Published on January 18, 2008
Respirators and Other Forms of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)Module V: Respirators and Other Forms of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Module V Objectives: Objectives OSHA Requirements Medical Evaluation Requirements Types of Hazards Types of Respirators Protection Factors Respirators in Use Objectives continued: Objectives continued Proper Use of Respirators Limitations of Respirators Distribution Fit Testing Cleaning and Inspection Maintenance and Care Proper Storage When are respirators used?: When are respirators used? When there is an excessive exposure to an airborne contaminant What is an excessive exposure?: What is an excessive exposure? Who determines the hazard and how? RESPIRATORY PROTECTION: RESPIRATORY PROTECTION Written Standard Operating Procedures: Written Standard Operating Procedures Written standard operating procedures must be established for: Proper selection, use and care of respirators; Possible emergency and routine uses of respirators must be anticipated and planned for; Safe use in dangerous atmospheres that might be encountered. Respirator Selection: Respirator Selection Respirators must be selected: On the basis of hazards to which the workers are exposed; According to American National Standards Institute guidelines NIOSH Approved By qualified individual Instruction and Training: Instruction and Training Users must be trained in: Proper use of respirators and their limitations; Selection, use, and maintenance of the respirators; Instruction and Training continued: Instruction and Training continued Training will provide the wearer the opportunity to: Handle respirator; Have it fit properly; Test face piece to face seal; Wear in clean air for a long familiarity period; Wear in a test environment; Instruction and Training continued: Instruction and Training continued Respirators will not be worn when conditions prevent a good face seal (i.e., beard, sideburns, or temple pieces on glasses) Maintenance and Care of Respirators: Maintenance and Care of Respirators Respirators must be: Cleaned and disinfected after each use; Stored in a convenient, clean, and sanitary location; Inspected during cleaning; Repairs should be made immediately upon detection of a flaw. Surveillance of Working Conditions: Surveillance of Working Conditions Appropriate surveillance of work area conditions and degree of worker exposure or stress must be maintained. Degree of exposure or stress should be determined through air sampling. Program Evaluation: Program Evaluation There will be regular inspection and evaluation to determine the continued effectiveness of the program. Respiratory protection is no better than the respirator in use, even though it is worn conscientiously. Program Evaluation: Program Evaluation Frequent random inspections will be conducted by qualified individuals to ensure that the respirators are properly: selected Used Cleaned maintained. Types of Respiratory Protection: Types of Respiratory Protection Types of Respiratory Protection: Types of Respiratory Protection Two general types Air Purifying Air Supplied Air Purifying Respirators: Air Purifying Respirators Air Purifying Respirators: Air Purifying Respirators Must be equipped with a NIOSH approved N-100 or HEPA Filter Respiprators classified as either: Negative pressure Positive pressure Negative Pressure Air Purifying Respirators: Negative Pressure Air Purifying Respirators The wearer inhales and creats a negative pressure in the facepiece. The negative pressure draws air through the filter or cartridge that purifys the air. Air travels the path of least resistance. Lead particales may enter the facepiece if: The respirator does not seal properly Has become damaged Negative Pressure Air Purifying Respirators continued: Negative Pressure Air Purifying Respirators continued Two types Half Face Respirator Full Face Respirator Half Face Respirators: Half Face Respirators A facepiece that fits over the nose and under the chin. Sizes from small to extra large Variety of manufactures. Secures by two straps One goes over the crown Around the neck. Full Face Respirator: Full Face Respirator Facepiece that covers the entire face from the top of the forehead to below the chin. Secured by three straps One goes over the crown One pulls the top of th respirator up and tight to the face Other around the neck. Provides effective eye protection Positive Pressure Air Purifying Respirator: Positive Pressure Air Purifying Respirator Air is blown into the facepiece If there is a leak the air blows out the leak Contaminated air can not get in. Provide a higher degree of protection. In a positive pressure respirator, the airflow can enter the facepeice in one of two modes: Power Air Purifying Respirator (PAPR)PAPR: Power Air Purifying Respirator (PAPR) PAPR Air is blown into a tight fitting facepiece Small fan Continous flow of air Battery operatored Filters or cartridges worn on: Belt Facepiece General Limitations Air Purifying Respirators: General Limitations Air Purifying Respirators A PAPR must be provided when an employee chooses to use such a respirator and it will provide adequate protection to the employee. The HEPA filters must be changed whenever a restriction in airflow is noticed When using a PAPR, a “flow tube” should be used to measure the airflow to ensure that the minimum required flow rate is met or exceeded. General Limitations Air Purifying Respirators continued: General Limitations Air Purifying Respirators continued If chemical cartridges are required, they must be: Approved (by NIOSH) for the specific chemical exposure Changed in accordance with the copy schedule or when