Nature nurture

Information about Nature nurture

Published on September 4, 2007

Author: Tarzen

Source: authorstream.com

Content

The Nature part of nature/nurture for learning:  The Nature part of nature/nurture for learning A gene is a part of a chromosome. Genes are in pairs Genes affect our learning ability A chromosome consists of a double-stranded chemical = DNA Each pair (23 in humans) splits apart taking its genes with it Sometimes can get the genes from the other chromosome by a process called `crossing over’ Natural selection is not good or bad. It just happens. Most of the mutations that occur are deleterious. Darwin exploring:  Darwin exploring Evolution of traits:  Evolution of traits Natural selection (Natura):  Natural selection (Natura) There was probably one ancestor from one place- Africa.:  There was probably one ancestor from one place- Africa. All modern people can trace their heritage to Africa. DNA samples of 12,127 men from 163 Asian and Oceanic populations. Every one of the subjects carried a mutation at one of 3 genetic markers on the Y Chromosome. Those three sites can be traced back to a single African population some 35,000 to 89,000 years ago. Although there was probably one population, several species of early man may have appeared and died out. Somewhere between 200,000-500,000 years ago some migrated out of Africa (Lemonick, 1994; Harris and Hey, 1999). All children from the same mother have identical mitochrondrial DNA:  All children from the same mother have identical mitochrondrial DNA Africa has been shown to be the actual birthplace of Eve at 200,000 years ago on the basis of mtDNA (Cann, Stoneking, and Wilson) mtDNA change only by mutation (1-2% every 100,000 years). Each chance mutation is preserved in the next generation 50 genes =cognitive differences between man and ape. :  50 genes =cognitive differences between man and ape. Just 50 out of 140,000 genes that humans and chimps are thought to possess (0.3%) may account for all of the cognitive differences between man and ape. Chimps and gorilla are more closely related to humans than they are to orangutans (Jean-Jacques Hublin) Humans = a third race of chimpanzees.:  Humans = a third race of chimpanzees. From our DNA, humans appear from a genetic perspective as a third race of chimpanzees. Although chimps took a different evolutionary path from humans about 8 (9?)? million years ago, they share 98.4 percent of our DNA. In comparison, on the average humans share 99.8 percent of the same genetic material (Lewontin, 1972). There are Learning and memory genes:  There are Learning and memory genes during learning (STM) and memory (LTM) new genes are expressed that are required to establish long-term memories. There are specific genes devoted to memory storage. most identified as affecting memory are involved in signal-transduction pathways for purposes unrelated to memory Evolution of Gene Related to Brain's Growth :  Evolution of Gene Related to Brain's Growth Genes affect the evolution of the cortex. A gene (ASPM) helps determine the size of the human brain. ASPM has been under intense Darwinian pressure in the last few million years, changed its structure 15 times since humans and chimps separated from their common ancestor. Formation of memories:  Formation of memories If neuron fires often and strongly it is declaring that this is an event that should be recorded and the relevant genes turn on. The synapses holding STM are made by proteins and become tatooed into LTM. LTM (long-term memory):  LTM (long-term memory) Long-term strengthening of synaptic connections involves the induction of new genes in the neuron an increase in the number of functional synapses Genes know when to strengthen a synapse.:  Genes know when to strengthen a synapse. Genes manufacture synapse-strengthening proteins. The cell’s nucleus 'listens' to the cell’s action potential to determine when to strengthen a synapse and make a memory last. CREB is turned on by genes and vice versa:  CREB is turned on by genes and vice versa CREB= a molecular switch for the formation of LTM. CREB is required for the stability of initial and reactivated memories. Gene zif268 is associated with learning and memory.:  Gene zif268 is associated with learning and memory. It is turned on by hippocampal neuron firing. When the membrane depolarizes the machinery in the nucleus listens to the output of the neuron to decide whether to synthesize memory-fixing proteins. Turn on active Genes genes:  Turn on active Genes genes