nakayama

Information about nakayama

Published on May 2, 2008

Author: Venere

Source: authorstream.com

Content

NCTA Seminar on Japan Winter 06 :  NCTA Seminar on Japan Winter 06 Mineharu (J.J.) Nakayama The Ohio State University January 10 & 17, 2006 [email protected] http://japan.osu.edu East Asia:  East Asia Basic facts about Japan:  Basic facts about Japan Japan – Nippon/Nihon Flag - Nisshooki Emblem - Chrysanthemum Anthem – Kimigayo Population - about a half of the US population Average life expectancy – M 77.8 F 84.6 in ’05est (US M 74.9 F 80.7 in ’05est) Minorities: Ainu, Chinese-Japanese, Korean-Japanese, (village people) http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ja.html Land:  Land covers from Maine to Florida No part of Japan is farther than 70 miles from the sea Tokyo (latitude) – Grand Canyon 4 major islands – Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, & Kyushu 47 states/political regions Size – about the size of California 67% - Forests 14% -Agriculture Japanese language: writing systems:  Japanese language: writing systems Kanji characters: 日 本 Hiragana: に ほん Katakana: ニ ホン Romaji: Ni hon English: Nihon/Japan A quick history:  Jomon Culture (10th- 3rd C BC) Rope figured pots, Dogu (doll) First Emperor – Jimmu (660 BC) (http://w2.avis.ne.jp/~jomon/culture/index.html) Yayoi Culture 3rd C BC – 3rd C AD Smooth pottery Rice cultivation (irrigation) Queen Himiko (Land of Wa) Kofun Period 3-6th C Tombs Haniwa Shinto/Kami Buddhism (538 AD) A quick history Tateana:  Tateana Izumo:  Izumo History: Asuka Period (mid 6th -mid 7th c) :  Prince Shotoku Buddhism becomes the state religion First Constitution (17 articles), Chinese calendar Horyu-ji (Temple) Hosso Sect History: Asuka Period (mid 6th -mid 7th c) History: Nara Period (710-784):  Nara Period (710-784) Heijo-kyo – imitating Changan, China Kojiki (Records of Ancient Matters) First history book Nihon-Shoki (Chronicles of Japan) First written mythology Manyooshu (Collection of Myriad Leaves) Shosoin (Imperial museum) Todaiji (Temple) Kegon sect – Daibutsu (Great Buddha) History: Nara Period (710-784) History: Heian Period (794-1191):  Heian-kyo in Kyoto (Changan-like) Aristocratic life style (Fujiwara Family) Tendai sect (Saicho); Shingon Sect (Kukai) Kana was developed Kokinshu (Collection of Ancient and Modern Verse) imperial anthology Tale of Genji by Lady Murasaki – World’s first novel Pillow Book LP Japaneseness History: Heian Period (794-1191) Heian Lady:  Heian Lady Heian Man:  Heian Man History: Feudalism :  Late Heian Period Heike (Taira family) vs. Genji (Minamoto family) struggle Kamakura Period (1192-1336) 1st Shogun – Minamoto-no Yoritomo Different Buddhist sects -> Pure Land sect, True Pure Land sect, Soto Zen sect LP, Nichiren sect Kubilai Khan’s attack -> Kamikaze Nanboku-cho/Ashikaga Period (1336-1573) Golden Pavilion, Silver Pavilion Noh – Zeami 1467-1477 war in Kyoto 1467-1568 civil war 1543 – Portuguese commerce arrived and left a gun 1549-57 Francis Xavier History: Feudalism Kinkakuji Ginkakuji:  Kinkakuji Ginkakuji Ryuanji Zen Rock Garden:  Ryuanji Zen Rock Garden History: Azuchi-Momoyama Period (1568-1603) :  1568 Oda seized Kyoto 1582 Oda assassinated Toyotomi kept the campaign and completed in 1590 (national unification) 1592-7 Toyotomi sent troops to Korea Toyotomi was never a Shogun History: Azuchi-Momoyama Period (1568-1603) History: Edo Period (1603-1867) :  Edo Tokugawa Shogunate Feudal Lords; 4 classes (outcasts) LP; National Isolation Policy; Neo-Confucianism Ninjo vs. Giri – Bunraku (puppet shows) Haiku, Kabuki, Ukiyoe 1853 Commodore Perry (Nakahama Manjiro LP) 1867 Last Shogun Tokugawa Keiki resigns History: Edo Period (1603-1867) History: Meiji-Taisho:  Meiji Restoration in 1868 LP 1869 Emperor moved to Tokyo 1872 Compulsory Education; Railroad 1889 Imperial Constitution (cf. Weimar)LP 1890 Diet (Peers and Representatives) 1881-98 6177 British, 2764 Americans, 913 Germans, 619 French, and 45 Italians 1894-5 Sino-Japanese War (control of Korea) 1904-5 Russo-Japanese War 1907 Universal Education History: Meiji-Taisho History: Taisho-Showa PreWWII:  1910-45 Occupation of Korea 1914-8 Entry into WWI 1925 Universal male suffrage 1931 Depression; occupied Manchuria 1933 withdrawing from the League of Nations 1937 War against China (Rape of Nanking) 1940 Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis 1941 Pact with Russia 1941 WWII (3 choices - backing down in China, seize