Published on October 9, 2007
MPAS2001 UNDERSTANDING EAST ASIA II: Imperialism and “Civilization”: MPAS2001 UNDERSTANDING EAST ASIA II: Imperialism and “Civilization” Imperialism and “Civilization”: Imperialism and “Civilization” Constructs on East Asian Society: Imperialism and “Civilization” (1840 – 1945) ”Occidentalism” vs. ”Orientalism” or Civilization vs. Barbarism On this lecture: The outline of modern imperialism in East Asia Legitimating Discourse: Orientalism and Civilization East Asian uses of civilization Modern Imperialism in East Asia: Modern Imperialism in East Asia Three phases: Western intrusion and opening up East Asian countries (1840-1894) Mixed Western and Japanese imperialism 1895-1904 Expansive Japanese imperialism 1905-1945 Modern Imperialism in East Asia: Modern Imperialism in East Asia The 1st Phase: The British empire as the vanguard Opening of Qing empire The Opium Wars 1839-1842, 1858 – 1860 Unequal treaties: Treaty of Nanjing 1842 and the Treaty of Tianjin 1858 (1860) Extraterritoriality rights Opening trade Foreign concessions as the off-shot of development Slide5: Picture 4) The Treaty of Nanjing (in the HK City Museum) Modern Imperialism in East Asia: Modern Imperialism in East Asia Opening of Japan The US Perry mission in 1853 The Treaty of Peace and Amity 1854, The Harris Treaty 1858 Unequal treaty system Led to Meiji Restoration 1868 Japan learned fast how to emulate the West is international practice and military technology Modern Imperialism in East Asia: Modern Imperialism in East Asia Opening of Korea Like Japan, Korea has closed its borders to the rest of the world (except China) during the 19th century Resistance to gun boat diplomacy lasted longer that in China or Japan Qing China forced Korea to open up and assume unequal treaties in 1876 Attempt to balance power vis-a-vis Japan, failed Modern Imperialism in East Asia: Modern Imperialism in East Asia 2nd phase: mixed Western and Japanese imperialism 1895-1904 Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895 Japanese de facto annexation of Korea The question of the partition of China: the scramble for further concessions Slide9: Picture 1) A contemporary cartoon on the partition of China Slide10: Map 1) Foreign concession areas in Eastern China around 1900 (source: Suuri Maailmanhistoria 12, 193) Modern Imperialism in East Asia: Modern Imperialism in East Asia 3rd phase: Expansive Japanese imperialism 1905-1945 During this time the Western powers had reached the limit of their expansion and were on defence Now Japan had became the active imperialist actor in East Asia Modern Imperialism in East Asia: Modern Imperialism in East Asia Defeat of Imperial Russia 1904-1905 Annexation of Korea 1910 Encroachment of Republican China (Manchuria 1931, further expansion) War with China 1937 – 1945 WW II in the Pasific and Eastern Asia 1941 – 1945 The defeat of Japan ended the period of actively expansive territorial colonialism in East Asia -> the Cold War had new rules (lecture 3) Slide13: Map 2) Japanese Imperialism in East Asia 1872-1918 (Source: Suuri Maailmanhistoria 12) Orientalism and Civilization: Orientalism and Civilization “The Orient” first constructed in the works of Western geographers, historians, and linguists in the 18th century as a area distinct from Europe The Orient included all countries East of the Balkans Before this, Enlightenment thinkers (such as Voltaire, Leibniz, Adam Smith and Benjamin Franklin) mostly favourable for the Orient, especially China Orientalism and Civilization: Orientalism and Civilization In late 18th – early 19th century the European representations of the region began to change Europe changed due to industrial and national revolutions Imperialist rivalry intensified Now Asia / Orient became important as the “other” of the ”progressive” and more advanced ”West” Orientalism and Civilization: Orientalism and Civilization The notion that East Asia had a stagnant history became popular in early 19th century onwards: J.G. von Herder (1744-1803): China as a ”mummy wrapped in silk” Leopold von Ranke (1795-1886): ”das Volk des ewigen Stillstands” G.W.F Hegel (1770-1831): Chinese (and thus East Asian) history lacked change James Legge (1815-1897): Confucianism against progress Orientalism and Civilization: Orientalism and Civilization The Journal of Peking Oriental Society (1866): ”Chinese history is unlikely to ever became part of the larger history of humanity.” The newly acquired qualities of the Western societies were seen progressive: Nation states Rationality in administration, sciences and commerce Industrial production relations Democratic / constitutional institutions Hygiene, clothing, manners, etc. Orientalism and Civilization: Orientalism and Civilization The West was thus regarded as the dynamic, developing, forward-looking and thus rightly conquering part of the world The Orient was now perceived as remaining stuck to its traditional ways, that were the ”past” of Europe Orientalism and Civilization: Orientalism and Civilization “Oriental Despotism” backward Irrational administration, little sciences, superstitions Low hygiene, bad manners Inferior languages and races Unchanging societies Stagnant histories on over phases of historical development Orientalism and Civilization: Orientalism and Civilization The view that history progressed in stages developed during this time (Hegel, Adam Smith, Marx) History and societies progressing in stages from primitive to modern Made the West most advanced part of the world The Orient needed the West to develop and progress European modernity was also the future of the Oriental