breakthrough is detected (smelling and odor, irritation, etc.) Only used in environments where the airborne concentration is less than the manufactures stated maximum Air Supplied Respirators: Air Supplied Respirators Air Supplied Respirators: Air Supplied Respirators Two types Supplied Air - Type C SCBA Positive Pressure Respirators Continuous Flow Pressure Demand A regulator maitains a slight postive pressure in the facepiece On inhalation the regulator opens an allows additional air into the facepiece Maintains a potitive pressure High Protection Factors Supplied Air Respirator (SAR): Supplied Air Respirator (SAR) Air is blown into a tight fitting facepiece Supplies minimum of Grade D air Compressed air cylinders Air compressor Combination SAR may have an egress cylinder a small cylinder of compressed air usually worn on the workers belt. Used when primary air source fails SCBA: SCBA Air is blown into a tight fitting facepiece Supplies minimum of Grade D air Compressed air cylinders General Limitations Air Supplying Respirators: General Limitations Air Supplying Respirators If an oil-lubricated compressor is used to supply air to an airline respirator or fill an SCBA Appropriate filters Carbon monoxide alarm Compressed air is typically hot. Most air supplied systems use non-contact cooling water to reduce the temperature. SCBA require additional air cylinders Protection Factors : Protection Factors Maximum Use Concentrations Protection Factors: Protection Factors A measure of the protection provided by a respirator to the wearer All respirators Leak The protection factor is the ratio between the concentration inside (Ci) the facepiece of the respirator to the concentration outside (Co). Protection Factors continued: Protection Factors continued The PF is based on the assumption that the respirator is working properly, is worn correctly, and fits the wearer. The higher the PF, the higher the degree of protection and the less leakage. Protection Factors: Protection Factors Half face; 10x Full face; 50x PAPR: 50X Supplied air: Loose fitting hood 25X Continuous flow Full facepiece 2000x Pressure demand mode SCBA : 2000x (pressure demand mode) Protection Factors continued: Protection Factors continued Applying a respirators protection factor will predict an actual exposure level Example: Half mask respirator (PF 10) should reduce a worker's exposure by at least 10 times, or to a concentration 1/10 of the outside concentration. If the lead concentration outside the respirator is 200 µg/M3, the concentration inside the respirator should be less than 20 µg/m3 Protection Factors continued: Protection Factors continued IF the actual exposure level is calculated to be below the OSHA PEL of 50 ug/M3, the respirator should provide adequate protection for lead exposures. Maximum Use Concentration (MUC): Maximum Use Concentration (MUC) Highest concentration of a contaminant (i.e., lead) where the respirator may no longer provide adequate protection. Respirators can not be worn over the MUC. The MUC is calculated by multiplying PF by the PEL. OSHA Maximum Use Level: OSHA Maximum Use Level MUL = Protection Factor X PEL Example 1: Assume: N 100 ½ Mask Respirator for lead MUL = 10 X 50 ug/M3 MUL = 500 ug Lead / M3 Respirator Selection: Respirator Selection Respirator Selection: Respirator Selection Selection depends upon four variables The amount of lead and other contaminants in the air The form that the lead takes The oxygen content of the air at thejobsite The performance limitations of the equipment Other Contaminates: Other Contaminates Contaminants other than lead in the air may not allow the use air-purifying respirators. An air-purifying respirator cannot be worn: At concentrations immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) Oxygen content of the air is less than 19.5%, the air is considered oxygen deficient Two types of respirators can be worn: Combination supplied air respirator, in the pressure demand mode SCBA, in the pressure demand mode Fit Testing: Fit Testing Fit Testing: Fit Testing Assures that the respirator facepiece fits properly on the face Poorly fitting respirators can result in overexposure to lead and potential adverse health effects. There are two types of fit tests: Qualitative Quantitative Qualitative Fit Test: Qualitative Fit Test Chemical challenge I.e., irritant smoke, saccharin mist, Bitrex, or banana oil Wearer is asked to move and speak during the test to simulate the fit during actual working conditions. If the wearer detects the substance by irritation, smell, or taste, the mask doesn't fit. Qualitative Fit Test: Qualitative Fit Test Actually measures leakage into the mask The wear stands in a small chamber, performs minor exercises and speaks. A know concentration of a non-hazardous test aerosol is generated in the test chamber. Qualitative Fit Test: Qualitative Fit Test Concentration measured in the chamber inside the respirator If the leakage is excessive, the respirator doesn't fit. Wear Daily Check: Wear Daily Check All respirator wearers should inspect the respirator and check the face seal each time it is put on Negative pressure Positive pressure Negative Pressure Check: Negative Pressure Check Lightly place palms over cartridges or filter holders Gently inhale Facepiece should collapse against the face Air should not get in Positive Pressure Check: Positive Pressure Check Lightly place palm over exhalation valve cover Gently exhale Slight positive pressure should build up inside respirator Respirator Maintenance, Storage and Inspection : Respirator Maintenance, Storage and Inspection Components of the respirator must be regularly inspected for defects, leaks, etc. Properly