Minerals and Mineral Processing, Extractive Metallurgy, Ore Dressing, Minerals Engineering (Mining, Non – Ferrous Metals, Iron Ore Slimes, Limes, Limestone, Asbestos, Coal Beneficiation

Information about Minerals and Mineral Processing, Extractive Metallurgy, Ore Dressing,...

Published on June 30, 2016

Author: ei1234

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1. Minerals & Mineral Processing Extractive Metallurgy, Ore Dressing, Minerals Engineering (Mining, Non – Ferrous Metals, Iron Ore Slimes, Limes, Limestone, Asbestos, Coal Beneficiation, Coal and Ore Fines, Ordinary Superphosphate, Ammonium Salts, Fertilizers)

2. www.entrepreneurindia.co Introduction Mineral is defined as a naturally occurring solid chemical substance formed through biogeochemical processes, having characteristic chemical composition, highly ordered atomic structure, and specific physical properties. By comparison, a rock is an aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids and does not have a specific chemical composition. Mineral resources of India are sufficiently rich and varied to provide the country with strong industrial base.

3. www.entrepreneurindia.co The country is particularly rich in metallic minerals of the ferrous group such as iron ores, manganese etc. It has the world largest reserves in mica and bauxite. In the field of extractive metallurgy, mineral processing, also known as mineral dressing or ore dressing, is the process of separating commercially valuable minerals from their ores. Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an ore body; the term also includes the removal of soil.

4. www.entrepreneurindia.co Materials recovered by mining include base metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, limestone, etc. There are three methods of mining; conventional or manual mining, semi mechanised mining and mechanised mining. Geopolymerisation is the processes which can transfer large scale alumina silicate wastes into value added geopolymeric products with sound mechanical strength and high acid, fire and bacterial resistance.

5. www.entrepreneurindia.co One of many useful applications of geopolymerisation is the immobilization of heavy metals and radioactive elements. The production of non ferrous metals from natural mineral ores is, in general, highly energy intensive. Some of the non ferrous mineral sources are bauxite, granite, magnesite, limonite etc. Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

6. www.entrepreneurindia.co Limestone processing includes several steps; primary crushing (jaw crusher, gyratory crusher, impact breaker), secondary crushing (cone crusher), fine grinding and pulverization, conveying, screening, washing, heavy media separation, optical mineral sorters, drying and storage. The non metallic mineral mining and quarrying industry segment covers a wide range of mineral extraction. Most of these minerals are found in abundance close to the surface, so underground mining is uncommon in this industry segment.

7. www.entrepreneurindia.co Mineral resources of India are sufficiently rich and varied to provide the country with strong industrial base. The country is particularly rich in metallic minerals of the ferrous group such as iron ores, manganese etc. It has the world largest reserves in mica and bauxite. This book basically deals with methods of mining, mining machineries, geopolymerisation of mineral products and waste, industrial and scientific aspects of non ferrous metals production,

8. processing of alumina rich Indian iron ore slimes, limestone processing, limestone exploration and extraction, the mineralogy of asbestos, the use of asbestos and asbestos free substitutes in buildings, flotation column ;a novel technique in mineral processing, applications of thermal plasma in the synthesis of covalent carbides, nitrogenous fertilizers, manufacture of ammonium bicarbonate etc. www.entrepreneurindia.co

9. This book is designed to describe the details of mining and processing of different minerals like alumina rich iron ore slimes, conversion of waste to a high valued product, lime stone, asbestos, coal beneficiation, gravity concentration processes to recover values from coal and ore fines and many more. The book is meant for everyone who wants to study about the subject or wants to venture into the field of mineral processing. www.entrepreneurindia.co

10. www.entrepreneurindia.co Table of Contents 1. MINING General Consideration Mining Machineries Methods of Mining 1. Conventional or Manual Method 2. Semi-mechanised Method 3. Mechanised Method Mining of Other Decorative Stones Conservation and Safety Problems of Granite Mining Geological Problems

