Molecular Nanotechnology

Information about Molecular Nanotechnology

Published on November 24, 2009

Author: ankush85

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Molecular Nanotechnology : Zyvex 1 Molecular Nanotechnology National Nanotechnology Initiative : Zyvex 2 National Nanotechnology Initiative Interagency (AFOSR, ARO, BMDO, DARPA, DOC, DOE, NASA, NIH, NIST, NSF, ONR, and NRL) Congressional hearings Objective: double funding through existing channels Academic and Industry : Zyvex 3 Academic and Industry Caltech’s MSC (1999 Feynman Prize), Rice CNST (Smalley), USC Lab for Molecular Robotics, etc Private nonprofit (Foresight, IMM) Private for profit (IBM, Zyvex, Covalent) And many more…. Slide 4: Zyvex 4 There is a growing sense in the scientific and technical community that we are about to enter a golden new era. Richard Smalley 1996 Nobel Prize, Chemistry http://www.house.gov/ science/smalley_062299.htm The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not anattempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are toobig. Richard Feynman, 1959 : Zyvex 5 The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not anattempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are toobig. Richard Feynman, 1959 http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.html The book that laid out the technical argument for molecular nanotechnology:Nanosystemsby K. Eric Drexler, Wiley 1992 : Zyvex 6 The book that laid out the technical argument for molecular nanotechnology:Nanosystemsby K. Eric Drexler, Wiley 1992 Three historical trendsin manufacturing : Zyvex 7 Three historical trendsin manufacturing More flexible More precise Less expensive The limit of these trends: nanotechnology : Zyvex 8 The limit of these trends: nanotechnology Fabricate most structures consistent with physical law Get essentially every atom in the right place Inexpensive (~10-50 cents/kilogram) http://www.zyvex.com/nano Slide 9: Zyvex 9 Coal Sand Dirt, water and air Diamonds Computer chips Grass It matters how atoms are arranged Today’s manufacturing methods move atoms in statistical herds : Zyvex 10 Today’s manufacturing methods move atoms in statistical herds Casting Grinding Welding Sintering Lithography Slide 11: Zyvex 11 Possible arrangements of atoms . What we can make today (not to scale) Slide 12: Zyvex 12 The goal: a healthy bite. . Slide 13: Zyvex 13 Core molecular manufacturing capabilities Today Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Overview of the development of molecular nanotechnology Terminological caution : Zyvex 14 Terminological caution “Nanotechnology” has been applied to almost any research where some dimension is less than a micron (1,000 nanometers) in size. Example: sub-micron optical lithography Two morefundamental ideas : Zyvex 15 Two morefundamental ideas Self replication (for low cost) Positional assembly (so molecular parts go where we want them to go) Slide 16: Zyvex 16 Von Neumann architecture for a self replicating system Universal Computer Universal Constructor http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/vonNeumann.html Slide 17: Zyvex 17 Drexler’s architecture for an assembler Molecular computer Molecular constructor Positional device Tip chemistry Illustration of an assembler : Zyvex 18 Illustration of an assembler http://www.foresight.org/UTF/Unbound_LBW/chapt_6.html Slide 19: Zyvex 19 The theoretical concept of machine duplication is well developed. There are several alternative strategies by which machine self-replication can be carried out in a practical engineering setting. Advanced Automation for Space Missions Proceedings of the 1980 NASA/ASEE Summer Study http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/selfRepNASA.html A C program that prints out an exact copy of itself : Zyvex 20 A C program that prints out an exact copy of itself main(){char q=34, n=10,*a="main() {char q=34,n=10,*a=%c%s%c; printf(a,q,a,q,n);}%c";printf(a,q,a,q,n);} For more information, see the Recursion Theorem: http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/selfRep.html English translation: : Zyvex 21 English translation: Print the following statement twice, the second time in quotes: “Print the following statement twice, the second time in quotes:” Slide 22: Zyvex 22 C program 800 Von Neumann's universal constructor 500,000 Internet worm (Robert Morris, Jr., 1988) 500,000 Mycoplasma capricolum 1,600,000 E. Coli 9,278,442 Drexler's assembler 100,000,000 Human 6,400,000,000 NASA Lunar Manufacturing Facility over 100,000,000,000 http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/selfRep.html Complexity of self replicating systems (bits) How cheap? : Zyvex 23 How cheap? Potatoes, lumber, wheat and other agricultural products are examples