cleaned and disinfected If a supplied-air system is used, the compressors and air filtration equipment should be maintained in accordance to the manufacturer's recommendations. Respirator Maintenance, Storage and Inspection : Respirator Maintenance, Storage and Inspection All repairs should be done by individuals qualified indiduals. All equipment should be properly stored to prevent damage or abnormal wear Inspection Procedures: Inspection Procedures Inspection / Headbands Check elasticity, Inspect for breaks, tears, etc. All clips, fasteners, adjuster in place and work Inspection Procedures continued: Inspection Procedures continued Inspection / Facepiece Check for dirt, cracks, tears or holes Inspect shape for distortion Make sure rubber is flexible not stiff Inspection Procedures continued: Inspection Procedures continued Inhalation Valves Exhalation Valve Check the valve assemblies Inspection Procedures continued: Inspection Procedures continued Check for: cracks, tears, distortion, dirt or build-up of material between valve and valve seat Inspection Procedures continued: Inspection Procedures continued Inspection Cartridge holders Make sure gaskets are in place Check for cracks and damage to threads Cartridges and/or filters Make sure cartridges and filters are clean Inspect cartridges for dents, scratches or other damage Cleaning and Sanitizing: Cleaning and Sanitizing Respirators should be cleaned after each use Warm water soap Alcohol wipes Medical Surveillance: Medical Surveillance Medical Surveillance: Medical Surveillance Persons will not be assigned to tasks requiring the use of respirators unless it has been medically determined they are physically able to perform the work and use the equipment. A written opinion from a physician must be obtained and kept in the worker’s medical file. Medical Surveillance (continued): Medical Surveillance (continued) The minimum of a physical examination should include: Pulmonary function test; Initial chest x-ray; Detailed work / health history Medical conditions that prohibit the use of respirators include: Medical Surveillance (continued): Medical Surveillance (continued) Emphysema Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Evidence of pneumoconiosis Evidence of reduced pulmonary function Coronary artery disease or cerebral blood vessel disease Severe or progressive hypertension Epilepsy Anemia (pernicious) Medical Surveillance (continued): Medical Surveillance (continued) Diabetes Punctured ear drum Pneumomediastinum gap Communication of sinus through upper jaw to oral cavity Breathing difficulty when wearing a respirator Claustrophobia or anxiety, when wearing a respirator Medical Surveillance (continued): Conditions which prevent a good respirator to face seal will not be permitted Growth of a beard Sideburns Absence of one or more dentures. Respirators users’ medical status shoud be reviewed annually. Medical Surveillance (continued) OSHA Assistance Respirator Selection: OSHA Assistance Respirator Selection The Advisor Genius can help! Available on the OSHA web site: www.OSHA.gov Other forms of PPE: Other forms of PPE Other forms of PPE: Other forms of PPE Protective work clothing and equipment must be provided if employees are exposed to airborne lead levels above the PEL and/or cause skin or eye irritation Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing Gloves, hats, and shoes or disposable shoe coverlets Face shields or vented goggles Other appropriate protective equipment Protective Clothing: Protective Clothing If airborne lead levels exceed 200 ug/m3 then the equipment must be provided in clean condition daily. Contaminated clothing and equipment must be removed only in change areas Stored in properly labeled containers Cleaned or disposed appropriately. Heat Stress: Heat Stress Heat Stress: Heat Stress Hot work environments, containment structures and personal protective equipment can greatly increase the risk of heat stress. Common heat-related diseases Dehydration Heat stroke Dehydration: Dehydration Occurs when the body loses water and essential body salts such as sodium, potassium, calcium bicarbonate and phosphate. The symptoms of dehydration may include: Symptoms of Dehydration: Symptoms of Dehydration Prevent Dehydration: Prevent Dehydration Drink plenty of fluids Take in more fluid than you are losing. Schedule physical outdoor activities for the cooler parts of the day Drink appropriate sports drinks Avoid tea, coffee, soda and alcohol Heat Stroke: Heat Stroke A person’s internal temperature may rise to dangerously high levels The most severe form of heat illness Life-threatening emergency Develops rapidly and requires medical treatment Symptoms of Heat Stroke : Symptoms of Heat Stroke Those of dehydration Disorientation, agitation or confusion High body temperature Seizure Loss of consciousness Hot, dry skin that is flushed but not sweaty Hallucinations GET HELP: GET HELP Until help arrives Get person into the shade Have the person lie down with their feet slightly elevated Remove clothing and gently apply cool water to the skin followed by fanning Apply ice packs to the groin and armpits Conclusions: Conclusions The use of PPE is always the last line of defense after the implementation of engineering and work practice controls. Respiratory protection will be the most significant in reducing lead exposures. OSHA requires that an employer develop a written respiratory protection program Conclusions: Conclusions With some types of PPE, the employer may need to monitor workers to guard against heat stress. The employer must comply with other existing OSHA standards for construction to completely insure a safe workplace for employees.