Published on December 18, 2007
III The Cold War and Watching East Asia through the Totalitarian Model : III The Cold War and Watching East Asia through the Totalitarian Model The lecture deals with the post-WW II situation in East Asia and how it was framed in international polics and research of the time 1) The totalitarian and authoritarian models 2) The Cold War and division of East Asia into the Socialist Block and the Free World 3) Respective use of the totalitarian model to explain the PRC, North Korea, and authoritarianism and South Korea, ROC The totalitarian model: The totalitarian model Totalitarianism a derisory label created in the liberal democracies to discredit its enemies: Nazis, Communists, Fascists The “Other” of the Free World First coined in mid 20s by the opponents of Italian Fascism A journalistic label used in political rhetoric, then taken into social sciences The totalitarian model: The totalitarian model Used to label modern dictatorships in countries where the state has penetrated every aspect of human life without restrictions (legal or political) Disagreement over socialism as a form of totalitarianism The USSR seen as a totalitarian state only on the political right The WW II toned down this criticism The totalitarian model: The totalitarian model The beginning of the Cold War and totalitarian model After the WW II anti-totalitarianism taken up as the leading principle in the US politics Marshall Plan 1947 In literature George Orwell’s 1984 important In social sciences the theme of totalitarianism taken up by Hannah Arendt 1951: The Origins of Totalitarianism The totalitarian model: The totalitarian model A classic treatise of a “totalitarian syndrome” or model was offered by Carl J. Friedrich and Zbigniew K. Brzezinski (1966) Totalitarianism seen as an “adaptation of autocracy to twentieth-century industrial society” The totalitarian model: The totalitarian model Six features of the syndrome of totalitarian dictatorship: 1) Elaborative ideology that all citizens had to adhere to (at least passively). This ideology also contained a vision of a new world and thus the need to transform the present; 2) A single mass party led by one man, in control of other institutions; 3) A system of physical and mental terror directed against demonstrable “enemies” and “more or less arbitrarily selected classes of the population”; The totalitarian model: The totalitarian model 4) “A technologically conditioned, near-complete monopoly of control, in the hands of the party or the government, of all means of effective mass communication, such as the press, radio, and motion pictures.” 5) “A similarly technologically conditioned, near-complete monopoly of the effective use of weapons of armed combat.” And 6) A central control of economy. Authoritarian model: Authoritarian model Starting from the 60s alternative authoritarian models were introduced Authoritarianism constructed as less evil than totalitarianism Brooker (2000): ‘authoritarian’ can be used in cases where “1) freedom is restricted in favour of obedience to authority, and 2) this authority is itself exercised with few restrictions”. Authoritarian model: Authoritarian model Compared to totalitarian regimes, ideologically guided forced-draft social transformation is not the goal in authoritarian regimes Authoritarian governments = autocratic non-Communist governments In some instances autocratism could be even be viewed as a good thing (the East Asian development model) Authoritarian regimes had the hope of becoming democracies one day In East Asia Applied to the ROK and ROC Authoritarian model: Authoritarian model In practice then, these two models were developed in social science to capture the features of non-liberal regimes that came to being after the WWII To be labelled totalitarian or authoritarian was, nevertheless, not a question of (only) objective observation of societies, but came to be more in line with their political alignments International standing and economic systems most decisive factors In East Asia originally really a matter of a degree, not about complete differences The Cold War in East Asia: The Cold War in East Asia How did the models became translated into political rethoric during the era? Outline of the Cold War in East Asia Short history: Chinese civil war and the division of China 1946-1949 Korean War and division of Korea 1950-1953 Establishing American and Soviet spheres of influence The Division of China: The Division of China The Division of China Chinese Civil War or the "War of Liberation" In 1945 China divided into Communist controlled North and Nationalist South The Civil War Began in 1946 At the beginning US-supported Nationalist government victorious USSR-supported CCP rallied in 1947 and turned the tide The Division of China: The Division of China Both sides blamed other side for not respecting the truce of January 1946 In reality, neither side was to respect it The US tried to broker cease fire repeatedly, but failed Lead later to the notion that the US had “lost China to communism” PRC established 1.10.1949 The Division of China: The Division of China The Nationalists fled to Taiwan China became a divided country like Germany and Korea No peace or cease fire Officially, the war still continues ROC on Taiwan came under US protection after the Korean War broke out in 1950 The Division of China: The Division of China Formosan Straits