of products made using a self replicating manufacturing base. Costs of roughly a dollar per pound are common. Molecular manufacturing will make almost any product for a dollar per pound or less, independent of complexity. (Design costs, licensing costs, etc. not included) How long? : Zyvex 24 How long? The scientifically correct answer is I don’t know Trends in computer hardware suggest early in the next century — perhaps in the 2010 to 2020 time frame Of course, how long it takes depends on what we do Developmental pathways : Zyvex 25 Developmental pathways Scanning probe microscopy Self assembly Ever smaller systems Hybrid approaches Slide 26: Zyvex 26 Moving molecules with an SPM (Gimzewski et al.) http://www.zurich.ibm.com/News/Molecule/ Self assembled DNA octahedron(Seeman) : Zyvex 27 Self assembled DNA octahedron(Seeman) http://seemanlab4.chem.nyu.edu/nano-oct.html DNA on an SPM tip(Lee et al.) : Zyvex 28 DNA on an SPM tip(Lee et al.) http://stm2.nrl.navy.mil/1994scie/1994scie.html Buckytubes(Tough, well defined) : Zyvex 29 Buckytubes(Tough, well defined) Buckytube glued to SPM tip(Dai et al.) : Zyvex 30 Buckytube glued to SPM tip(Dai et al.) http://cnst.rice.edu/TIPS_rev.htm Building the tools to build the tools : Zyvex 31 Building the tools to build the tools Directly manufacturing a diamondoid assembler using existing techniques appears very difficult . We’ll have to build intermediate systems able to build better systems able to build diamondoid assemblers. Slide 32: Zyvex 32 If we can make whatever we want what do we want to make? Diamond Physical Properties : Zyvex 33 Diamond Physical Properties Property Diamond’s value Comments Chemical reactivity Extremely low Hardness (kg/mm2) 9000 CBN: 4500 SiC: 4000 Thermal conductivity (W/cm-K) 20 Ag: 4.3 Cu: 4.0 Tensile strength (pascals) 3.5 x 109 (natural) 1011 (theoretical) Compressive strength (pascals) 1011 (natural) 5 x 1011 (theoretical) Band gap (ev) 5.5 Si: 1.1 GaAs: 1.4 Resistivity (W-cm) 1016 (natural) Density (gm/cm3) 3.51 Thermal Expansion Coeff (K-1) 0.8 x 10-6 SiO2: 0.5 x 10-6 Refractive index 2.41 @ 590 nm Glass: 1.4 - 1.8 Coeff. of Friction 0.05 (dry) Teflon: 0.05 Source: Crystallume Strength of diamond : Zyvex 34 Strength of diamond Diamond has a strength-to-weight ratio over 50 times that of steel or aluminium alloy Structural (load bearing) mass can be reduced by about this factor When combined with reduced cost, this will have a major impact on aerospace applications A hydrocarbon bearing : Zyvex 35 A hydrocarbon bearing http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/bearingProof.html Neon pump : Zyvex 36 Neon pump A planetary gear : Zyvex 37 A planetary gear http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/gearAndCasing.html A proposal for a molecular positional device : Zyvex 38 A proposal for a molecular positional device Classical uncertainty : Zyvex 39 Classical uncertainty σ: mean positional error k: restoring force kb: Boltzmann’s constant T: temperature A numerical example of classical uncertainty : Zyvex 40 A numerical example of classical uncertainty σ: 0.02 nm (0.2 Å) k: 10 N/m kb: 1.38 x 10-23 J/K T: 300 K Molecular tools : Zyvex 41 Molecular tools Today, we make things at the molecular scale by stirring together molecular parts and cleverly arranging things so they spontaneously go somewhere useful. In the future, we’ll have molecular “hands” that will let us put molecular parts exactly where we want them, vastly increasing the range of molecular structures that we can build. Synthesis of diamond today:diamond CVD : Zyvex 42 Synthesis of diamond today:diamond CVD Carbon: methane (ethane, acetylene...) Hydrogen: H2 Add energy, producing CH3, H, etc. Growth of a diamond film. The right chemistry, but little control over the site of reactions or exactly what is synthesized. Slide 43: Zyvex 43 A hydrogen abstraction tool http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/Habs/Habs.html Some other molecular tools : Zyvex 44 Some other molecular tools A synthetic strategy for the synthesis of diamondoid structures : Zyvex 45 A synthetic strategy for the synthesis of diamondoid structures Positional assembly (6 degrees of freedom) Highly reactive compounds (radicals, carbenes, etc) Inert environment (vacuum, noble gas) to eliminate side reactions The impact of nanotechnologydepends on what’s being made : Zyvex 46 The impact of nanotechnologydepends on what’s being made Computers, memory, displays Space Exploration Medicine Military Environment, Energy, etc. Powerful computers : Zyvex 47 Powerful computers In the future we’ll pack more computing power into a sugar cube than the sum total of all the computer power that exists in the world today We’ll be able to store more than 1021 bits in the