Networking Protocols

Information about Networking Protocols

Published on May 23, 2009

Author: ankush85

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Networking Protocols and the OSI Model : Networking Protocols and the OSI Model ankush OSI Model Overview : OSI Model Overview The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model is an industry standard framework that is used to divide the functions of networking into seven distinct layers. Each layer provides specific services to the layers above and below it in order for the network to work effectively. OSI Model Overview : OSI Model Overview A message begins at the top application layer and moves down the OSI layers to the bottom physical layer. As the message descends, each successive OSI model layer adds a header to it. A header is layer-specific information that basically explains what functions the layer carried out. Conversely, at the receiving end, headers are striped from the message as it travels up the corresponding layers. What is a Protocol? : What is a Protocol? Protocol is a controlled sequence of messages that is exchanged between two or more systems to accomplish a given task. Protocol specifications define this sequence together with the format or layout of the messages that are exchanged. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol : Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite of protocols has become the dominant standard for inter-networking. TCP/IP represents a set of public standards that specify how packets of information are exchanged between computers over one or more networks. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol : Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange : Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) is the protocol suite employed originally by Novell®. It delivers functions similar to those included in TCP/IP. NetBEUI : NetBEUI NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) is a protocol used primarily on small Windows NT networks. NetBEUI is a simple protocol that lacks many of the features that enable protocol suites such as TCP/IP to be used on networks of almost any size. AppleTalk : AppleTalk AppleTalk is comprised of a e set of protocols that span the seven layers of the OSI reference model. AppleTalk protocols were designed to run over the major LAN types, notably Ethernet and Token Ring, and also Apple's own LAN physical topology, LocalTalk. TCP/IP Utilities : TCP/IP Utilities Overview : Overview TCP/IP is a complex collection of protocols. Most vendors implement the suite to include a variety of utilities for viewing configuration information and troubleshooting problems. Ping : Ping Ping works by sending an ICMP echo request to the destination computer. The receiving computer then sends back an ICMP echo reply message It is also possible to use Ping to find the IP address of a host when the name is known. ARP, RARP, NSLOOKUP : ARP, RARP, NSLOOKUP Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is the means by which networked computers map Internet Protocol (IP) addresses to physical hardware (MAC) addresses that are recognized in a local network. Machines that do not know their IP addresses use Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP). It is used to obtain IP address information based on the physical or MAC address. ARP, RARP, NSLOOKUP : ARP, RARP, NSLOOKUP Nslookup returns the IP address for a given hostname. It will also do the reverse and find the host name for a specified IP address. Netstat/tpcon : Netstat/tpcon The netstat command is used in Windows and UNIX/Linux to display TCP/IP connection and protocol information. The netstat command provides a list of connections that are currently active. Netstat statistics can be useful in troubleshooting TCP/IP connectivity problems. Nbtstat : Nbtstat The Microsoft TCP/IP stacks included in Windows operating systems provide the nbtstat utility, which is used to display NetBIOS information. Ipconfig, winipcfg, config, and ifconfig : Ipconfig, winipcfg, config, and ifconfig TCP/IP configuration information can be displayed using different utilities Ipconfig – Windows NT and Windows 2000 (command-line) Winipcfg –- Windows 95, 98, and ME (graphical interface) Ifconfig – UNIX and Linux (command-line Tracert, iptrace, and traceroute : Tracert, iptrace, and traceroute It is often useful to trace the route a packet takes on its journey from source computer to destination host. TCP/IP stacks include a route tracing utility that enables users to identify the routers through which the message passes. The options depend on the operating system: Tracert Iptrace Traceroute Connecting to the Internet : Connecting to the Internet Synchronous and Asynchronous Serial lines : Synchronous and Asynchronous Serial lines Synchronous serial transmission – Data bits are sent together with a synchronizing clock pulse. Built-in timing mechanism coordinates the clocks of the sending and receiving devices. Asynchronous serial transmission – Data bits are sent without a synchronizing clock pulse. Uses a start bit at the beginning of each message. When the receiving device gets the start bit, it can synchronize its internal clock with the sender clock. Modems : Modems The modem is an electronic device that is used for computer communications through telephone lines. It allows data transfer between one computer and another. There are four main types of modems: Expansion cards PCMCIA External modems Built-in modems Dial-Up Networking, Modem Standards, AT Commands : Dial-Up Networking, Modem Standards, AT Commands When computers use the public telephone system or network to communicate, it is called Dial-Up Networking (DUN). All modems require software to control the communication session. The set of commands that most modem software uses are known as the Hayes-compatible command set. The Hayes command set is based on a group of instructions that always begins with a set of attention characters (AT). ISPs and Internet Backbone Providers : ISPs and Internet Backbone Providers Services of an Internet Service Provider (ISP) are required to surf the Internet. An ISP is a company that connects computers to the Internet and World Wide Web. The actual connection to the Internet is tiered. The ISP may link to a larger regional ISP, which in turn might connect to one of a number of nationwide computer centers. ISPs and Internet Backbone Providers : ISPs and Internet Backbone Providers The current U.S. Internet infrastructure consists of a commercial backbone and a high-speed service known as the Very High-Speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS). The vBNS connects five supercomputer networks across the country: UUNET - a division of WorldCom Cable & Wireless USA Sprint AT&T BBN Planet ISPs and Internet Backbone Providers : ISPs and Internet Backbone Providers The ISP that cannot connect directly to the national backbone is charged a fee to connect to a regional provider that links to the national backbone through a Network Access Point (NAP). Not all the Internet traffic goes through NAPs. Some ISPs that are in the same geographic area make their own interconnections and peering agreements. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) : Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) is an always-on technology. This means there is no need to dial up each time to connect to the Internet. DSL comes in several varieties: Asymmetric DSL (ADSL) High Data Rate DSL (HDSL) Symmetric DSL (SDSL) Very High Data Rate DSL (VDSL) Cable Modems : Cable Modems A cable modem acts like a LAN interface by connecting a computer to the Internet. The cable modem connects a computer to the cable company network through the same coaxial cabling that feeds cable TV (CATV) signals to a television set. Cable Modem versus DSL Internet Technologies : Cable Modem versus DSL Internet Technologies When it comes to comparing cable modem and DSL Internet technologies, both have their pros and cons. ISDN : ISDN Another alternative to using analog telephones lines to establish a connection is ISDN. Speed is one advantage ISDN has over telephone line connections. ISDN uses a pair of 64Kbps digital lines to connect, which provides a total of 128Kbps throughput. A telephone line connects at a maximum speed of 56Kbps, and in some areas, doesn’t even reach that. Satellite : Satellite Satellite is an option for users in rural areas or with no other access to high speed Internet service. Satellite Internet does not require a phone line or cable. Two-way communication, for upload and download, is achieved with the use of a satellite dish. Download speed is up to 500 kbps while the upload speed is one-tenth of that of that.