11. www.entrepreneurindia.co Operational Problems Environmental Problems Status of Granite Mining in India 2. PROCESSING General Consideration Manual Methods Mechanical Methods 1. Sawing 2. Polishing 3. Cutting and Polishing of Edges 4. Status of Granite Processing Industries in India

12. www.entrepreneurindia.co 3. GEOPOLYMERISATION OF MINERAL PRODUCTS AND WASTE Principles of Geopolymerisation Reaction Mechanisms and Material Properties Immobilisation of Heavy Metals and Radioactive Elements Encapsulation of Organic Residue Stabilisation of Mine Tailings Concluding Remarks 4. INDUSTRIAL AND SCIENTIFIC ASPECTS OF NON - FERROUS METALS PRODUCTION Introduction Resources in India The Developed Metals Industry

13. www.entrepreneurindia.co Environmental Aspects: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Metals for Secondary Sources : The Energy Aspect Extraction as a Separation Process Application of Thermodynamics and Kinetics - Some Examples R & D for the Future Nonferrous Metallurgy at Regional Research Laboratory, Bhubaneswar Processing of Ocean Nodules Processing of Chromite Overburden Concluding Remarks

14. www.entrepreneurindia.co 5. THE IMPORTANCE OF USING A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH IN THE EVALUATION OF AMMONIA LEACHING BEHAVIOUR OF MULTIMINERAL SULPHIDES Introduction Research Practice/Methodology 1. Overall Aim of Leaching Studies 2. Raw Materials 3. Analysis of Feed Material, Leach Solution and Residues 4. Leaching as a process involving Parallel Reactions 5. Experimental Options and Limitations during Laboratory Studies 6. Analysis of Kinetic Data in Terms of Models 7. Selection of Experimental Conditions for Oxidative Ammonia Leaching of Multimetal Sulphides

15. www.entrepreneurindia.co Use of Multi-disciplinary Approach 1. Microscopic Studies 2. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Studies 3. Thermal Analysis (TA) 4. Chemical Phase Analysis 5. Surface Area Measurements 6. Galvanic Interactions Concluding Remarks 6. PROCESSING OF ALUMINA-RICH INDIAN IRON ORE SLIMES Introduction Motivation for the Beneficiation of Indian Iron Ores

16. www.entrepreneurindia.co Beneficiation Strategies for Indian Iron Ore Slimes Selective Dispersion-flocculation Studies on Iron Ore Slimes Concluding Remarks 7. CONVERSION OF A WASTE TO A HIGH VALUED PRODUCT Introduction Experimental Results and Discussions Concluding Remarks 8. DEFINITIONS AND PROPERTIES OF LIMES Nomenclature Physical Properties of Quicklimes

17. www.entrepreneurindia.co Physical Properties of Hydrated Limes Chemical Properties of Quick and Hydrated Lime 9. ANALYTICAL TESTING OF LIMESTONE AND LIME Physical Testing of Limestone Limestone: Use Specifications Limestone: Chemical Analyses Physical Tests of Lime Lime Materials Specifications Lime: Chemical Analysis 10. LIMESTONE PROCESSING Primary Crushing Secondary Crushing

18. Fine Grinding and Pulverization Conveying Screening Washing Heavy-Media Separation Optical Mineral Sorters Drying Storage Portable Plants Environmental Controls Model of Ultramodern, High-Capacity Limestone Producer Costs Safety Record www.entrepreneurindia.co

19. www.entrepreneurindia.co 11. LIME MANUFACTURE Development of Kilns Vertical Kilns Rotary Kilns Coolers Internals Miscellaneous Kilns Chemical Analysis Refractory Linings Flexibility Fuels and Combustion Rotary Kilns Vertical Kilns Heat Balance

20. www.entrepreneurindia.co Instrumentation Temperature Air Fuel Equipment Classification of Quicklime Control of Kiln Particulate Emissions Dead-Burned Dolomite Production Oystershell Lime Precipitated Calcium Carbonate Hydraulic Lime Selective Calcination Manufacturing Costs Lime Plant Safety