nations Spreading ”Civilization” served as the justification of colonialism and imperialism Orientalism and Civilization: Orientalism and Civilization Prasenjit Duara: Nation state and Civilization as the two great constructs introduced and manipulated by the West in the 19th century Civilization can also be seen as a counter-principle to nationalism: a higher source of unity and moral authority “A way of identifying and ordering values in the world.” However, a nation can hijack Civilization Orientalism and Civilization: Orientalism and Civilization The notion of Civilization had its pre-modern counterparts in East Asia (lecture 1: Chinese wenmin, Japanese ka) With imperialism Western definition of what Civilization “really” meant became dominant = Western social organisation with its progressive features To be without Civilization was a warrant to be civilized i.e. colonized by the West Orientalism and Civilization: Orientalism and Civilization Civilization made imperialism and colonialism appear both inevitable and justified Duara: “Mission which exemplified the desire not (simply) to conquer the Other, but to be desired by the Other.” To be a nation was to be civilized and vice versa Civilization based upon Christian and Enlightenment values became the only criterion whereby sovereignty could be claimed in the world Orientalism and Civilization: Orientalism and Civilization Could be found in the legal language of various unequal treaties of the time The treaties referred principally to the ability and willingness of subjected states to protect life, property, and freedoms (of foreigners) as legal rights They also presupposed the existence of the institutions of the modern European state Caused the collapse of Chinese and Japanese notions of civilization and them as its centre Orientalism and Civilization: Orientalism and Civilization The heyday of Civilization as a Western based thing lasted to the I WW After the Great War the collapse in the faith of European rationalism made it possible for to redefine Civilization on more indigenous basis At this time the notion of civilisations (or cultures) as equal got headway in Europe (e.g. Spengler and “Kultur”, Arnold Toynbee “A Study of World History”) => The shift from a singular notion of Civilization to multiple civilizations Japan and Civilization: Japan and Civilization Japan most influential in this in East Asia Due their ascend in relative power, the Japanese had most power in defining the use and content of “Asian civilization” in East Asia But before she could engage in creating a counter-argument to Civilization, Japan had to first assume the European ways Only so could Japan became to be appreciated and seen as a one of the great powers In effect, the Japanese claimed inheriting the leadership of Asian civilization because of its successful mastering of the Western Civilization Japan and Civilization: Japan and Civilization Japanese Pre-Meiji conception of civilization was based on mibunsei (social order) Individuals either were or were not part of it, not nations The Meiji regime could not continue this vis-à-vis the West The Meiji period represented the height of the effort to make Japan a Civilized nation Bunmei kaika (Civilization and Enlightenment) period c. 1870 - 1900 Japan and Civilization: Japan and Civilization “Civilianizing” the Japanese was a top-down project undertaken sometimes against strong opposition The modern version of Civilization became equated with the standards of industrialised world The elite’s adaptation of Western clothing, hairdo, hygiene standards Emphasis on learning science and acquiring Western technology Acceptance of Western social ideas Japan and Civilization: Japan and Civilization Fukuzawa Yukichi (1835-1901) a leading figure in this The call for Japan to “leave Asia” in 1885 The rejection of China as the centre of civilization, Japan joining the Civilized nations of the West as equal Slide30: Picture 2) Fukuzawa Yukichi (Source: Wikipedia) Japan and Civilization: Japan and Civilization Meiji restoration was thus a project of bringing Civilization to Japan Highly successful in many respects Between 1894 and 1905 Japan succeeded in reversing the unequal treaties and began to gain access to "Civilized" society Made possible by successful modern wars Japan and Civilization: Japan and Civilization However, in Japan the notion of an alternate civilization was created that centred around the concept of Asia This development had began before the WW I The traditionalist samurai rebellions one expression, but did not have a well defined agenda Among the sharpest critics of Civilization was Okakura Tenshin (1863 – 1913) Japan and Civilization: Japan and Civilization A cosmopolitan artist and a writer who wrote in English The influential book The Ideals of the East (1904), declared that ”Asia is one” = ”One" in humiliation, of falling behind in achieving modernization, and thus being colonized by the West An early expression of Pan-Asianism Believed that Asian countries all differed from Western Civilization in their promotion of peace and beauty Japan and Civilization: Japan and Civilization Okakura did advocate that Japan become the leader of an Asian federation because it could harmonize the best of Asian civilization with that of Civilization Japan bringing modern material progress to Asia while introducing spirituality to Modernity Japan and Civilization: Japan and Civilization The Pan-Asianist notion that Asians were closely related actually invented at this time Produced during the early 1900s depicted Japan as the leader in Asian struggle against West Developed