a mouse, part 1. Sally is looking for a mouse, part 2. : Sally is looking for a mouse, part 2. Sally is looking for a mouse, Part 3.: Sally is looking for a mouse, Part 3. Roles and Values: Roles and Values The President of the U.S. is George W. Bush. George W. Bush is the President of the U.S. The President has a cold today. George W. Bush has a cold today. The President is Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of the United States. George W. Bush is Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of the United States. In 1950 the President was a baby : In 1950 the President was a baby In 1950 the President was a baby, part 2: In 1950 the President was a baby, part 2 In Norway, 1: In Norway, 1 In Norway,2: In Norway,2 Oedipus (de dicto): Oedipus (de dicto) “Inheritance”: “Inheritance” I wish Chris had the money to come to the conference. In the Wish Space, things like Chris’ interest, the topic of the conference, the dates, etc, are INHERITED from the Base Space. Sara thinks Sandy will be the top player in the school baseball team. In the Think Space, things like Sandy’s fitness and interest in baseball are held constant; we don’t assume he’ll have a serious injury, e.g. “Float”: “Float” Sue is afraid that Sandy’s kids are worrying him. We may not know whether or not Sandy has kids, but the PRESUPPOSITION of their existence involved in the use of the phrase “Sandy’s kids” of course holds in the Be Afraid Space. And it MAY also hold in the Base Space; that is, we may assume that Sandy actually has kids. Maybe his kids are worrying him. Float example: Float example Dracula : Dracula Dracula 2: Dracula 2 Dracula 3: Dracula 3 Superman 1: Superman 1 Superman 2: Superman 2 Superman 3: Superman 3 Superman 4: Superman 4 Mental Spaces - the wrinklies: Mental Spaces - the wrinklies Mental Spaces -kidnapping: Mental Spaces - kidnapping Blended spaces - the monk riddle: Blended spaces - the monk riddle Blended spaces - the Mac desktop: Blended spaces - the Mac desktop Grim reaper blend: Grim reaper blend Menendez brothersvirus: Menendez brothers virus “Lead a horse to water”: “Lead a horse to water” England and Houyhnhnmland: England and Houyhnhnmland The Houyhnhnmblend: The Houyhnhnm blend The Yahooblend: The Yahoo blend Ahead of oneself: Ahead of oneself If I were you…: If I were you… If I were you 2: If I were you 2 If I were you 3: If I were you 3 Brigitte Bardot 1: Brigitte Bardot 1 Brigitte Bardot 2: Brigitte Bardot 2 Viewpoint & focus: Viewpoint & focus Deictic blends: Deictic blends Temporal blends: Temporal blends Focus is future; Viewpoint is present Viewpoint is future; Focus is future?? Red ball: Red ball Red apple: Red apple Safe baby: Safe baby Safe beach: Safe beach Safe house: Safe house Likely candidate: Likely candidate Intellectual sleeping pills: Intellectual sleeping pills Fake gun: Fake gun Putting away - iconic: Putting away - iconic Putting away - metaphoric: Putting away - metaphoric Conditional thinking: Conditional thinking It makes me feel like I’m going to cry,” she said. “I can just imagine if it was my daughter.” Vancouver Sun, Oct. 4, 2000 Why do all humans apparently do this kind of conditional thinking? - even in circumstances where they don’t really need to plan for the conditional eventuality. Content-domain predictive conditionals: Content-domain predictive conditionals If I tie my handkerchief on it [a cut] it'll stick (PD.SC 13) If Hiro reaches out and takes the hypercard, then the data it represents will be transferred from this guy's system into Hiro's computer. NS.SC.44 Content.diagram: Content.diagram Content-domain predictive conditionals, 2: Content-domain predictive conditionals, 2 "If she doesn't stop, Miss Minchin will hear her," cried Jessie. FHB.LP.64 I can't pretend anything else - while I'm awake," she said. "There wouldn't be any use in trying. If I go to sleep, perhaps A dream will come and pretend for me." FHB.LP.202-3 Cf. When I go to sleep, perhaps a dream will come and pretend for me. After I go to sleep, perhaps a dream will come and pretend for me. When