Migr Trinidad ING

Information about Migr Trinidad ING

Published on January 18, 2008

Author: Tomasina

Source: authorstream.com

Content

MIGRATION:  MIGRATION MIGRATION CHALLENGES IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CARIBBEAN COMMUNITY (CARICOM) SINGLE MARKET AND ECONOMY – With emphasis on the experiences of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Presented by Mr. Carl Francis Permanent Secretary Ministry of Labour and Small and Micro Enterprise Development Trinidad and Tobago CARICOM SINGLE MARKET AND ECONOMY (CSME):  CARICOM SINGLE MARKET AND ECONOMY (CSME) The Caribbean chain of islands stretches from the Yucatan and Florida Peninsulas in a south-easterly direction towards the north-eastern coast of the Latin American mainland. In 1973 a subset of this group of countries formed an economic union called the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). The Grouping now has as its members Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago and Suriname. CARICOM SINGLE MARKET AND ECONOMY (CSME) Cont’d…:  CARICOM SINGLE MARKET AND ECONOMY (CSME) Cont’d… In 1989, the 1973 CARICOM treaty was deepened with the commencement of the formation of the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME). The CSME is being implemented through 9 Protocols, one of which is Protocol II which treats with the Right of Establishment, Provision of Services and Movement of Capital. This deepening involved the removal of restrictions on the provision of services as well as the expansion of commitments and obligations of Member States as they relate to free movement of capital and skilled labour. CARICOM SINGLE MARKET AND ECONOMY (CSME) Cont’d…:  CARICOM SINGLE MARKET AND ECONOMY (CSME) Cont’d… In January 1996, CARICOM Heads of Government agreed that the free movement of persons would be limited to university graduates, artistes, sports persons, musicians and media workers who are nationals of the grouping. CARICOM SINGLE MARKET AND ECONOMY (CSME) Cont’d…:  CARICOM SINGLE MARKET AND ECONOMY (CSME) Cont’d… The leaders of six CARICOM Member States took an historic step when they formally signed a declaration giving birth to the CARICOM Single Market (CSM) which allows for easier movement of goods, services and skilled workers. Modeled after the European Union, the CSM operated initially with Barbados, Belize, Guyana, Jamaica, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago as its signatories. CARICOM SINGLE MARKET AND ECONOMY (CSME) Cont’d…:  CARICOM SINGLE MARKET AND ECONOMY (CSME) Cont’d… In July 2006, six member states -Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St.Kitts/Nevis, Saint Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines- joined the Single Market. The full CSME is expected to come into being in 2008 CARICOM SINGLE MARKET AND ECONOMY (CSME) Cont’d…:  CARICOM SINGLE MARKET AND ECONOMY (CSME) Cont’d… Under the current arrangements, free movement is available to the following wage earners - University Graduates, Sports Persons, Media Persons, Artistes, Nurses and Teachers. Self employed persons having movement are service providers and persons establishing a business. Consideration is now being given to the inclusion of Hospitality Workers, Domestic Workers and Artisans in the category of wage earners CARICOM SINGLE MARKET AND ECONOMY (CSME) Cont’d…:  CARICOM SINGLE MARKET AND ECONOMY (CSME) Cont’d… The free movement of all CARICOM Workers is envisaged by 2009 The CSME is committed to the principles of the ILO Decent Work Agenda since it recognizes that particular attention must be paid to the protection of wage earners moving to other member states in order to seek employment CARICOM SINGLE MARKET AND ECONOMY (CSME) Cont’d…:  CARICOM SINGLE MARKET AND ECONOMY (CSME) Cont’d… Trinidad and Tobago currently accounts for about 80% of trade within the region. To date approximately 2000 CARICOM Nationals have applied to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Trinidad and Tobago for certification to allow them to move freely for work and business in the country. Snap shot of Trinidad and Tobago:  Snap shot of Trinidad and Tobago There has been a migration pull towards Trinidad and Tobago as it is the most diversified and industrialised economy in the English speaking Caribbean and has earned a reputation as an excellent investment site for international business. There are proven reserves of petroleum and natural gas, and heavy industries such as iron and steel, methanol and nitrogenous fertilizers. Snap shot of Trinidad and Tobago Cont’d…:  Snap shot of Trinidad and Tobago Cont’d… The economy is based on, inter alia, petroleum, natural gas, and manufacturing and has been growing at over 8% p.a., with services accounting for over 51% of GDP. At the end of the 4th quarter of 2006, the unemployment rate stood at 5%. Snap shot of Trinidad and Tobago Cont’d…:  Snap shot of Trinidad and Tobago Cont’d… The problem that now faces the Trinidad and Tobago economy is how can a population of 1.3 million, the size of a small suburb in a large metropolitan city, provide for the full range of skills and services that are required to meet current demands of a country seeking to become a developed country by the year 2020? Migrant Caribbean Labour – some statistics:  Migrant Caribbean Labour – some statistics As indicated earlier, elements of Caribbean labour have been historically mobile Approximately 10-40% of the labour force from the Caribbean has migrated to the OECD economies since 1960’s Caribbean persons account for 19% of the migrant stocks in Canada and 12% in the USA Tertiary emigration rates stand at 86% for Guyana, 83% for Jamaica and 78% for Trinidad and Tobago Source: ILO, Caribbean labour migration: Minimizing losses and optimizing benefits, Dr. Andrew Pienkos Migrant Caribbean Labour – some statistics cont’d… :  Migrant Caribbean Labour – some statistics cont’d… Statistics show that CARICOM nationals account for just over one-half of all flows within the region (52%). Between 1990 – 2000 the stock of migrant workers within the region has increased by 18% Migrants accounted for 39% of the population in the Cayman Islands, 36% in Anguilla and 36% in the British Virgin Islands Caribbean small island economies are a source of often highly trained