same volume Or more than a billion Pentiums operating in parallel Powerful enough to run Windows 2015 Slide 48: Zyvex 48 Memory probe Displays : Zyvex 49 Displays Molecular machines smaller than a wavelength of light will let us build holographic displays that reconstruct the entire wave front of a light wave It will be like looking through a window into another world Covering walls, ceilings and floor would immerse us in another reality Space : Zyvex 50 Space Launch vehicle structural mass will be reduced by about a factor of 50 Cost per pound for that structural mass will be under a dollar Which will reduce the cost to low earth orbit by a factor 1,000 or more http://science.nas.nasa.gov/Groups/ Nanotechnology/publications/1997/applications/ It costs less to launch less : Zyvex 51 It costs less to launch less Light weight computers and sensors will reduce total payload mass for the same functionality Recycling of waste will reduce payload mass, particularly for long flights and permanent facilities (space stations, colonies) Swallowing the surgeon : Zyvex 52 Swallowing the surgeon ...it would be interesting in surgery if you could swallow the surgeon. You put the mechanical surgeon inside the blood vessel and it goes into the heart and “looks” around. ... Other small machines might be permanently incorporated in the body to assist some inadequately-functioning organ. Richard P. Feynman, 1959 Nobel Prize for Physics, 1965 Nanomedicine Volume I : Zyvex 53 Nanomedicine Volume I By Robert Freitas Surveys medical applications of nanotechnology Extensive technical analysis Volume I (of three) published in 1999 http://www.foresight.org/Nanomedicine Slide 54: Zyvex 54 Mitochondrion 20 nm scale bar Ribosome Molecular computer (4-bit) + peripherals Molecular bearing Slide 55: Zyvex 55 “Typical” cell Mitochondrion Molecular computer + peripherals Slide 56: Zyvex 56 Disease and illness are caused largely by damage at the molecular and cellular level Today’s surgical tools are huge and imprecise in comparison http://www.foresight.org/Nanomedicine Slide 57: Zyvex 57 In the future, we will have fleets of surgical tools that are molecular both in size and precision. We will also have computers that are much smaller than a single cell with which to guide these tools. Medical applications : Zyvex 58 Medical applications Killing cancer cells, bacteria Removing blockages Providing oxygen (artificial red blood cell) Adjusting other metabolites A revolution in medicine : Zyvex 59 A revolution in medicine Today, loss of cell function results in cellular deterioration: function must be preserved With medical nanodevices, passive structures can be repaired. Cell function can be restored provided cell structure can be inferred: structure must be preserved Slide 60: Zyvex 60 Cryonics 37º C 37º C -196º C (77 Kelvins) Freeze Restore to health Time Temperature (many decades) Clinical trialsto evaluate cryonics : Zyvex 61 Clinical trialsto evaluate cryonics Select N subjects Freeze them Wait 100 years See if the medical technology of 2100 can indeed revive them But what do we tell those who don’t expect to live long enough to see the results? Would you rather join: : Zyvex 62 Would you rather join: The control group? (no action required) or The experimental group? (see www.alcor.org for info) Slide 63: Zyvex 63 Military applications of molecular manufacturing have even greater potential than nuclear weapons to radically change the balance of power. Admiral David E. Jeremiah, USN (Ret) Former Vice Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff November 9, 1995 http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/nano4/jeremiahPaper.html Human impact on the environment depends on : Zyvex 64 Human impact on the environment depends on Population Living standards Technology Restoring the environment with nanotechnology : Zyvex 65 Restoring the environment with nanotechnology Low cost greenhouse agriculture Low cost solar power Pollution free manufacturing The ultimate in recycling Solar power and nanotechnology : Zyvex 66 Solar power and nanotechnology The sunshine reaching the earth has almost 40,000 times more power than total world usage. Nanotechnology will produce efficient, rugged solar cells and batteries at low cost. Power costs will drop dramatically Environmentally friendly manufacturing : Zyvex 67 Environmentally friendly manufacturing Today’s manufacturing plants pollute because they use imprecise methods. Nanotechnology is precise — it will produce only what it has been designed to produce. An abundant source of carbon is the excess CO2 in the air Slide 68: Zyvex 68 Nanotechnology offers ... possibilities for health, wealth, and capabilities beyond most past imaginings. K. Eric Drexler Slide 69: Zyvex 69