and if: When and if "...And if this guy figures out the relationship between us, which he will if he puts any energy into the matter, then he'll know it was you with me at the Coolis hospital..." (SP.HT.311) And when this guy figures out the relationship between us, which he will if he puts any energy into the matter, then he'll know it was you with me at the Coolis hospital... Distanced predictive conditionals: Distanced predictive conditionals If I'd been assaulted by men of my own race I would have been an object of pity.... But they weren't men of my own race. (PS.JC 290) "If I'd seen the machete, I'd have handled it differently." Headline, The Vancouver Sun, Wed. June 6, 2001 Distanced predictive conditionals,2: Distanced predictive conditionals,2 If he was Chancellor, he wouldn't know how to deal with the campus budget. If he were Chancellor, he wouldn't know how to deal with the campus budget. Distanced predictive conditionals, 3: Distanced predictive conditionals, 3 If Da5id weren't a hacker, Hiro would despair of his ever having enough brains to do anything. (NS.SC.71) "If I was running a car factory, I wouldn't let workers drive the cars home or borrow tools...." (NS.SC.116) If YT was a stupid ped she would go up to the MetaCop and ask him why [the entry system to an enclosed residential area is not functioning].(NS.SC.45) Sayers (would) a-(been): Sayers (would) a-(been) (James:) "You mean to say, it wasn't you did away with him?" (Will:) "Of course not....I'd offered the brute two hundred pounds to go back where he came from. If I hadn't a-been ill, I'd a-got him away all right, and that's what I thought you'd a-done. My God! when he come up out o' that grave, like Judgment Day, I wished you'd killed me along of him." DS.NT 273 (James:) "Forgive me, Will - I thought you'd done him in. ....but I didn't blame you. Only I wished it had happened in a fair fight." (Will:) "If it had happened, Jim, it would a-been in a fair fight. I might a-killed him, but I wouldn't a-killed him when he was tied up.” DS.NT 280 Gonna, 1: Gonna, 1 "If I break another nail I'm going to scream". AT.AT 101 "If you don't get me out of this I'm going to call for the police to come shoot him," Charles said. AT.AT 162 "If anyone sick walks through my door, I'm going to ground him,” Dr. Stubbs vowed. JH.CTT 119 Gonna, 2: Gonna, 2 If a biker came, she said, and Edward lunged or gave so much as the smallest yip, she was going to yank him so hard he wouldn't know what hit him. AT.AT 176 "...If Rhiannon beats me in the backstroke, I am going to be so sick." SP:HT 276-7 “Volitional” Will in protasis: “Volitional” Will in protasis I recommend the Underground for everyone except for those afraid of heights, and even for them if they will avoid the following stations... AT.AT 34 “We'll double your fee if you'll make this a priority..." SP.HT 137 Positive interest Will in protasis: Positive interest Will in protasis "I want to marry her...If she'll agree to it, that is." AT.AT 205 "...If one of your contacts in that neighborhood would tell you the mother's whereabouts, maybe you'd be the man to talk her into getting an autopsy done." SP.HT.155 "If I would have the courage to stop patching you up, perhaps you would stop breaking yourself into pieces. ..." SP.HT.233 Volitional Will in protasis, 2: Volitional Will in protasis, 2 REQUESTS: "If you'll wait a minute, ma'am, I'll signal to my Little girl, she'll take her on the ice for you." (NS.WB 34) GENERIC (can’t be future will) "If I wanted you to go to Selby on Friday night, I can imagine the scene," said Mrs. Morel. "But you're never too tired to go if she will come for you." D.H. Lawrence, Sons and Lovers, 222. Future will protases: citing rather than making a prediction: Future will protases: citing rather than making a prediction "...the desire to travel seizes them; then they pack up, hail a steamboat, and clear out. Not for any particular place; no, nearly any place will answer; they only want to be moving. The amount of money on hand will answer the conundrum. If it will take them fifty