became one of the hostile Cold War frontiers Froze the international status of the ROC Western Powers did not recognise the PRC US-ROC mutual defence treaty 1954 ROC became also the biggest target country to the US foreign aid and substantial receiver of military assistance The Division of Korea: The Division of Korea The division of Korea Korea a Japanese colony 1910-1945 In 1945 the northern part of Korea occupied by the USSR, southern part by the US Divided into occupation zones without consultation with Koreans A 4- year international tutelage period declared before independence with democratic elections, not carried out in the North The USSR (and PRC) supported North Korean communists led by Kim Il-sung The USA supported south Korean conservatives The Division of Korea: The Division of Korea The War broke out in 1950 when the North invaded the south The first armed confrontation of the Cold War The war ended indecisively in 1953 after laying havoc to the entire Korean peninsula The demilitarized zone on the 38th parallel divided the country High casualties as the result of warfare and political purges on occupied areas The Division of Korea: The Division of Korea In South Korea, the war is often called the 6/25 War In North Korea, it is formally called the Fatherland Liberation War In China, the conflict was named as the War to Resist America and Aid Korea Tthe US acted on the belief that the totalitarian Communist bloc was a unified monolith and therefore portrayed the conflict in the context of international aggression rather than a civil war The Division of Korea: The Division of Korea Both views not totally ungrounded The PRC took part in the war actively 2/3 of her field army was sent to Korea as ”volunteers” The USSR send military aid, advisors and aerial combat troop The US organised an alliance of 20 members under an UN mandate Both sides competed to reunite the peninsula The Division of Korea: The Division of Korea The Korean War made both sides more assured that the other side was agressive and seeking to dominate also East Asia Led to the establishemnt of international treaty systems by the US and the USSR US defence treaties: USA – Japan 1951, USA – The Philippines 1951, USA – ROC 1954, USA – ROK 1955, ANZUS 1951, SEATO 1954-55 The Soviet Union had its treaties with PRC 1950 and DPRK Slide21: Defence treaties Important US military bases Map 1) The US early Cold War Treaty system (Source: Suuri maailmanhistoria 14, 54) Slide22: Picture 2) A Soviet cartoon from 1957 on the US containment policy (Source: Suuri maailmanhistoria 14, 42) Two Chinas, Two Systems?: Two Chinas, Two Systems? Develolments therefore enforced the wiev that also East Asia was divided into to hostile blocks, but how to define their members’ nature? Domestically the PRC and ROC resembled each other in many respects Both lead by a Leninist party-state structure The ROC: Bloody suppression of Taiwanese rebellion (2.28.1947), ‘white terror’, press censorship, ‘collective policing’ for traitors Two Chinas, Two Systems?: Two Chinas, Two Systems? The Martial law in 1949 and the Emergency Degree 1950 Restricted the implementation of the constitution Gave the president (Chiang Kai-shek) practically unlimited powers Designated Taiwan as a combat area in the Chinese civil war. These laws made the ROC in Taiwan an authoritarian one-party state regardless of its constitution No political opposition tolerated (= treason) Two Chinas, Two Systems?: Two Chinas, Two Systems? In the PRC a similar party-state was set up after the Stalinist model People’s Republic of China with a “dictatorship of the proletariat” The leading party pervades all other formal institutions in the polity Subjugation of civil society, corporatist structures of “mass organization” Two Chinas, Two Systems?: Two Chinas, Two Systems? Maoist Ideology as the guiding principle Techniques of “brain washing” through torture, peer group control, self-criticism and deprivation of other sources of information, indoctrination, and purges of political opponents through violent hunts for ‘enemy spies’, counterrevolutionaries, etc. Force-draft mobilisation of the masses to achieve utopian social goals (the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution) Slide27: Picture 2) The PRC dictators Mao Zedong (1949-1976) and Deng Xiaoping (1978-1997) Slide28: Picture 3) The two ROC dictators: Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi) and Ching-kuo (Jingguo) Two Chinas, Two Systems?: Two Chinas, Two Systems? In Western research, the PRC regarded as totalitarian throughout the 50s and well into the 60s The Korean War and Chinese brainwashing of the Allied POWs important addition to the totalitarian model However, in the 60s the label dropped mostly from usage in Chinese studies Two Chinas, Two Systems?: Two Chinas, Two Systems? Benjamin Schwartz vs. Karl A. Wittfogel debate on wether PRC was a totalitarian country in 1960 a watershed Generational change in Western academia, dissatisfaction with the monolith totalitarian model Totalitarian model unable to explain all aspects of different socialist countries The Sino-Soviet split Maoism seen as unlike Stalinism in many respects Paradoxically, the Cultural Revolution perhaps the most totalitarian phase in the PRC history Two Chinas, Two Systems?: Two Chinas, Two Systems? In Western rethoric, references to the ROC and ROK political systems kept to minimum When