Related presentations


Other presentations created by ankush85

Nanotechnology
03. 04. 2009
0 views

Nanotechnology

Human Resource Management System
06. 03. 2009
0 views

Human Resource Management System

Nanotechnology
27. 03. 2009
0 views

Nanotechnology

INTRODUCTION TO NANOTECHNOLOGY
20. 11. 2009
0 views

INTRODUCTION TO NANOTECHNOLOGY

Nanotechnology in Sports
22. 11. 2009
0 views

Nanotechnology in Sports

Computer Architecture
14. 07. 2009
0 views

Computer Architecture

HR
18. 03. 2009
0 views

HR

Hospital Management System
08. 04. 2009
0 views

Hospital Management System

Welcome to Visual Basic
06. 03. 2009
0 views

Welcome to Visual Basic

HTML
20. 04. 2009
0 views

HTML

Computer Languages
03. 06. 2013
0 views

Computer Languages

Taking Care of Computer
03. 06. 2013
0 views

Taking Care of Computer

Understanding Camera
16. 10. 2012
0 views

Understanding Camera

Photography Technical Terms
25. 09. 2012
0 views

Photography Technical Terms

Basics of Photography
25. 09. 2012
0 views

Basics of Photography

AIR MUSCLES
03. 01. 2012
0 views

AIR MUSCLES

Nanotech Innovation
22. 11. 2009
0 views

Nanotech Innovation

FINANCIAL  MARKET
16. 05. 2009
0 views

FINANCIAL MARKET

Operating System
19. 04. 2009
0 views

Operating System

Management Control
10. 07. 2009
0 views

Management Control

Accounting Principles
01. 07. 2009
0 views

Accounting Principles

Balance Sheet
21. 07. 2009
0 views

Balance Sheet

Balance Sheet Auditing
01. 07. 2009
0 views

Balance Sheet Auditing

BRANCH AND BOUND
05. 03. 2009
0 views

BRANCH AND BOUND

THE  THREE  BRANCHES  OF GOVERNMENT
13. 06. 2009
0 views

THE THREE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT

Structure of Atom
11. 05. 2009
0 views

Structure of Atom

Compression Techniques
05. 03. 2009
0 views

Compression Techniques

DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING
06. 03. 2009
0 views

DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING

Quantum Mechanics
25. 08. 2009
0 views

Quantum Mechanics

Marketing Plan
19. 06. 2009
0 views

Marketing Plan

Book Keeping
24. 06. 2009
0 views

Book Keeping

DFDS
02. 10. 2008
0 views

DFDS

Semiconductors
25. 04. 2009
0 views

Semiconductors

Organic  Chemistry
28. 04. 2009
0 views

Organic Chemistry

Atoms Molecules and Ions
17. 06. 2009
0 views

Atoms Molecules and Ions

Covalent Bond
25. 04. 2009
0 views

Covalent Bond

Cost Accounting Standards
25. 06. 2009
0 views

Cost Accounting Standards

Crisis Management
19. 06. 2009
0 views

Crisis Management

Marketing
18. 03. 2009
0 views

Marketing

Business Strategy
27. 04. 2009
0 views

Business Strategy

Time Management
23. 03. 2009
0 views

Time Management

Networking Protocols
23. 05. 2009
0 views

Networking Protocols

Network Layer
23. 05. 2009
0 views

Network Layer

Final Accounts
24. 06. 2009
0 views

Final Accounts

ARTIFICIAL  INTELLIGENCE
03. 04. 2009
0 views

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Play with C
08. 04. 2009
0 views