miles, very well; let it be fifty. If not, a shorter flight will do. (Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi, chap 30 Present forms in protases: Present forms in protases "Hey, if anything happens to that, my ass is grass," Y.T. says. (NS.SC 182) I leave for Vancouver tomorrow. The plane departs at 4 PM next Tuesday. Presents in protases, 2: Presents in protases, 2 "Of course, if I agree to work on it, Global signs the contract. Not you.” (SP.HT 138) "Well, if the PKI get what they want, this cuts the last tie, doesn't it?” Hamilton said. (CK.YLD 67) "We need some food, some clothes, only for three days. Then if we do not find the beach, we swim back and wait for the boat." AG.TB 70 When and present antecedent-clauses: When and present antecedent-clauses "Imagine his face," Will gasped, " when he goes tearing off in the van and poof! the tyre goes flat, and he gets out furious and changes it, and goes tearing off again, and poof!" They all collapsed again, gurgling. SC.DR 126 "...When I tell you what you did wrong, you don't say you're sorry, because I already know you're sorry. And when you drive out of here alive, you don't thank me for being alive. And you don't even say good-bye to me." NS.SC 148 Speech Act conditionals: Speech Act conditionals If I don't see you before Thursday, have a good Thanksgiving! Speech.act.dia: Speech.act.dia Speech act conditionals, 2: Speech act conditionals, 2 "...If you want to know the truth the baby was the reason we got married in the first place...." AT.AT.167 # If you wanted to know the truth the baby was the reason we got/had gotten married in the first place. "Very well," sighed the maid; "if you are all ruined because of this obstinate hen, don't blame me." (L. Frank Baum, Ozma of Oz, 73) #If you were all ruined because of this obstinate hen, don't blame me. Speech act conditionals, 3: Speech act conditionals, 3 "If Utah's your sister, are you Wyoming or Nevada?” SP.HT,75 If you need any help, my name is Ann. "If you've come to see Deirdre, she's dead." SP.TV 113 #If you'd come to see Deirdre, she would be dead. My name is Ann dia: My name is Ann dia Speech act conditionals, 4: predictives?: Speech act conditionals, 4: predictives? "I'll take whatever you're offering," the guy says. In English. Sort of a crisp accent. "I'm not offering anything," she says, "but if you want to stand there and browse, that's cool.” NS.SC 342 "...but if you wanted to stand there and browse, that would be cool." Speech act WHEN, 1: Speech act WHEN, 1 When amber lights flashing, prepare to stop. What this sign means is something like Take this sign as a "Prepare to stop" sign during times when you see the amber lights flashing. It does not mean wait till the amber lights are flashing and then prepare to stop, or any of the more obvious content-level temporal readings. Speech act WHEN, 2: Speech act WHEN, 2 A particularly common pattern of speech-act when usage combines a when clause with a rhetorical WH-question, as in: Why end up suffocating on your own entrails out in back of some Buy 'n' Fly when you can put on a crisp terracotta blazer and become part of a jovial familia? NS.SC 146 (Reasons to work for a Mafia pizza chain) AND and conditionality: AND and conditionality (Cornwallis) ..."I don't have to tell you not to run her aground." (Hornblower) "No, sir." (Cornwallis) "But remember this. You'll find it hard to perform your duty unless you risk your ship. There's folly and there's foolhardiness on one side, and there's daring and calculation on the other. Make the right choice and I'll see you through any trouble that may ensue." Cornwallis' wide blue eyes looked straight into Hornblower's brown ones. Hornblower was deeply interested in what Cornwallis had said, and equally interested in what he had left unsaid. Cornwallis had made a promise of sympathetic support, but he had refrained from uttering the threat which was the obvious corollary. … He was a man who preferred to lead rather than to drive; most interesting. CSF.HH.394 Epistemic: Epistemic If I was right about Baladine