mm1

Information about mm1

Published on August 29, 2007

Author: Mahugani

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Medical Imaging Systems:  Medical Imaging Systems 1.mm X-ray, Computerized Tomography (CT) andamp; Image reconstruction 2.mm Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 3.mm PET, Gamma camera andamp; Ultra Sound Imaging 4.mm  3D volume representation 5.mm Visit to Hospital Agenda X-ray:  Agenda X-ray Fundamentals about radiation Interaction with medium X-ray generation Detection and Imaging CT scanning Willem Röntgen:  Willem Röntgen His first image 1895 History of medical imaging:  History of medical imaging 1895: First Image in Wurzburg by Röntgen Nobel prize 1901 1896: H. A. Becquerel finds radiation from uran, Nobel prize 1903 Ing. O. Leppin: Radiation damage of his own hand 1898: Marie und Pierre Curie: finds radiation from Polonium und Radium. Nobel prize 1903. 1902: Guido Holzknecht: first meassuring eqipment 1910: P. Krause, C. Bachem und H. Günther: use of Bariumsulfat af contrast agent 1929: W. Forssmann: Katheter in his ovn heart. Nobel prize 1956 1946: E. Purcell und F. Bloch: Spin resonance: Nobel prize 1952 1953: H. Anger: first Gamma camera 1958: I. Donald: Ultrasound of unborn child 1971: G. N Hounsfield: first CT-scanner Nobel prize 1979 1973: P. C. Lauterbur: first Magnetic Resonance Imaging 1975: M. M. Ter Pogossian: PET Scanner 1980: first Digital X-ray Image (Japan) X-rays:  X-rays 2. Particle or photon with Energy proportional to frequency E = h * f h = Planck's constant = (4.13 e-18) [KeV sec] 1 eV = 1.6 e-19 [Joule] X-rays:  X-rays Particles or Photons with energy andgt; a few eV can ionizise atoms (i.e. knocking an electron out of its orbit) Photons with energy andgt; a few keV can change molecule bindings and is dangeous Electro Magnetic Waves:  Electro Magnetic Waves X-ray energy:  X-ray energy Diagnostic X-ray l 100nm - 0.01nm Light l 700nm - 450nm Planks konstant h = 4.13 10-18 [keVsec] = 6.6 10-34 [joule] = 1nm ~ E = hf = hc/l E = 4.13 10-18 * 103 * 3 108/10-9 = 1200 [eV] = 1.2[keV] l= 100nm ~ E = 0.012 [keV] l= 0.01nm = 10Ångstrøm ~ E = 120[keV] Planck's constant = 6.626068 × 10-34 m2 kg / s Statistics:  Statistics Raindrop experiment ~ Nuclear process Number of events pr. Sec. within an area is a Poisson distribution If Nandgt;andgt;10 then Poisson-andgt;Normal distribution (m,s) (N,sqrt(N)) m = N; s = sqrt(N) Signal/Noise ratio, m/s; S/N = N/sqrt(N) = sqrt(N) Dose vers. Image quality:  Dose vers. Image quality Image size 100x100 pixel Question: which image has S/N = 20db ??? S/N = 20 db 20 db ~10 times S/N = 10 = sqrt(N) N = 100 events/pixel 100*100 =10.000pixel Total 1mill. events Slide11:  Dose vers. Image quality Image size 128x128 Interaction between X-rays and matter:  Interaction between X-rays and matter Coherent Scattering Photoelectric effect Compton Scattering Pair Production Photodisintegration Diagnostic X-ray spectrum:  Diagnostic X-ray spectrum Slide14:  Scattered X-ray photon Incident X-ray photon Coherent Scattering Low energy photons only scattering, no Ionization and only little energy loss Photoelectric effect:  Photoelectric effect Photon with energy 40keV enters Photoelectron from K-shell with energy (40-33.2)=6.8keV exits Electron from M- to K-shell Characteristic radiation at (33.2-0.6)= 31.6KeV in a random direction. The Atom now has positive charge K L M Iodine Energy levels K -33.2keV L -4.3keV M -0.6keV Example Compton Scattering:  Compton Scattering E Energy of incident photon E’ -'- scattered photon mc2 mass equivalent energy of 1electron Pair production:  Pair production A photon with Energy andgt; 1.02Mev might completely disappear under the production of an electron and a positron (electron with positive charge) The energy equivalent of an electron mass is 0.51Mev Ephoton = h*f = e- + e+ + 2Ekin X-ray:  X-ray Photodisintegration: not used in X-ray diagnostics Eandlt;1Mev ~ Coherent scattering Photo electric effect and Compton scattering Linear Attenuation:  Linear Attenuation Mass Attenuation Coefficient (a) / X-ray Energy:  Mass Attenuation Coefficient (a) / X-ray Energy X-ray generation:  X-ray generation Two important data. Max energy controlled by anode voltage Vt [keV] Radiation Dose controlled by current and time [mas] Slide22:  X-ray generation:  X-ray generation Electrons hitting the anode material produces white radiation up to an energy [keV] = anode voltage X-ray spectrum:  X-ray spectrum Beam shaping:  Beam shaping Use of collimator:  Use of collimator h/g reduces scattered radiation Optical gain ~ Resolution:  Optical gain ~ Resolution Photo multiplying tube:  Photo multiplying tube Slide29:  X-ray film cross section Contrast Enhancement Histeq.:  Contrast Enhancement Histeq. Mechanical slicing or focusing:  Mechanical slicing or focusing CT scanners:  CT scanners 1.Generation. 1 detector 2. Generation Linear detector array 3. Generation Both source and det. Rotates 4. Generation Rotating source 5. Generation Spiral moving source Slide33:  Fan Beam Cone Beam Reconstruction from projections:  Reconstruction from projections Slide35: 