needed, the ROC described as an authoritarian country This did not change until early 1990 when the democratisation began Authoritarianism seen as an integral part of the ”Taiwanese Model” that produced an economic miracle Nevertheless, even an authoritarian ROC was an increasing emberrasment for the US Two Chinas, Two Systems?: Two Chinas, Two Systems? However, similarities of the two systems were clear: Leninist party-state Strong leaders with leadership cults Economic mobilization of the society Police terror and intolerance of dissent and free civic organisations Economic systems and international allegiances were different Two Koreas, Two Systems?: Two Koreas, Two Systems? The ROK Strongman rule: Syngman Rhee 1948-1960 Early South Korean regime: Many ex-Japanese collaborators Military rule to quell unrest (e.g. rebellions on Jaju and Yosu Islands) -> 100 000 dead Two Koreas, Two Systems?: Two Koreas, Two Systems? Autocratic and corrupt Civil unrest and general political instability A military coup in 1960 by General Park Chung-hee A junta (1961–62) and a nominal restoration of civilian government 1962 Park remained the de facto dictator Two Koreas, Two Systems?: Two Koreas, Two Systems? Park’s political and economic thinking was close to Stalinism Based on his personal experience with the Japanese state-led program of economic development in Manchukuo Subjugation of Korean big business (the chaebol) to the government by strong-hand tactics Two Koreas, Two Systems?: Two Koreas, Two Systems? ”Korea, Inc”: strong government agencies guiding economy according to the Japanese model Nationalization of banks, development of state owned heavy industry (e.g. steel) Intolerance of dissidence: democratic and communists persecuted, censorship Made possible by the state of emergency Two Koreas, Two Systems?: Two Koreas, Two Systems? Violent suppressions of students, worker, etc. protests Use of martial law, torture frequent The KCIA had broad powers of arrest and detention At the same time, Park did use manipulated elections to legitimate his rule Two Koreas, Two Systems?: Two Koreas, Two Systems? The 1972 Yushin (revitalizing reforms) system created more open authoritarianism Inspiration from North Korea and Juche ideology Dissolving the Parliament and suspending the Constitution Two Koreas, Two Systems?: Two Koreas, Two Systems? Park assassinated in 1979 Followed by a coup d'etat in 1980, by General Chun Doo-hwan Continued authoritarian rule, martial law and violent suppression of the opposition Two Koreas, Two Systems?: Two Koreas, Two Systems? Chun continued growth-oriented economic policies of Park ROK industrialized rapidly and only now passed North Korea in per capita production Selected Roh Tae-woo as his successor in 1987 Democratization under Roh Slide41: Picture 3) ROC dictators: Syngman Rhee and Park Chung-hee (Source: Wikipedia) Two Koreas, Two Systems?: Two Koreas, Two Systems? North Korea Stalinist system with Korean and Chinese characteristics The Workers' Party of Korea (WPK) as the ruling party Leadership personalized and clan / family based (Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-Il) Role of the military central in ruling the country Perpetual emergency mobilization of the society Two Koreas, Two Systems?: Two Koreas, Two Systems? Juche ideology (self-sufficiency) justifying autarky and isolation, inter alia The doctrine is a component part of Kimilsungism = North Korean term for Kim Il-sung’s family regime “Man is the master of everything and decides everything" It is not unclear who ”the man” is Two Koreas, Two Systems?: Two Koreas, Two Systems? The notion of “supreme leader” also connected to Juche The Juche outlook requires absolute loyalty to the party and its leader Developed to acquire ideological independence from both USSR and PRC Came necessary in the Sino-Soviet split in early 60s Kim Il-sung first sided with PRC, then took neutral position Two Koreas, Two Systems?: Two Koreas, Two Systems? In 1972, Juche replaced Marxism-Leninism in the revised North Korean constitution as the official state ideology After the death of Kim Il-sung, Juche complemeted with the Songun (army-first) policy in 1996 The Army has replaced the WPK as the locus of power in North Korea Justifies permanent emergency mobilization Slide46: Picture 3) Like father, like son, the two North Korean dictators Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il (Source: Wikipedia) Two Koreas, Two Systems?: Two Koreas, Two Systems? As in Chinas, in Koreas the similarities between the two political systems were clear Strong non-democratic leaders (but ROK without a real leadership cult) Economic mobilization of the society Police terror and intolerance of dissent and free civic organisations Conclusions: Conclusions The only real difference was the regime’s adherence / rejection of socialism and their international allies In the 90s the differences have become more apparent Conclusions: Conclusions Totalitarianism and authoritarianism are to be used with care In political speech employed to hide as much as to revel of the workings and developments of political systems Better to use “Stalinism”, “Maoism”, “Kimilsungism”, etc. Use totalitarianism in an analytic sense Exercise: Exercise Read the text in the reader by Hyok Kang. How is individual controlled in contemporary North Korean society? How does this correspond to the totalitarian model?