not doing on-site surveillance, then I could probably leave again as long as I was quiet about it. SP.HT 248 "If you accept that the universe is infinite, then that means there's an infinite amount of chances for things to happen, right?" "...Well, if there's an infinite amount of chances for something to happen, then eventually it will happen - no matter how small the likelihood." AG.TB 74 Epistemic, 2: Epistemic, 2 If you think this [a gory-sounding list of the things that a highway-surfer can run into] is unlikely, you've been surfing too many ghost malls. All of these obstacles and more were recently observed on a one-mile stretch of the New Jersey Turnpike. NS.SC 27 Epistemic, 3: Epistemic, 3 Besides, if this guy's using a pay terminal - which he must be, to judge from the image quality - it can't jazz up his avatar. It just shows him the way he is, except not as well. NS.SC 41 "Okay, Richard, but there must be a way down, no? If people go to this beach, there must be a way." "If people go to this beach," I echoed. AG.TB 84 Directions of human reasoning: Directions of human reasoning "You do Sugg an injustice," said Lord Peter; "if there had been any signs of Thipps' complicity in the crime, Sugg would have found them." DS.WB 122 "...Similarly, he thinks Mr. Thipps may have concealed the body in the box-room or elsewhere. Therefore you may be sure he searched the box-room and all the other places for signs of occupation. If they had been there he would have found them, because he was looking for them. Therefore, if he didn't find them it's because they weren't there." DS.WB 123 When in epistemics: When in epistemics When lights flashing, workers on deck. (Sign on Lion's Gate Bridge, Vancouver, June 2001.) When the door is locked the restroom is occupied. (Sign on restroom door in a restaurant in Truckee, California, in March 1999). Epistemics, speech acts and tense forms: Epistemics, speech acts and tense forms "[...]but hospital's the place for her if she's going to stay like this: she'll need special feeding, for one thing." AG.MG 56 If Mr. Armani is so desperate to be seen as an artist, he should have allowed himself to be treated as one. (Memo to Art Museums: Don't Give Up on Art, by Roberta Smith, continuation on 2-35 from 2-1. NYT, Sunday Dec 3, 2000) [re. the "Giorgio Armani" exhibit at the Guggenheim] Metalinguistic conditionals: Metalinguistic conditionals "That's what we're in business to do, get this cocksucker nailed, if you'll excuse my Greek." SG.OO 373 (male police officer talking to female private detective about a criminal they are trying to catch) Pardon.my.greek.dia: Pardon.my.greek.dia Metalinguistic conditionals, 2: Metalinguistic conditionals, 2 "Did she give an explanation for why she broke the computer?" "Yes. Sort of. I mean, if nonsense counts as an explanation.” NS.SC 291 (Y.T.'s mother is being interrogated by the Feds) Metalinguistic conditionals, 3: Metalinguistic conditionals, 3 In this vision of her - if you could call it a vision, considering that he never did glance over at her - she was wearing a bright blue dress from the early days of their marriage. AT.AT 10 Lemour thought he could get me, but I would make a monkey of him. That seems to be the gist of my thinking, if acting solely on impulse can be called thinking. SP.HT 222 Meta-metaphorical conditionals, 1: Meta-metaphorical conditionals, 1 If the beautiful Golden Gate is the thoroughbred of bridges, the Bay Bridge is the workhorse. San Francisco Chronicle, Nov. 11, 1996, p. A13. There was good reason to believe that our clannish island was the very centre of the world. God Himself had assured us of that, in so many words. If the Church Triumphant was at the heart of all things, then the Anglican parsonage was the living heart of the Church. JR.C.82 Meta-metaphorical conditionals, 2: Meta-metaphorical conditionals, 2 If Duncan Oaks was the hub, maybe Mark Bethel was the axle driving subsequent events. SG.OO.360 [A detective speculating about individuals' role in a crime sequence.] I had to fashion a story that encompassed all