Related presentations


Other presentations created by Mahugani

Exploring the Deep Web
12. 03. 2008
0 views

Exploring the Deep Web

Moving Mountains
02. 10. 2007
0 views

Moving Mountains

dustbowl
10. 10. 2007
0 views

dustbowl

The Internet China
12. 10. 2007
0 views

The Internet China

shen 1
12. 10. 2007
0 views

shen 1

Triumph of Bolshevism
12. 10. 2007
0 views

Triumph of Bolshevism

Kukovecz
15. 10. 2007
0 views

Kukovecz

09 Panama s ppt
22. 10. 2007
0 views

09 Panama s ppt

Common By Product Feeds
04. 10. 2007
0 views

Common By Product Feeds

Dissertation Writing comms ug
27. 11. 2007
0 views

Dissertation Writing comms ug

TT
27. 11. 2007
0 views

TT

black holes v2
28. 11. 2007
0 views

black holes v2

Production of Calla Lily
07. 12. 2007
0 views

Production of Calla Lily

Water Track 8 7 15 051
07. 11. 2007
0 views

Water Track 8 7 15 051

PVC Toronto talk
16. 11. 2007
0 views

PVC Toronto talk

2022lecture2
19. 11. 2007
0 views

2022lecture2

Robertson
03. 10. 2007
0 views

Robertson

20050922 Crafoord Symposium
29. 08. 2007
0 views

20050922 Crafoord Symposium

field mmr naga
31. 12. 2007
0 views

field mmr naga

Anthony Kelly International
02. 01. 2008
0 views

Anthony Kelly International

fy2004 mfc construction
04. 01. 2008
0 views

fy2004 mfc construction

NASC PresentHanson
08. 08. 2007
0 views

NASC PresentHanson

Nicosia Raymond Pawson
08. 08. 2007
0 views

Nicosia Raymond Pawson

Methamphetamine final10 05
08. 08. 2007
0 views

Methamphetamine final10 05

ppt43
16. 10. 2007
0 views

ppt43

McCarthy Mitchell
29. 08. 2007
0 views

McCarthy Mitchell

Update FutureDirection LRago
22. 10. 2007
0 views

Update FutureDirection LRago

gef 160306
23. 10. 2007
0 views

gef 160306

IT Trends 2005 2010
14. 11. 2007
0 views

IT Trends 2005 2010

rec pond mgnt compressed
07. 01. 2008
0 views

rec pond mgnt compressed

Sci Case II
29. 08. 2007
0 views

Sci Case II

markenklima index q1 2005
05. 01. 2008
0 views

markenklima index q1 2005

yalenov2006
29. 08. 2007
0 views

yalenov2006

media 4917
08. 08. 2007
0 views

media 4917

gatorsncrocs
12. 10. 2007
0 views

gatorsncrocs

Eradicating Systemic Poverty
29. 11. 2007
0 views

Eradicating Systemic Poverty

Kennedy obesity 0904
08. 08. 2007
0 views

Kennedy obesity 0904

jsimon santacruz
29. 08. 2007
0 views

jsimon santacruz

9 0568 rusack r
20. 11. 2007
0 views

9 0568 rusack r

soc100ch10Corepwrpt
19. 02. 2008
0 views

soc100ch10Corepwrpt

Edward Albee
24. 02. 2008
0 views

Edward Albee

AFCEA NOVA Breakfast7Sept07v1
06. 03. 2008
0 views

AFCEA NOVA Breakfast7Sept07v1

Lakeside2
26. 03. 2008
0 views

Lakeside2

sHansen
