mideastmaps

Information about mideastmaps

Published on January 7, 2008

Author: BAWare

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Tracking Middle Eastern History Through Maps:  Tracking Middle Eastern History Through Maps Rise of the Muslim Empire to the Present 2003 Slide2:  Roman Empire (27 BC-476 CE) Rome falls to Germanic Hun invaders in 476 The Roman Empire reestablishes itself to the east in Constantinople and becomes known as the Byzantine Empire. It lasts another 1,000 years. Slide3:  1025 1092 1453 Rise and Fall of the Byzantine Empire: (1025-1453) Byzantine Emperors launch crusades to reclaim the “holy land” (1095-1289) Byzantium falls to Ottoman Turks (1453) Slide4:  Spread of Islam Yellow: Muslim lands at the death of Muhammad (632) Purple: Lands conquered by first four Caliphs (632-661) Green: Empire expands under Umayyad Caliphs (661-750) Slide5:  After Muhammad, who will lead the Islamic Empire? Muhammad’s Legacy: During this tumultuous period controversy arose: Predictions? --first person to unify the Bedouin tribes --Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali (close associates, but Ali is the only relative) How should a successor to Muhammad be chosen? Slide6:  Two Divisions of Islam: Sunnis and Shi’ites Sunnis: believed that the best candidate should be chosen as the next caliph Caliph: religious and political leader of the Islamic community Shi’ites: believed that only a direct descendant of Muhammad should be caliph Umayyad Empire: 661-750 AD:  Umayyad Empire: 661-750 AD Umayyads: --Military expansion (India-Spain); Jusify conquest in the name of Islam; Move capital to Damascus, Arabic made official language for gov—language spreads; Non Arabs were 2nd class citizens, Extravagant court life Slide8:  Abbasid Empire: (750-1258) Abbasids: Golden Age Move capital to Baghdad; Align gov. to Islam, End Arab dominance of the religion; Patrons of Islamic scholarship, philosophy, and art; Political success based on trade and industry not conquest; Islamic law “Sharia” developed; Slide9:  Abbasid Golden Age (While Europe was in the Dark Ages) ENGINEERING: hydraulic engineering , water wheels… ASTRONOMY: At the House of Knowledge founded in Baghdad, scientists translated many texts from Sanskrit, Persian, Greek and Syriac into Arabic, notably the great Sanskrit astronomical tables and Ptolemy's astronomical treatise, the Almagest. PAPER MAKING, BOOKS, TRANSLATIONS: Muslims were responsible for the transfer of papermaking from China, to Europe, where it fueled the print revolution in the late fifteenth century (Renaissance). Muslims encountered paper when they conquered Central Asia in the eighth century. Medieval Islamic libraries had hundreds of thousands of volumes Slide10:  MATH: Algebra, Zero, Quadratic Equations …Traditional systems used the alphabet to represent numbers or cumbersome Roman numerals. The new system was far superior, for it allowed people to multiply and divide easily and check their work. By the 14th century, Italian merchants and bankers abandoned the abacus and began calculating with pen and paper. (Influencing development of the Renaissance) Abbasid Golden Age continued: MEDICINE: Ibn al-Haytham--"father of optics;“ Ibn al-Nafis discovered minor circulation of the blood; Ibn Sina (Avicenna) synthesized Aristotelian and Greek theories with original views. His Canon of Medicine became the most famous medical book in the East or West; Hospitals were soon established throughout the empire. Ibn al-Haytham Slide11:  Architecture: Building boom -domes, arches, plaster, mosaics Alhambra in Granada Great Mosque in Damascus Dome of the Rock. Topkapi Palace in Istanbul Topkapi Palace in Istanbul Great Mosque in Damascus Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo Slide12:  European Crusades: 1095-1289 In 1096, Christian Europeans Crusaders launched a series of “holy wars” aimed at gaining control of Jerusalem from the Muslim Arabs and Seljuk Turks. In all, eight crusades were carried out. Jerusalem fell to the Christians in 1099 Under the leadership of Salah al-Din, the Muslims effectively ended the Christian hold on the Holy Land in 1187. Ottoman Empire 1300-1914:  Ottoman Empire 1300-1914 1450- Ottoman Turks expand across to the Balkans- convert Christians to Islam 1529- Suleyman the Magnificent advanced as far as Vienna Europe interacts with Early 18th Century- Ottomans and eventually internal problems lead to the empire’s decline 1918- The empire finally came to an end following defeat in WWI. Middle East after WWI (1918) -European powers divide up Ottoman territories after Allied victory in WWI:  Middle East after WWI (1918) -European powers divide up Ottoman territories after Allied victory in WWI Red=Great Britain Green=France Yellow=Independent Britain’s Promise to the Arabs:  Britain’s Promise to the Arabs British Partition plan 1938:  British Partition plan 1938 1947 UN Partition Plan:  1947 UN Partition Plan Slide21:  --The split between Sunni and Shi’ite Islam has continued to impact politics today. (especially in Iran and Iraq) --These sects of Islam share basic beliefs, but tend to differ in religious practice, law, and daily life. --Today 90 % of Muslims are Sunni. Shi’ite Majority

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