the players and made sense of their fates. If life is a play, then there is a logical explanation, an underlying tale that pulls the whole of it together, however clouded it first appears. SG.OO.361 (Same detective, same hopeless mission.) The Americana at Manhasset: The Americana at Manhasset If the Americana at Manhasset is suburbia's Madison Avenue, Georgina, just west of the mall, and Janet Brown, a few miles away in Port Washington, form a sort of metaphoric Park Avenue. We are speaking here of the Park Avenue of Martha, the legendary shop where the locals came for their Pauline Trigere dresses and saleswomen always knew just what and where their clients would be drinking when those dresses left the shop. NYT, July 25, 2000, A23 Meta-metaphorical epistemic conditional: Meta-metaphorical epistemic conditional If public transit is the lifeblood of a dynamic city, Vancouver's in a coma. (The Vancouver Sun, Thursday, July 5, 2001, page A11 - article about a long-ongoing transit Strike.) Distanced meta-metaphorical conditional: Distanced meta-metaphorical conditional It occurred to her that if the car had been a horse, he would have been a centaur. (Context: thinker is admiring the driving skill of the man next to her.) Meta-spatial conditionals: Meta-spatial conditionals This was a time when we were all supposed to be feeling the same thing - according to the English media - a time when this beautiful country could unite in sorrow at the passing of our 'greatest leader.’ Or, if you happened to read a French newspaper, a time to weep over an athlete's second place finish. Vancouver Sun, Oct 3, 2000, page A3, "Montreal puts aside politics and weeps", by Katherine Monk. Utah.dia: Utah.dia And conditionals: And conditionals "We get rid of Coyne and we're clear," said Hayden eagerly. (WGT.VH.171) "You come to me in two years' time and I'll tell you if I was right." (NS.WB.166) “You pay us a trillion bucks and we'll take you to a Hoosegow. Then you can bargain with them." (Neil Stephenson, Snow Crash, p.50) [Cops offering a teenager a chance to go to a less unpleasant jail in return for a bribe.] Hoosegow.dia: Hoosegow.dia And.conditionals 2: And.conditionals 2 He makes one mistake and he'll be out. (Davies 1986) "Throw that ink pot at me, Miss Kate, and you'll go supperless to bed," Sarah would have said, wholly unimpressed by defiance. (Georgette Heyer, Cousin Kate, p. 145.) (10) "Make the right choice and I'll see you through any trouble that may ensue." (C.S.Forster, Horatio Hornblower, p.14} Charlie Brown: Charlie Brown All we gotta do is win this one more game, and the championship is ours! [Final line of the "fight song" for Charlie Brown's Very Little League team in the musicalYou're a Good Man, Charlie Brown.] Sandra Day O’Connor: Sandra Day O’Connor We are all living now in Sandra Day O'Connor's America. Take almost any of the most divisive questions about American life, and Justice O'Connor either has decided it or is about to decide it on our behalf. (NYT Magazine, June 3, 2001, p. 32; "A Majority of One" by Jeffrey Rosen.) Distanced.and: Distanced.and The whole interior of the car lights up as they drive past a Buy 'n' Fly. Loiter in the parking lot of a Buy 'n' Fly and you'd get a suntan. Then WorldBeat Security would come and arrest you. (Neil Stephenson, Snow Crash, p.49) Or conditionals : Or conditionals Shut up," he says, "or next time I fire the loogie gun into your mouth." [Future-world "MetaCop" to a teenager he has arrested] (Neil Stephenson, Snow Crash, p.5) If you don't shut up, next time I'll fire the loogie gun into your mouth. Babbit.or.dia: Babbit.or.dia And w/o full sentences: And w/o full sentences "One more word from that direction," she said threateningly, "and I'll call the Policeman. (P.L. Travers, Mary Poppins, p. 14) "..here I register a dark and bloody oath that you shan't sing. Another yelp, and overboard you go." (Mark Twain, Innocents Abroad' p. 218) [An unappreciative tourist threatens to throw a singer overboard into a Venetian canal.] Reverse order, no and.: Reverse order, no and.