Play with C

Software Development Cycle
23. 03. 2009
0 views

Software Development Cycle

THE GREEDY METHOD
06. 03. 2009
0 views

THE GREEDY METHOD

JOB SEQUENCING
06. 03. 2009
0 views

JOB SEQUENCING

Electricity and Magnetism
29. 04. 2009
0 views

Electricity and Magnetism

Optical Fiber
24. 05. 2009
0 views

Optical Fiber

Quality Assurance
06. 03. 2009
0 views

Quality Assurance

Object-oriented Design
11. 04. 2009
0 views

Object-oriented Design

A.R. Rahman
08. 03. 2009
0 views

A.R. Rahman

Hollywood Female Celebrities
13. 03. 2009
0 views

Hollywood Female Celebrities

Flow nets
04. 09. 2009
0 views

Flow nets

Energy and Nanotechnology
22. 11. 2009
0 views

Energy and Nanotechnology

LOGIC  DESIGN
06. 03. 2009
0 views

LOGIC DESIGN

VB-IDE
06. 03. 2009
0 views

VB-IDE

DLF IPL FINAL
25. 05. 2009
0 views

DLF IPL FINAL

MINIMUM SPANNING TREES
06. 03. 2009
0 views

MINIMUM SPANNING TREES

CPU Scheduling
05. 03. 2009
0 views

CPU Scheduling

Virtual Memory
05. 03. 2009
0 views

Virtual Memory

POK
09. 05. 2009
0 views

POK

2D Transformations
05. 03. 2009
0 views

2D Transformations

Greedy Algorithms
05. 03. 2009
0 views

Greedy Algorithms

BACKTRACKING
05. 03. 2009
0 views

BACKTRACKING

DIVIDE And CONQUER
06. 03. 2009
0 views

DIVIDE And CONQUER

ELEMENTARY DATA STRUCTURES
06. 03. 2009
0 views

ELEMENTARY DATA STRUCTURES

JPEG Compression
06. 03. 2009
0 views

JPEG Compression

Mpeg-compression
06. 03. 2009
0 views

Mpeg-compression

NP - HARD
06. 03. 2009
0 views

NP - HARD

TRAVELLING SALESPERSON PROBLEM
06. 03. 2009
0 views

TRAVELLING SALESPERSON PROBLEM

VBA Introduction
06. 03. 2009
0 views

VBA Introduction

Introduction to Java
09. 03. 2009
0 views

Introduction to Java

Java  Basics
09. 03. 2009
0 views

Java Basics

Heuristic Search
13. 03. 2009
0 views

Heuristic Search

HSM
19. 03. 2009
0 views

HSM

Tata's  Nano  Car
25. 03. 2009
0 views

Tata's Nano Car

Air Cranes
08. 04. 2009
0 views

Air Cranes

Newborn Care
10. 04. 2009
0 views

Newborn Care

Photosynthesis Process
10. 04. 2009
0 views

Photosynthesis Process

ActionScript
13. 04. 2009
0 views

ActionScript

Xml
15. 04. 2009
0 views

Xml

Snakes mis use
17. 04. 2009
0 views

Snakes mis use

Php Web Development
21. 04. 2009
0 views

Php Web Development

Cricket Intro
21. 04. 2009
0 views

Cricket Intro

Cricket Umpiring and Rules
21. 04. 2009
0 views

Cricket Umpiring and Rules

Arm and Forearm
23. 04. 2009
0 views

Arm and Forearm

Elements Ions Isotopes
25. 04. 2009
0 views

Elements Ions Isotopes

Chemical Bond
25. 04. 2009
0 views

Chemical Bond

Discovering Newtons Laws
29. 04. 2009
0 views

Discovering Newtons Laws

FreeFall
29. 04. 2009
0 views

FreeFall

Digital photography
26. 04. 2009
0 views

Digital photography

