Nanotechnology:- INANOFABS LIVE

Information about Nanotechnology:- INANOFABS LIVE

Published on October 26, 2009

Author: vishwanathsj



INANOFABS LIVE 2nd EDITIONNanotechnology : INANOFABS LIVE 2nd EDITIONNanotechnology By Vishwanath S J EVENT : EVENT Event Organizer: INANOFABS Event Representative: Vinay D C Seminar Delivered by: Vishwanath S J INtegrated NANO FABricationS 2 Vishwanath S J Vinay D C Event Held at Shridevi Institute of Engineering & Technology (SIET) Tumkur Contact us at [email protected] Or +91-9980032010 (Vishwanath S J) In memory of…… : In memory of…… Pierre-Gilles de Gennes (October 24, 1932 in Paris – May 18, 2007 in Orsay) was a French physicist and the Nobel Prize laureate in Physics in 1991. His Nobel Prize was awarded for "discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers". INtegrated NANO FABricationS 3 What is ‘Nano’? : What is ‘Nano’? The term and its Mathematical Representation INtegrated NANO FABricationS 4 What is Nano? : What is Nano? Term: ‘Nano’ originates from the Greek word meaning ‘Dwarf’. Mathematical Representation:10^-9 which equates to one-billionth. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 5 Representing ‘Nano’ : Representing ‘Nano’ Depiction of ‘Nano’ INtegrated NANO FABricationS 6 Slide 7: INtegrated NANO FABricationS 7 Slide 8: INtegrated NANO FABricationS 8 A Brief History of Nanotechnology : A Brief History of Nanotechnology The Rise of Nanotechnology INtegrated NANO FABricationS 9 History : History Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman’s famous lecture “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom” at California Institute of Technology in 1959. He Observed that the principles of physics do not deny the possibility of manipulating things atom by atom.  He suggested using small machines to make even tinier machines, and so on down to the atomic level itself. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 10 History : History Prof. Norio Taniguchi of Tokyo science University first defined nanotechnology in 1974. His definition still stands as the basic statement today: "'Nano-technology' mainly consists of the processing of separation, consolidation, and deformation of materials by one atom or one molecule." INtegrated NANO FABricationS 11 History : History Nanotechnology as it is understood now though, the Nanotechnology meme in other words, is the brainchild of Feynman's one-time student  K. Eric Drexler. Drexler presented his key ideas in a paper on molecular engineering published in 1981, and expanded these themes in a layman comprehensible book “Engines of Creation”, published by Doubleday in 1987 (and now on-line at the Foresight Institute).  Drexler received a unique doctorate degree "in the field of nanotechnology" from MIT in 1991, under the supervision of Marvin Minsky, the world-renowned artificial intelligence pioneer.  The following year he published a more technical book, Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing and Computation, which describes the principles and mechanisms of molecular nanotechnology. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 12 History : History In 1981 the invention of the Scanning Tunnelling Microscope or STM, by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at IBM's Zurich Research Labs, and the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) five years later, made it possible to not only take photos of individual atoms, but to actual, move a single atom around. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 13 History : History John Foster of IBM Almaden labs was able to spell "IBM" out of 35 xenon atoms on a nickel surface, using a scanning tunneling microscope to push the atoms into place. Soon, Nanotechnology advanced and till today tremendous research has been made in this area. Almost 650 products in the world are incorporated with Nanotechnology that includes Sunscreen and Paints. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 14 What is Nanotechnology? : What is Nanotechnology? Defining Nanotechnology INtegrated NANO FABricationS 15 What is Nanotechnology? : What is Nanotechnology? Branch of Engineering. Deals with things smaller than 100nm. Control of matter on an atomic & molecular scale. Science & Technology of building electronic circuits & devices from single atoms & molecules. Science of things measured by a nanometer, which is one billionth of a meter. Includes almost all branches of Science at nano-scale. 