21. 12. LIMESTONE EXPLORATION AND EXTRACTION Exploration Criteria Land Use Zoning Coring Extraction of Limestone Stripping Disposal of Overburden Quarry Layout Mining Layout Drilling Blasting Loading www.entrepreneurindia.co

22. Haulage Pumping Extraction without Blasting Environmental Controls 13. THE MINERALOGY OF ASBESTOS Introduction Definitions Chemical Composition Crystal Structures Serpentine Minerals Amphibole Minerals Occurrences www.entrepreneurindia.co

23. Synthesis Optical Properties X-ray Diffraction Data Electron Optical Characteristics Non-asbestiform Amphibole and Serpentine Minerals 14. CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS OF ASBESTOS Asbestos : The Raw Material Occurrence and Formation World Production Applications Structure Composition www.entrepreneurindia.co

24. Chemical Reactions Synthesis of the Asbestos Minerals Physical Properties of Asbestos Fibres Tensile Strength Surface Area Other Physical Properties Optical Properties Thermal Decomposition of Asbestos Amphibole Asbestos Chrysotile Asbestos Surface Properties of Asbestos Infrared Spectroscopic Data for Asbestos www.entrepreneurindia.co

25. 15. THE IDENTIFICATION OF ASBESTOS IN SOLID MATERIALS Synopsis Introduction Sampling and Pre-treatment of Samples Analysis of Samples for Asbestos (1) Observation by Stereo-bionocular Microscope (2) The Action of Heat on Fibres (3) Optical Microscope Methods (4) Infrared Spectrophotometry (5) X-ray Diffraction Analysis (6) Electron-optical Methods (7) Miscellaneous Methods of Analysis www.entrepreneurindia.co

26. 16. THE USE OF ASBESTOS AND ASBESTOS-FREE SUBSTITUTES IN BUILDINGS Synopsis Introduction Asbestos in Buildings (1) Higher Density Hard-surfaced Materials (2) Lower Density Soft-surfaced Materials (3) Sprayed Asbestos (4) Other Asbestos-based Building Materials and Components The Risks to Health in the Use of Asbestos in Buildings Sampling of Installed Building Materials General Considerations of Health and Safety www.entrepreneurindia.co

27. Labelling Schemes for Asbestos-based Building Materials Other Safety Precautions for Building Operatives and Users Remedial Construction and Maintenance Work The Substitution of Asbestos in Buildings (1) Higher Density Hard-surfaced Materials (2) Lower Density Soft-surfaced Materials (3) Sprayed or Floated Materials (4) Other Building Materials and Components The Asbestos Hazard in Perspective The Future for Asbestos in Building www.entrepreneurindia.co

28. 17. PROCESS MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF COAL BENEFICIATION FLOWSHEET Introduction Software Components 1. Coaldata.com 2. Flowdata.com 3. Coalben.com Case Study Discussion 1. Effect of Media Density Concluding Remarks Appendix : Specifications and Parameters of Different Units of Sudamdih Washery www.entrepreneurindia.co

29. 18. ENHANCED GRAVITY CONCENTRATION PROCESSES TO RECOVER VALUES FROM COAL AND ORE FINES Introduction Why Fines are a Problem? Enhanced Gravity Separation Process Treating Chromite Ore Fines Rejects 1. Multi-Gravity Separator Results and Discussion Concluding Remarks 19. MAGNETIC SEPARATION OF HEAVY MINERALS FROM BEACH SAND PLACER DEPOSITS Introduction www.entrepreneurindia.co

30. Magnetic Separation Principle Types of Magnetic Separators 1. Dry Type Magnetic Separators 2. Wet Type Magnetic Separators Separation of Heavy Minerals 1. Factors of Layout Study Test Work on Various Options 1. WHIMS in the Up-Front of Feed 2. RED in the Up-Front 3. HTS and RED Combination 4. Use of HTS and IRMS Combination Concluding Remarks www.entrepreneurindia.co