professionals in various fields and they continue to be lured to the metropoles Migrant Labour in T&T – a twofold challenge.:  Migrant Labour in T&T – a twofold challenge. TRADITIONAL OUTFLOWS We continue to face traditional outflows of professionals in certain fields, namely, the medical (doctors and nurses) and teaching services. Seasonal movement to CSAWP with Canada since 1967 – approximately 1500 farm workers annually. The T&T Experience– a twofold challenge.:  The T&T Experience– a twofold challenge. DERIVED DEMAND Development/expansion of the Public Sector eg. 10,000 houses per annum; proposed construction of aluminuim smelter plants; second steel plant etc. (International construction companies eg. Bechtel require large numbers of specialised workers) Trade liberalization – private sector fuelled economy Migrant Labour in T&T – a twofold challenge.:  Migrant Labour in T&T – a twofold challenge. Trinidad and Tobago is presently a net importer of migrant labour eg. Doctors, nurses, construction workers, natural gas industry specialists, aluminium and construction industry specialists. Sources of T&T Migrant Labour.:  Sources of T&T Migrant Labour. Republic of Cuba – doctors, nurses UN Volunteers – UNDP – medical personnel Republic of the Phillipines – doctors, nurses, pharmacists, engineers, quantity surveyors, architects, Auto Cad technicians etc. Skilled workers from CSME – eg. Masons, carpenters etc. Sources of Migrant Labour (Cont’d).:  Sources of Migrant Labour (Cont’d). Skilled workers from the Republic of China – construction, welders; steel benders; specialty chefs Pre-fabricators from Columbia –Pre-fab houses etc. University graduates in many fields from several regional sources Migration – The experiences of Trinidad and Tobago:  Migration – The experiences of Trinidad and Tobago During the period 2001-2005 work permits issued increased significantly by 3,750 or 548.2%, from 684 in 2001 to 4,434 in 2005 An increase of 1,528 or 52.6% over the previous year 2004. The largest number of permits issued, 1,457 or 32.9% of the total permits issued, was in the Petroleum and Gas Industrial Group. Major Challenges:  Major Challenges Opposition from the professional bodies, Medical Board, Nursing Council and Pharmacy Board Language/Cultural Barriers Demands from local Trade Unions for compensation for locals in line with that paid to foreigners Impact on the social system? Migrant Workers – Solutions:  Need for closer linkages between the University of the West Indies and line Ministries to determine manpower gaps and strategies to meet/close them. Labour migration policies need to be supported by measures to prevent abusive practices and promote decent and productive work for women and men migrants More effective collaboration needed with receiving states. Issues such as social security contributions, basic human rights, contribution to the training of this readily available labour pool must be examined. Migrant Workers – Solutions Migrant Workers – Solutions:  Migrant Workers – Solutions Creation of a labour migration database which will be linked to the National Human Resource Management System (NHRMIS).  The NHRMIS is a user-friendly data entry, storage and retrieval system for data on the labour market and education and training institutions. Its immediate objective is the provision of labour market information (LMI) on a timely, continuous and accessible basis to policy makers, employers, investors, researchers, trade unionists and other interested parties. Migrant Workers – Solutions:  Migrant Workers – Solutions Even before the implementation of the CSM in 2006, migrant workers in Trinidad and Tobago were afforded all social protection afforded to nationals. With the advent of the CSM, the CARICOM Agreement will seek to harmonize all the social security legislation of member states in line with ILO Recommendation No. 167. Migrant Workers – Solutions Cont’d…:  Legislation among CARICOM countries to facilitate free movement of labour (Sunset legislation World Cup Cricket) Caribbean Court of Justice to arbitrate OSH to be the guiding principle Minimum Wages Acts (non-unionised workers) across the grouping Migrant Workers – Solutions Cont’d… Migrant Workers – Solutions Cont’d…:  T&T Government offers free tertiary/university education to all citizens (including free universal pre-school, primary and secondary education) Adherence/Enforceability of ILO standards – eg. Strengthening of the labour inspection compliance function of the Ministry of Labour Migrant Workers – Solutions Cont’d… New Initiatives 27th Conference of Caribbean Heads of Government – July 2006:  New Initiatives 27th Conference of Caribbean Heads of Government – July 2006 Supported the recommendation for the establishment of a Technical Working group to undertake a policy study on the subject under review. Agreed that special attention be paid to The development of migration policy Retention of skilled labour Information system/database Information to enhance national capacity; building social support systems to respond to the requirements of voluntary and involuntary return migrants Diaspora Communities XV CARICOM COHSOD Meeting – October 2006:  XV CARICOM COHSOD Meeting – October 2006 Agreed that with the movement of labour in the CSME, special attention must be paid to implications of intra-regional immigration and the policies required to deal with the issue; Urged Member States to cooperate with the Secretariat in responding to the mandates of the Heads of Government for the follow up studies Tripartite Declaration and Plan of Action for Realizing the Decent Work Agenda in the Caribbean:  Tripartite Declaration and Plan of Action for Realizing the Decent Work Agenda in the Caribbean Adopted at the Tripartite Caribbean Employment Forum in Barbados, October 2006 Promotes, in conformity with national employment and labour market strategies, proactive labour migration policies and programmes that optimize gains and minimize losses from migration, help manage intra-regional migration, enhance the regulatory mechanisms and protect migrant workers {being guided by the ILO Non-binding Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration (2005)} Slide30:  THANK YOU! MUCHAS GRACIAS!

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