16 INtegrated NANO FABricationS Realizing Nanotechnology : Realizing Nanotechnology Two approaches to harness technology INtegrated NANO FABricationS 17 Bottom-up : Bottom-up Bottom-up This approach involves physically manipulating small numbers of the basic building blocks, either individual atoms or more complex molecules, into larger structures using (self) directed growth or minute (physical or field based) probes INtegrated NANO FABricationS 18 Top-Down : Top-Down Top-downThis second approach involves the systematic removal of material from a precursor (e.g. bulk silicon or a polymer) using a chemical, optical, thermal or atomic bombardment technique to form complex smaller structures. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 19 Slide 20: INtegrated NANO FABricationS 20 Approaches : Approaches Both the approaches are capable of working with Biological & Non-Biological Systems and bridging important divides between these 2 worlds. This Pervasive technology requires a detailed understanding of the underlying physical, chemical & biological processes across a range of scientific disciplines at nano-scale. At this scale the full range of sciences begin to come together and the new challenge is to create and share a common scientific and management language such that effective interdisciplinary interaction is maximized. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 21 Fullerenes : Fullerenes What are Fullerenes? INtegrated NANO FABricationS 22 What is it? : What is it? Third form of Carbon after Diamond & Graphite. Molecules entirely composed of Carbon that belongs to the family of Carbon allotropes. a form of carbon having a large molecule consisting of an empty cage of an even number of carbon atoms. Exist in the form of Sphere, ellipsoid or tube. Commonly represented by a molecule containing 60 carbon atoms (C60) in a soccer-ball orientation. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 23 In General : In General Discovered in 1985 by Robert Curl, Harold Kroto & Richard Smalley called as buckminsterfullerene (C60). The Name was derived from Richard Buckminster Fuller, whose Geodesic Domes it resembles. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 24 In General : In General C60 and other fullerenes were later noticed occurring outside the laboratory (e.g., in normal candle soot & lightning discharges from the atmosphere). First Nanotubes were obtained in 1991. Fullerenes in Spherical structure are called Bucky balls & the cylindrical ones as Carbon Nanotubes or Bucky tubes. Buckminsterfullerene C60 INtegrated NANO FABricationS 25 Carbon Nano Tubes(CNT) : Carbon Nano Tubes(CNT) Explaining Carbon Nano Tubes (CNT’s) INtegrated NANO FABricationS 26 What is it? : What is it? Hollow three dimensional tubes formed by interconnecting six-carbon rings; they are also known as "bucky tubes.” Tiny, hollow tubes made of pure carbon just a few nanometers  in diameter. One-dimensional objects with a well-defined direction along the nanotube axis that is analogous to the in-plane directions of graphite. A unique cylindrical nano structure made of allotropes of carbon. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 27 Depiction of Nanotubes : Depiction of Nanotubes INtegrated NANO FABricationS 28 This animation of a rotating carbon nanotube shows its 3D structure. A typical Carbon Nano Tube Structure : Structure Carbon Nanotubes are cylindrical structures based on the hexagonal lattice of carbon atoms that forms crystalline graphite. Buckytubes are single-wall carbon nanotubes, in which a single layer of graphite - graphene - is rolled up into a seamless tube. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 29 Naming Convention : Naming Convention The mapping specifies the number of unit vectors required to connect two atoms in the planar hexagonal lattice to form a seamless tube. The (n,m) nanotube naming scheme can be thought of as a vector (Ch) in an infinite graphene sheet that describes how to "roll up" the graphene sheet to make the nanotube. T denotes the tube axis, and a1 and a2 are the unit vectors of graphene in real space. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 30 Types of CNT’s : Types of CNT’s Carbon Nano Tubes (CNT’s) are broadly classified into two categories: Single Walled & Multi Walled. Torus & Nanobuds also fall under the category of classification of Nanotubes. CNT’s are mainly classified by the way it can be drawn to a definite shape. Single Walled CNT’s : SWNT Multi Walled CNT’s: MWNT INtegrated NANO FABricationS 31 SWNT (Single Walled) : SWNT (Single Walled) Single walled nanotubes (SWNT) consist of single rolled layer of graphite (Popularly Graphene) INtegrated NANO FABricationS 32 SWNT : SWNT The structure of a SWNT can be conceptualized by wrapping a one-atom-thick layer of graphite called graphene into a seamless cylinder. The way the graphene sheet is wrapped is represented by a pair of indices (n,m) called the “chiral “vector. The integers n and m denote the number of unit vectors along two directions in the honeycomb crystal lattice of graphene. If m = 0, the nanotubes are called "zigzag". If n = m, the nanotubes are called "armchair". Otherwise, they are called "chiral". INtegrated NANO FABricationS 33 SWNT : SWNT Some SWNTs with different chiralities. The difference in structure is easily shown at the open end of the tubes. a) armchair structure b) zigzag structure c) chiral structure INtegrated NANO FABricationS 34 SWNT : SWNT SWNTs with different chiral vectors have dissimilar properties such as optical activity, mechanical strength and electrical conductivity. All possible structures of SWNTs can be formed from chiral vectors lying in the range given by this figure. (n,m) with n,m integer and m<=n or θ <30°. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 35 MWNT : MWNT Multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT) consist of multiple rolled layers (concentric tubes) of graphite. Structure of MWNTs are explained by 2 models: Russian Doll Model & Parchment model. Russian Doll Model: Concentric Cylinders arranged in decreasing sizes. Parchment Model: Rolled Newspaper. The special place of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNT) must be emphasized here because their morphology and properties are similar to SWNT but their resistance to chemicals is significantly improved. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 36 MWNT : MWNT INtegrated NANO FABricationS 37 Torus : Torus INtegrated NANO FABricationS 38 A Carbon Nanotube bent in the form of Doughnut shape or a Torus. They Possess High Magnetic Moment, Thermal Stability etc. Nanobuds : Nanobuds They are newly created material formed by combining Carbon Nanotubes & Fullerenes. The fullerene-like "buds" are covalently bonded to the outer sidewalls of the underlying carbon nanotube INtegrated NANO FABricationS 39 Properties Of Nanotubes : Properties Of Nanotubes High tensile strength (Specific strength 48000 KNm/Kg when compared to steel with just 150 KNm/Kg). Almost void Frictionless surfaces (Creation of Nanomotors). Can act both as Semiconductor & Metal. The Electrical current density is 4 × 109 A/cm2 which is more than 1,000 times greater than metals such as copper. Very good thermal conductors. Can withstand up to 2800 °C in vacuum and about 750 °C in air. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 40 Applications of CNT’s : Applications of CNT’s Energy Storage Devices: Hydrogen Storage, Lithium intercalation, Electrochemical super capacitors. Molecular Electronics: Field emitting devices, Transistors. Nanoprobes and sensors Solar cells Vessels for Drug Delivery Composite materials INtegrated NANO FABricationS 41 Bucky Balls : Bucky Balls Explaining Bucky Balls INtegrated NANO FABricationS 42 What is it? : What is it? Fullerenes in Spherical structure are called Bucky Balls. Buckyballs consist of 60 Carbon atoms arranged in the shape of a football. A form of carbon consisting of 60 carbon atoms bound together to make a roughly spherical "buckyball“. Short name for buckminsterfullerene; a spheroidal fullerene A naturally occurring form of carbon known as C-60. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 43 Depiction of Buckyballs : Depiction of Buckyballs INtegrated NANO FABricationS 44 In General : In General British chemist Harold W. Kroto, Richard Smalley at Rice University, Robert Curl were awarded the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their roles in the discovery of the fullerenes popularly called the buckyballs. The structure of C60 - buckminsterfullerene - is that of a truncated icosahedron, which resembles a round soccer ball of the type made of hexagons and pentagons, with a carbon atom at the corners of each hexagon and a bond along each edge. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 45 Properties of Buckyballs : Properties of Buckyballs Highest tensile strength of any known 2D structure or element, including cross-section of diamonds which have the highest tensile strength of all known 3D structures (which is also a formation of carbon atoms) Also has the highest packing density of all known structures (including diamonds) Impenetrable to all elements under normal circumstances, even a helium atom with an energy of 5eV (electron Volt) Even though each carbon atom is only bonded with three other carbons (they are most happy with four bonds) in a fullerene, dangling a single carbon atom next to the structure will not affect the structure, i.e. the bond made with the dangling carbon is not strong enough to break the structure of the fullerene. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 46 Applications of Buckyballs : Applications of Buckyballs From AIDS medicines to superconductors to flat-screen TVs, a wide range of medical and industrial uses are envisioned for the buckminsterfullerene, an incredibly strong soccer-ball-shaped molecule that is the third form of carbon after diamond and graphite. Medical uses: Drug Treatments, Gadolinium Carriers Engineering uses: Nano STM, Buckyballs in circuits, Lubricants, Superconductors, Catalysts. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 47 Why Nanotechnology? : Why Nanotechnology? Why is Nano Important? INtegrated NANO FABricationS 48 Why Nanotechnology? : Why Nanotechnology? Properties of molecules at atomic level are different. Advantage of working with individual atoms. Encompasses all branches of science. Target area precision will be increased & Impact/outcome would be high. Space required would be less increasing the efficiency of a device. Scope for New sciences & New Space architectures. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 49 Applications of Nanotechnology : Applications of Nanotechnology What are its applications? INtegrated NANO FABricationS 50 Applications : Applications Medicine Chemical science Energy Information & Communication Arduous Industry INtegrated NANO FABricationS 51 Medicine : Medicine Lab-on-a-chip: A device that integrates one or several laboratory functions on a single chip of only millimeters to a few square centimeters in size. Magnetic nanoparticles, bound to a suitable antibody, are used to label specific molecules, structures or microorganisms. Gold nanoparticles tagged with short segments of DNA can be used for detection of genetic sequence in a sample. Multicolor optical coding for biological assays has been achieved by embedding different-sized quantum dots into polymeric microbeads. Nanopore technology for analysis of nucleic acids converts strings of nucleotides directly into electronic signatures. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 52 Medicine : Medicine Lab-on-a-chip Lab-on-a-chip INtegrated NANO FABricationS 53 Medicine : Medicine Drug Delivery Vehicles with use of NEMS (Nano Electro Mechanical Systems) & Tissue Engineering. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 54 Chemical Science : Chemical Science Catalysis: Chemical catalysis benefits especially from nanoparticles, due to the extremely large surface to volume ratio. The application potential of nanoparticles in catalysis ranges from fuel cell to catalytic converters and photocatalytic devices. Catalysis is also important for the production of chemicals. Nanofiltration: Waste-water treatment, air purification and energy storage devices INtegrated NANO FABricationS 55 Energy : Energy Reduction of energy consumption A reduction of energy consumption can be reached by better insulation systems, by the use of more efficient lighting or combustion systems, and by use of lighter and stronger materials in the transportation sector. Currently used light bulbs only convert approximately 5% of the electrical energy into light. Nanotechnological approaches like light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or quantum caged atoms (QCAs) could lead to a strong reduction of energy consumption for illumination. Increasing the efficiency of energy production Today's best solar cells have layers of several different semiconductors stacked together to absorb light at different energies but they still only manage to use 40 percent of the Sun's energy. Commercially available solar cells have much lower efficiencies (15-20%). Nanotechnology could help increase the efficiency of light conversion by using nanostructures with a continuum of bandgaps. The degree of efficiency of the internal combustion engine is about 30-40% at the moment. Nanotechnology could improve combustion by designing specific catalysts with maximized surface area. In 2005, scientists at the University of Toronto developed a spray-on nanoparticle substance that, when applied to a surface, instantly transforms it into a solar collector. The use of more environmentally friendly energy systems An example for an environmentally