31. 20. FLOTATION COLUMN â€" A NOVEL TECHNIQUE IN MINERAL PROCESSING Introduction Column Parameters and their Effect on Metallurgical Performance 1. Effect of Various Column Operating Parameters 2. Effect of Various Column Design Parameters on Metallurgical Performance Mixing Effect in the Flotation Column 1. Reduction of Mixing Effect in Column Flotation Studies at Regional Research Laboratory, Bhubaneswar Concluding Remarks www.entrepreneurindia.co

32. 21. PREPARATION OF OXIDES AND HYDROXIDES OF ALUMINIUM THROUGH AQUEOUS ROUTES Introduction Preparation of Alumina and Alumina Precursors through Aqueous Route The Aqueous Species of Al3+ The Sol-Gel Synthesis Route Homogenous Precipitation Route Hydrothermal Precipitation Route Boehmite Synthesis Concluding Remarks www.entrepreneurindia.co

33. 22. DISSOLUTION BEHAVIOUR OF CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS INTO IRON MELTS DURING DIRECT IRON SMELTING Introduction Characterisation of Various Carbonaceous Materials Experimental Experimental Results Discussion Concluding Remarks 23. APPLICATIONS OF THERMAL PLASMA IN THE SYNTHESIS OF COVALENT CARBIDES Introduction www.entrepreneurindia.co

34. Experimental Results and Discussion Concluding Remarks 24. LIQUID FERTILIZERS Liquid Nitrogenous Fertilizers Compound Liquid Fertilizers 25. MANUFACTURE OF ORDINARY SUPERPHOSPHATE Production Technology of Simple Superphosphate Sulphuric Acid as a Raw Material in the Manufacture of Superphosphate www.entrepreneurindia.co

35. Reactions Occurring in Superphosphate Manufacture Stoicheiometric Amount of Sulphuric Acid and Peculiarities of the Decomposition Reaction Main Technical-analytical Indices of Superphosphate Manufacture Manufacturing Indices of Ordinary Superphosphate from Vietnam Phosphorite Fast Curing of Superphosphate Apparatus Used in Superphosphate Manufacture Storage and Conditioning of Superphosphate 26. NITROGENOUS FERTILIZERS Nitrogenous Fertilizers and the Cyclic Process of Plant Nutrition Significance of Inorganic Nitrogenous Fertilizers www.entrepreneurindia.co

36. World Production of Nitrogenous Inorganic Fertilizers 27. CHEMISTRY OF NITROGEN AND ITS INORGANIC COMPOUNDS 28. AMMONIUM SALTS Physicochemical and Agrochemical Properties Manufacturing Processes Ammonium Chloride Physicochemical and Agrochemical Properties Manufacturing Processes Ammonium Bicarbonate Physicochemical and Agrochemical Properties Manufacture of Ammonium Bicarbonate www.entrepreneurindia.co

37. www.entrepreneurindia.co Niir Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) can provide Process Technology Book on Minerals & Mineral Processing See more http://goo.gl/grSq9U http://goo.gl/AIjkcu http://goo.gl/H7QGBA

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50. Sectors We Cover Cont… o Fruits & Vegetables Processing o Ferro Alloys Based Projects o Fertilizers & Biofertilizers o Ginger & Ginger Based Projects o Herbs And Medicinal Cultivation And Jatropha (Biofuel) o Hotel & Hospitability Projects o Hospital Based Projects o Herbal Based Projects o Inks, Stationery And Export Industries www.entrepreneurindia.co

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55. Niir Project Consultancy Services 106-E, Kamla Nagar, New Delhi-110007, India. Email: [email protected] , [email protected] Tel: +91-11-23843955, 23845654, 23845886 Mobile: +91-9811043595 Fax: +91-11-23841561 Website : www.niir.org www.entrepreneurindia.co Take a look at NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES on #StreetView https://goo.gl/VstWkd www.niir.org www.entrepreneurindia.co

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