Indonesian oil, compromise with the US) LP 1945 Atomic bombs (8/6 Hiroshima; 8/9 Nagasaki) LP 8/8 Russia joined the war against Japan 8/15 JT Unconditional surrender (Potsdam Proclamation) History: Taisho-Showa PreWWII History: Post-WWII:  1945-52 Allied Occupation of Japan 1946 New Constitution (effective 3/3/47) 1950 Korean War 1951 San Francisco Peace Treaty; US-Japan Security Pact 1956 Peace treaty with the Soviet Unions; Joined The United Nations 1964 Tokyo Olympic Games (1972 Sapporo Winter Olympic Games; 1998 Nagano Winter Olympic Games) 1965 Treaty with South Korea; Vietnam War 1969 Reversion of Okinawa (effective in 1972) 1973 Oil Crisis 80’s (Japan as No.1), Economic bubble 1989 Emperor Hirohito dies (End of Showa) 1993 Coalition Government 1996 Great Hanshin Earthquake 2002 Prime Minister Koizumi visited North Korea History: Post-WWII Kidnapping by North Korea:  Japan’s occupation of Korea 1910-45 Korean War ended in 1953 Kidnapping during 60s-70s North Koreans living in Japan Prime Minister Koizumi visited North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea) on September 17, 2002 and May 22, 2004) to meet North Korean Leader Kim Jong-Il) Kidnapping of at least 13 Japanese Yasushi & Fukie Chimura, Kaoru & Yukiko Hasuike, Hitomi Soga & Charles Jenkins Kidnapping by North Korea Soga and Jenkins:  Soga and Jenkins Hitomi SOGA Returned in 2002 Kidnapped in August 1978 and married Sgt. Charles Robert Jenkins while in North Korea. She returned to Japan one month after the summit. Charged with desertion Disappeared across the DMZ in January 1965 Married Japanese kidnap victim Hitomi Soga, they have 2 daughters He is planning to live the rest of his life in Japan South Korea: Takeshima / Dokdo dispute:  South Korea: Takeshima / Dokdo dispute http://www.pref.shimane.jp/section/takesima/eng/top.html http://www.geocities.com/mlovmo/page4.html People’s Republic of China Senkaku / Diaoyu islands dispute:  People’s Republic of China Senkaku / Diaoyu islands dispute Political relations with Korea & China:  Political relations with Korea & China Political relations with K & C have been strained due to PM Koizumi’s visits to the Yasukuni Shrine (honoring Japanese war dead). 14 class A war criminals are among the 2.5 million people enshrined at Yasukuni. The Japanese Constitution provides separation of church and state, much like the U.S. Constitution. Japan’s trade with China:  Japan’s trade with China Japan's top trading partner for the first time in 2004 Japan's trade with China and Hong Kong, including exports and imports, rose to a record ¥22.2 trillion ($213.2 billion), 20.1 % of Japan's total foreign trade, in 2004 Trade with the US - the ¥20.5 trillion ($194.5 billion) in 2004 More than 13 % of all Japanese exports are for China. Japanese imports from China - 20.7 % of the country's market. Some concepts to understand the Society:  Some concepts to understand the Society Honne (real feeling) & Tatemae (what is supposed to be) ­ consideration to those who you care Ie (House/family, duty to Ie), On (benevolence) , filial piety , Giri vs. Ninjo, Uchi vs. Soto Kao (face) ­ losing one’s face; role, company ­ position ­ creates face Use of the go-between ­ first introduction; conflict resolution Decision making ­ Ringi (nemawashi ­ root binding)……takes time Entering a long relationship – the relationship is valued Current Education System:  Compulsory education Elementary (6 years); Junior high school (3 yrs) Textbooks (free), curriculum (decided by the Ministry of Education, local board of education/school), Lesson studies Non-Compulsory education Kindergarten (cf. Daycare) LP High schools/vocational schools/colleges – 3, 5 years Comm. Colleges (2 yrs), Colleges (4 or 6 yrs) Current Education System Addition: Communication with the Japanese People :  Speak slowly and clearly ­ no need to speak loudly Don’t use the first or nick names in rather formal occasions and even informal occasions (the use of the first name may be all right to the person who was addressed to, but often not acceptable to others who are in the same conversational domain – esp. business contexts) Japanese “Yes” does not mean the same YES in English - They are translating Japanese “hai”, which is just promoting the conversational discourse (i.e., Yes, I am listening,etc.) Don’t maintain steady eye contact while talking Addition: Communication with the Japanese People

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