Network Layers

Information about Network Layers

Published on May 23, 2009

Author: ankush85

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Network Layers : Network Layers The OSI and Internet Models What is a layered model? : What is a layered model? Models help us to visualize different aspects of complex abstract systems Layers represent independent components that can be examined separately or in relation to each other http://www.lsa.umich.edu/lsait/TrainingDoc/Documents/training/network-devices-presentation/sld005.htm What is a layered model? : What is a layered model? http://exonous.typepad.com/nkda/2004/week5/ Communication theorist Yochai Benkler's layers of communication. Almost all communication can be broken down into independent layers that work interdependently. The ‘layers' (and protocols between them) conceptually represent negotiations between aspects of communication: Content, logical (encoding) and physical delivery of messages. What is a layered model? : What is a layered model? Example (Benkler’s layers in action…) My brother in Sweden wants the recipe for my famous 7-layer dip What will we need to negotiate to communicate? What is a layered model? : What is a layered model? What language will we use? Swedish or English? How will we communicate? Verbally, writing, pictures? How will we physically transport the message? E-mail, snail-mail, video, telephone? Content Code Physical What are the ingredients? What is the recipe? What is a layered model? : What is a layered model? What is a layered model? : What is a layered model? Terminology Service Performance of a specific communication function Layer Self contained set of related services Interface Defines which operations and services are offered between layers, from lower to the next layer up Protocol An agreement between communicating parties on how the communication is to proceed (i.e., “handshake”) Stack List of protocols used by a particular system What is a layered model? : What is a layered model? OSI 7-Layer Model International Standards Organization’s Open Systems Interconnection model TCP/IP Model Developed by the Department of Defense 2 models for network communications The OSI Layered Model : The OSI Layered Model OSI – Open System Interconnection Layered Approach Allows better interoperability between software and hardware Allows design of elaborate but highly reliable protocol stacks OSI Layers - What does each layer do? : OSI Layers - What does each layer do? The Physical Layer Defines all electrical and physical specifications for devices. Major Functions Establishment & Termination of Connections Connection Resolution & Flow Control of Communication Resources Modulation & Conversion between Digital Data Example – radio, SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) OSI Layers - What does each layer do? : OSI Layers - What does each layer do? The Data Link Layer Controls data transfer between network entities Performs error detection & correction Uses physical/flat Addressing Scheme Example - Ethernet OSI Layers - What does each layer do? : OSI Layers - What does each layer do? The Network Layer Performs network routing, flow control, segmentation, and error control functions The router operates at this layer Uses local addressing scheme Example – IP, token ring OSI Layers - What does each layer do? : OSI Layers - What does each layer do? The Transport Layer Provide transparent transfer of data between end users Controls reliability of a given link Some protocols are stateful and connection oriented (cookies) Example – TCP / UDP OSI Layers - What does each layer do? : OSI Layers - What does each layer do? The Session Layer Provides mechanism for managing the dialogue between end-user application processes Provides for either duplex or half-duplex operation Responsible for setting up and tearing down TCP/IP sessions Example – NetBIOS OSI Layers - What does each layer do? : OSI Layers - What does each layer do? The Presentation Layer Little to do with PowerPoint Controls syntactical differences in data representation within end-user systems MIME encoding is done at this layer Example - XML OSI Layers - What does each layer do? : OSI Layers - What does each layer do? The Application Layer Provide semantic conversion between associated application processes Interfaces directly to and performs common application services for the application processes Example – Telnet, Virtual Terminal TCP/IP layered network model : TCP/IP layered network model Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol TCP/IP is a suite of protocols, also known as the Internet Protocol Suite It was originally developed for the US Department of Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) network, but it is now the basis for the Internet Application Transport Internet Network access TCP/IP network model layers : TCP/IP network model layers TCP/IP Layers - What does each layer do? : TCP/IP Layers - What does each layer do? As with the OSI model, the TCP/IP suite uses a layered model. TCP/IP model has four or five - depending on who you talk to and which books you read! Some people call it a four layer suite - Application, Transport, Internet and Network Access, others split the Network Access layer into its Physical and Datalink components. Application Transport Internet Network access TCP/IP Layers - What does each layer do? : TCP/IP Layers - What does each layer do? The combination of datalink and physical layers deals with pure hardware (wires, satellite links, network interface cards, etc.) Access methods such as CSMA/CD (carrier sensed multiple access with collision detection) Ethernet exists at the network access layer - its hardware operates at the physical layer and its medium access control method (CSMA/CD) operates at the datalink layer. Application Transport Internet Network access TCP/IP Layers - What does each layer do? : This layer is responsible for the routing and delivery of data across networks. It allows communication across networks of the same and different types and carries out translations to deal with dissimilar data addressing schemes. IP (Internet Protocol) and ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) are both to be found at the Internet layer. Application Transport Internet Network access TCP/IP Layers - What does each layer do? TCP/IP Layers - What does each layer do? : The transport layer is similar to the OSI transport model, but with elements of the OSI session layer functionality. The two protocols found at the transport layer are: TCP (Transmission Control Protocol): reliable, connection-oriented protocol that provides error checking and flow control through a virtual link that it establishes and finally terminates. Examples include FTP and Email UDP (User Datagram Protocol): unreliable, connectionless protocol that not error check or offer any flow control. Examples include SNMP Application Transport Internet Network access TCP/IP Layers - What does each layer do? TCP/IP Layers - What does each layer do? : This layer is broadly equivalent to the application, presentation and session layers of the OSI model. It gives an application access to the communication environment. Examples: Telnet HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) Application Transport Internet Network access TCP/IP Layers - What does each layer do? OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? : OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? Similarities Based on a stack of independent protocols Layers have roughly same functionality Transport layer and below provide network-independent transport services Layers above transport are application-oriented Why is this important? Easier to blend, use what works best OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? : OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? OSI: General model before protocols Model was conceptual, designers didn’t know what functionality to put in the layers Model is general, easier to replace protocols Model had to adjust when networks didn’t match the service specifications (wireless networks, internetworking) TCP/IP: model describes existing protocols Model only describes TCP/IP – not useful for describing any other networks (such as telephone networks) Why does this matter? Knowing which model to use for your context OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? : OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? Number of layers OSI has 7, TCP/IP has 4 Why does this matter? Real world vs. conceptual OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? : OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? Connectionless vs. connection-oriented OSI Network layer supports both Transport layers supports only connection-oriented TCP/IP Network layer supports only connectionless Transport layers supports both Why does this matter? What do you need for your situation? OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? : OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? OSI Flaws Bad Timing TCP/IP already well-established in academia Bad Technology Complicated, controversial model Unbalanced layers Repeating functions Designed for communications, not computing OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? : OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? OSI Flaws (cont’d) Bad Implementations Complicated to understand and implement Bad Politics Seen as biased toward European telecom, European Community and U.S. government Why does this matter? Knowing which model to use for your context OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? : OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? TCP/IP Flaws Blurred lines Doesn’t clearly distinguish between services (what a layer does), interfaces (how the layer communicates) and protocols (how the layer does what it does). Too specific Model is only suited to describing TCP/IP, not other networks Protocols can be very specific, inflexible OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? : OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? TCP/IP Flaws (cont’d) No distinction between physical and data link layers No description of transmission media, nor frame delimiters Why does this matter? Model is too specific, not specific enough Conclusion : Conclusion Layered models are useful in describing complex communication systems Allows developers to focus on layers independently Applies to conceptualization as well as implementation Models vs. protocols OSI model is useful in describing networks, but protocols are too general TCP/IP model is weak, but protocols are specific and widely used

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