and spread by the students from other Asian countries who came to Japan to study its success Japan and Civilization: Japan and Civilization For Japan this was a compelling construct because it made the familial relationship between Asian peoples appear natural Did compel an entire nation, under the right circumstances, to pursue its destiny in Asia A more aggressive reading of this ideology appeared in during and after the Russo-Japanese War Based upon the notion of a confrontation of Eastern versus Western civilizations Japan and Civilization: Japan and Civilization However, such view become commonplace in the aftermath of the Russo-Japanese War Prime Minister and field marshal Yamagata Aritomo in 1914: “Asia for the Asians” Fuelled by the American racial exclusions of Chinese and Japanese Between the Wars Pan-Asianism contributed to envisioning the Pacific as the theatre of an decisive East-West showdown Japan and Civilization: Japan and Civilization One adherent of the aggressive reading was Ishiwara Kanji, an officer behind Mukden Incident 1931 that led to the occupation of Manchuria by Japan Ishiwara thought that the period of world conflict was fast approaching, and Japan would draw upon the strength and resources of China and lead the yellow races to defeat the white race Japan and Civilization: Japan and Civilization The ultimate victory over America would liberate Asia from the enslavement of Western colonialism With the Mukden Incident and leaving the League of Nations in 1933 Asia became the active slogan in Japanese politics Nationalism and Pan-Asianism used together in building Japanese militarism Japan and Civilization: Japan and Civilization Ishiwara was a true believer in Pan-Asianism, however, most Japanese were content to just to colonise Asia, not liberate it The WW II was known the Japanese as “Greater East Asia War” “The Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere” a colonial device based on this ideology China and Civilization: China and Civilization In China the great reformer and historian Liang Qichao was perhaps the most influential advocate of the necessity for China to become Civilized After him the 1919 generation continued this However, also in China the discourse of Eastern civilization flourished from 1911 until 1945 China and Civilization: China and Civilization The popular Chinese journal Dongfang zazhi (Eastern Miscellany) The notion of the superiority of the still or quiet civilization of the East which was obliged to rescue the world from the restless civilization of the West On its pages thinkers and activists such as Li Dazhao, Liang Qichao, Liang Shuming, Hu Shi, Feng Youlan, Chen Duxiu, Zhang Dongsun debated the relation of Western and Chinese civilizations China and Civilization: China and Civilization Sun Yat-sen a Pan-Asianist Put forward the notion of wangdao, or the way of the ethical monarchs and peaceful rulership, Opposed to the unethical and violent way (badao) of the hegemon (the way of the West) Through this Sun actually appealed to the Japanese to renounce the Western methods of badao China and Civilization: China and Civilization The Kuomintang theorist Dai Jitao picked up by Sun’s Pan-Asianism and kept it alive in the 1930’s in a journal entitled Xin Yaxiya (New Asia) Thus, in the 30’s the idea of Pan-Asian civilization was used against the West by the Japanese and Chinese, but also against each other Conclusion: Conclusion After the WW II the Pan-Asian idea had became so connected to the Japanese occupation that the notion of an Asian civilization became passé in East Asia and its connotations negative Recently the Asian values debate has resurrected it somewhat (lecture 5) During decolonialization the concept of civilization became “ethnographic” meaning that was taken to social science without its original hierarchical meaning Exercise 2: Exercise 2 Based on the discussion on Civilization and Orientalism, analyse the poem by Rudyard Kipling The White Man's Burden below. How are the natives and white man depicted in it? How is colonialism justified in this poem? Exercise 2: Exercise 2 The White Man's Burden (1899): Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child. Take up the White Man's burden-- In patience to abide, To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain To seek another's profit, And work another's gain. Exercise 2: Exercise 2 Take up the White Man's burden-- The savage wars of peace-- Fill full the mouth of Famine And bid the sickness cease; And when your goal is nearest The end for others sought, Watch sloth and heathen Folly Bring all your hopes to nought. Take up the White Man's burden-- No tawdry rule of kings, But toil of serf and sweeper-- The tale of common things. The ports ye shall not enter, The roads ye shall not tread, Go make them with your living, And mark them with your dead. Exercise 2: Exercise 2 Take up the White Man's burden-- And reap his old reward: The blame of those ye better, The hate of those ye guard-- The cry of hosts ye humour (Ah, slowly!) toward the light:-- "Why brought he us from bondage, Our loved Egyptian night?" Take up the White Man's burden-- Ye dare not stoop to less-- Nor call too loud on Freedom To cloke your weariness; By all ye cry or whisper, By all ye leave or do, The silent, sullen peoples Shall weigh your gods and you. Exercise 2: Exercise 2 Take up the White Man's burden-- Have done with childish days-- The lightly proffered laurel, The easy, ungrudged praise. Comes now, to search your manhood Through all the thankless years Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom, The judgment of your peers!