Health Effects of Alcohol
26. 04. 2009
0 views

Health Effects of Alcohol

Poetry Terminology
27. 04. 2009
0 views

Poetry Terminology

Indian Force
05. 05. 2009
0 views

Indian Force

Machine Intelligence
14. 05. 2009
0 views

Machine Intelligence

Data Link Layer
16. 05. 2009
0 views

Data Link Layer

Database Development Cycle
15. 05. 2009
0 views

Database Development Cycle

Queue
15. 05. 2009
0 views

Queue

Presentaion Skills
23. 04. 2009
0 views

Presentaion Skills

Network Layers
23. 05. 2009
0 views

Network Layers

Narmada Dam, India
23. 05. 2009
0 views

Narmada Dam, India

User Datagram Protocol
24. 05. 2009
0 views

User Datagram Protocol

Linear Momentum
28. 05. 2009
0 views

Linear Momentum

Stack and Queue
04. 06. 2009
0 views

Stack and Queue

Information Management
19. 06. 2009
0 views

Information Management

Role of Senior Management
19. 06. 2009
0 views

Role of Senior Management

Wake Up India
07. 06. 2009
0 views

Wake Up India

Adobe Flex 3.0
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Adobe Flex 3.0

Adobe Flex Presentation
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Adobe Flex Presentation

Introduction to Adobe Flex
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Introduction to Adobe Flex

Adobe Flash Media Server
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Adobe Flash Media Server

Dreamweaver
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Dreamweaver

Adobe Flash
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Adobe Flash

Flash CS4 Professional
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Flash CS4 Professional

Adobe Flash Lite
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Adobe Flash Lite

Digital Camera
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Digital Camera

Mozilla_Firefox
15. 06. 2009
0 views

Mozilla_Firefox

Managerial Accounting
27. 06. 2009
0 views

Managerial Accounting

Accounting  Information  System
01. 07. 2009
0 views

Accounting Information System

RETAILING AND MARKETING
06. 07. 2009
0 views

RETAILING AND MARKETING

ACCOUNTING IN BUSINESS
05. 07. 2009
0 views

ACCOUNTING IN BUSINESS

STRATEGIC RETAIL MANAGEMENT
05. 07. 2009
0 views

STRATEGIC RETAIL MANAGEMENT

Reiki
01. 08. 2009
0 views

Reiki

Using Buttons in PowerPoint
26. 04. 2009
0 views

Using Buttons in PowerPoint

Nanotechnology  for  Students
21. 08. 2009
0 views

Nanotechnology for Students

NANOSCIENCE
25. 08. 2009
0 views

NANOSCIENCE

Fundamentals of Nanoscience
27. 08. 2009
0 views

Fundamentals of Nanoscience

Nanoscience in Nature
27. 08. 2009
0 views

Nanoscience in Nature

Applied Mechanics
04. 09. 2009
0 views

Applied Mechanics

Accounts Payable Training
27. 06. 2009
0 views

Accounts Payable Training