friendly form of energy is the use of fuel cells powered by hydrogen, which is ideally produced by renewable energies. Probably the most prominent nanostructured material in fuel cells is the catalyst consisting of carbon supported noble metal particles with diameters of 1-5 nm. Suitable materials for hydrogen storage contain a large number of small nanosized pores. Therefore many nanostructured materials like nanotubes, zeolites or alanates are under investigation. Nanotechnology can contribute to the further reduction of combustion engine pollutants by nanoporous filters, which can clean the exhaust mechanically, by catalytic converters based on nanoscale noble metal particles or by catalytic coatings on cylinder walls and catalytic nanoparticles as additive for fuels. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 56 Energy : Energy Recycling of batteries Because of the relatively low energy density of batteries the operating time is limited and a replacement or recharging is needed. The huge number of spent batteries and accumulators represent a disposal problem. The use of batteries with higher energy content or the use of rechargeable batteries or super capacitors with higher rate of recharging using nanomaterials could be helpful for the battery disposal problem. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 57 Information & Communication : Information & Communication Memory Storage: Transistors ---> Crossbar Switch based ultrahigh density memories. Nantero --->Nano-RAM HP ---> Memresistor Novel Semiconductor Devices: Based on Spintronics used to increase High Data storage density. Novel Optoelectronic Devices: Photonic crystals 7 Quantum dots. Displays: Accomplished using CNT’s for creating FED (Field Emission Displays). Quantum Computers: Uses Qubits. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 58 Arduous Industry : Arduous Industry Aerospace Construction Refineries Vehicle Manufacturers INtegrated NANO FABricationS 59 Advantages of Nanotechnology : Advantages of Nanotechnology Its Advantages INtegrated NANO FABricationS 60 Advantages : Advantages Nano optimists, including many governments, see nanotechnology delivering benefits such as: Environmentally benign material abundance for all by providing universal clean water supplies Atomically engineered food and crops resulting in greater agricultural productivity with fewer labour requirements Nutritionally enhanced interactive ‘smart’ foods. Cheap and powerful energy generation Clean and highly efficient manufacturing Radically improved formulation of drugs, diagnostics and organ replacement Much greater information storage and communication capacities Interactive ‘smart’ appliances; and increased human performance through convergent technologies INtegrated NANO FABricationS 61 Limitations of Nanotechnology : Limitations of Nanotechnology Its Limitations INtegrated NANO FABricationS 62 Limitations : Limitations Potential risks of nanotechnology can broadly be grouped into four areas: Health issues - the effects of nanomaterials on human biology (Nanotoxicology) Environmental issues - the effects of nanomaterials on the environment (Nanopollution) Societal issues - the effects that the availability of nanotechnological devices will have on politics and human interaction "Grey goo" - the specific risks associated with the speculative vision of molecular nanotechnology INtegrated NANO FABricationS 63 Conclusion : Conclusion There is no conclusion to Nanotechnology?? INtegrated NANO FABricationS 64 Conclusion : Conclusion Nanotechnology offers the ability to build large numbers of products that are incredibly powerful by today's standards. This possibility creates both opportunity and risk. The problem of minimizing the risk is not simple; excessive restriction creates black markets, which in this context implies unrestricted nanofabrication. Selecting the proper level of restriction is likely to pose a difficult challenge. Regulation is necessary to control use of Nanotechnology. Be ready to combat the challenges posed by nanotechnology on environment & its surroundings. INtegrated NANO FABricationS 65 Is it the End?? : Is it the End?? INtegrated NANO FABricationS 66 References : References Wikipedia Nanowerk Nanotech-now Center for Responsible Nanotechnology National Nanotechnology Initiative How stuff works Other INANOFABS cited references INtegrated NANO FABricationS 67 End of SessionThank You : End of SessionThank You By Vishwanath S J INtegrated NANO FABricationS 68

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