29. 08. 2007
0 views

sHansen

Tectonics Terrestrial Planets2
07. 04. 2008
0 views

Tectonics Terrestrial Planets2

Sept SECC
02. 11. 2007
0 views

Sept SECC

Hercules
28. 03. 2008
0 views

Hercules

deprez presentation 12 1 05
30. 03. 2008
0 views

deprez presentation 12 1 05

HARIPARSAD Ishwarie 2
09. 04. 2008
0 views

HARIPARSAD Ishwarie 2

Beaulieu
10. 04. 2008
0 views

Beaulieu

sings2mw
29. 08. 2007
0 views

sings2mw

molgas twong
29. 08. 2007
0 views

molgas twong

newman1
14. 04. 2008
0 views

newman1

session 25 V2
17. 04. 2008
0 views

session 25 V2

Citel
22. 04. 2008
0 views

Citel

icra02
19. 06. 2007
0 views

icra02

ICHEP 04 Barr Higgs
19. 06. 2007
0 views

ICHEP 04 Barr Higgs

IBERs and e Theses
19. 06. 2007
0 views

IBERs and e Theses

HS P2P Liao
19. 06. 2007
0 views

HS P2P Liao

he b
19. 06. 2007
0 views

he b

HB2004
19. 06. 2007
0 views

HB2004

Hartenstein Oerebro03 pt1
19. 06. 2007
0 views

Hartenstein Oerebro03 pt1

Grid InteropSupport
19. 06. 2007
0 views

Grid InteropSupport

Grid Interop
19. 06. 2007
0 views

Grid Interop

grid 06talk
19. 06. 2007
0 views

grid 06talk

wednesday
29. 08. 2007
0 views

wednesday

comer5e ch08 HO
15. 11. 2007
0 views

comer5e ch08 HO

SAG YinG 9 Jan New
03. 01. 2008
0 views

SAG YinG 9 Jan New

02 Cattle2
26. 11. 2007
0 views

02 Cattle2

Grid Shib uk april05
19. 06. 2007
0 views

Grid Shib uk april05

J Acar
14. 03. 2008
0 views

J Acar

20061130 woodling
30. 12. 2007
0 views

20061130 woodling

ch02exoh
07. 01. 2008
0 views

ch02exoh

Choose your way carefully
03. 10. 2007
0 views

Choose your way carefully

4 vista
16. 06. 2007
0 views

4 vista

33233 11162218 S
16. 06. 2007
0 views

33233 11162218 S

23
16. 06. 2007
0 views

23

2007 tips tricks
16. 06. 2007
0 views

2007 tips tricks

19b
16. 06. 2007
0 views

19b

EPL Membership
16. 06. 2007
0 views

EPL Membership

Entire Gra duation Slideshow
16. 06. 2007
0 views

Entire Gra duation Slideshow

elley web graphics
16. 06. 2007
0 views

elley web graphics

A Loose Confederation
14. 12. 2007
0 views

A Loose Confederation

employee 2004
16. 06. 2007
0 views

employee 2004

Obesity 1
08. 08. 2007
0 views

Obesity 1

Active Kill Disk
19. 06. 2007
0 views

Active Kill Disk

teall cost 3 ch16
24. 02. 2008
0 views

teall cost 3 ch16

CFA05
29. 08. 2007
0 views

CFA05

gemini sab
29. 08. 2007
0 views

gemini sab

NINDS Audience Report
08. 08. 2007
0 views

NINDS Audience Report

ENGD POWERPOINT
16. 06. 2007
0 views

ENGD POWERPOINT

I3C BSML July2002
19. 06. 2007
0 views

I3C BSML July2002

igt 3
04. 03. 2008
0 views

igt 3

MassesofGalaxies
29. 08. 2007
0 views

MassesofGalaxies