knockout-mouse or fly (Drosphilia):  knockout-mouse or fly (Drosphilia) tells us what genes are necessary to develop a normal learning and memory phenotype in the adult. These knockout lines do not give us access to all the molecules in the adult brain that participate in memory encoding. Knockout fly used in experiment in next movie clip. Master genes rule cascade of genes genes1:  Master genes rule cascade of genes genes1 Learning genes in Drosphilia:  Learning genes in Drosphilia 4 mutants obtained from behavioral screens: dunce, rutabaga, amnesiac and linotte. (3 of the 4 mutants affect molecules that are involved in learning). the mutant dunce seemed to affect learning the most Environmental modification of heritable behaviors (nature + nurture):  Environmental modification of heritable behaviors (nature + nurture) Nature: Different Genetic strains of mice bred to be smart. in an elevated maze. swimming (Japan conf). Nature + Nurture: Phenylketonuria (PKU)- genetic inability to metabolize amino acid phenylalanine. Can lead to retardation. Can control by diet. Nurture: environmental enrichment:  Nurture: environmental enrichment improved performance of rats in a water maze tended to increase activity of CREB in the hippocampus. Nurture Deficient folate = cognitive impairment.:  Nurture Deficient folate = cognitive impairment. children born to severely folate-deficient mothers often have abnormal or delayed intellectual development. taking adequate folate during pregnancy has been proven to cut nervous system birth defects by 50%. low folate - associated with depression + dementia in the elderly. Neuron on right from animal in stimulating environment=more branches :  Neuron on right from animal in stimulating environment=more branches Slide24:  AT BIRTH 3 MONTHS 2 YEARS Can either enhance or retard the normal development of the brain by the type of environment Thymidine study:  Thymidine study The development of the brain as shown by splitting and migration of DNA My research using the DNA in our genes to look at how our brain develops.:  My research using the DNA in our genes to look at how our brain develops. Pick a more primitive species. Look at parts of the new brain= the thalamus and neocortex. Those are what is important for higher processes such as learning. monodelphis opossum= short tailed gray opossum= Brazilian opossum:  monodelphis opossum= short tailed gray opossum= Brazilian opossum Use of a marsupial, the monodelphis opossum. This allows us to insert Thymidine in the embryo. Development of the thalamus in gray short-tailed opposum (J. of Mammalogy).:  Development of the thalamus in gray short-tailed opposum (J. of Mammalogy). Advantage of development in a marsupial= the embryos can received direct injections. Thymidine:  Thymidine Thymidine is taken up in the DNA `mother cells’. They split into `daughter cells’ (with half as much DNA) etc. The daughter cells and granddaughter cells migrate to their final place of work. Tritiated Thymidine:  Tritiated Thymidine The Thymidine is radioactive and so can be detected by its reactivity on an emulsion coat put over the brain tissue (which is mounted on a slide). Tritiated thymidine was injected into the monodelphis domestica at embryonic ages -3 through day +16. :  Tritiated thymidine was injected into the monodelphis domestica at embryonic ages -3 through day +16. Plotting for documentation of location:  Plotting for documentation of location My job is to document the location within the brain of the mother cells, daughter cells etc. I focused on the thalamus which is the central place for all of the information either going to the cortex or descending from the cortex= It is critical for all cortical activity. Purpose of the study:  Purpose of the study From this work we learn about how the brain develops. There are critical periods where the brain is more susceptible to damage. These would be more prevalent in the period before the neurons have migrated to their final position. results:  results The thalamus Develops at the Same time as The cortex. Cortex Same as the brainstem In that way. Easier to Repair? Stem cell research:  Stem cell research This work can help with stem cell research studies. Tissue that is not yet fully differentiated is more likely to be able to become another part of brain tissue. Someday brain repair or partial brain transplants may be a possibility for humans. Stem cells (1):  Stem cells (1) Slide37:  See you next time

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