Related presentations


Other presentations created by ankush85

Nanotechnology
03. 04. 2009
0 views

Nanotechnology

Human Resource Management System
06. 03. 2009
0 views

Human Resource Management System

Nanotechnology
27. 03. 2009
0 views

Nanotechnology

INTRODUCTION TO NANOTECHNOLOGY
20. 11. 2009
0 views

INTRODUCTION TO NANOTECHNOLOGY

Nanotechnology in Sports
22. 11. 2009
0 views

Nanotechnology in Sports

Computer Architecture
14. 07. 2009
0 views

Computer Architecture

HR
18. 03. 2009
0 views

HR

Hospital Management System
08. 04. 2009
0 views

Hospital Management System

Welcome to Visual Basic
06. 03. 2009
0 views

Welcome to Visual Basic

HTML
20. 04. 2009
0 views

HTML

Computer Languages
03. 06. 2013
0 views

Computer Languages

Taking Care of Computer
03. 06. 2013
0 views

Taking Care of Computer

Understanding Camera
16. 10. 2012
0 views

Understanding Camera

Photography Technical Terms
25. 09. 2012
0 views

Photography Technical Terms

Basics of Photography
25. 09. 2012
0 views

Basics of Photography

AIR MUSCLES
03. 01. 2012
0 views

AIR MUSCLES

Molecular Nanotechnology
24. 11. 2009
0 views

Molecular Nanotechnology

Nanotech Innovation
22. 11. 2009
0 views

Nanotech Innovation

FINANCIAL  MARKET
16. 05. 2009
0 views

FINANCIAL MARKET

Operating System
19. 04. 2009
0 views

Operating System

Management Control
10. 07. 2009
0 views

Management Control

Accounting Principles
01. 07. 2009
0 views

Accounting Principles

Balance Sheet
21. 07. 2009
0 views

Balance Sheet

Balance Sheet Auditing
01. 07. 2009
0 views

Balance Sheet Auditing

BRANCH AND BOUND
05. 03. 2009
0 views

BRANCH AND BOUND

THE  THREE  BRANCHES  OF GOVERNMENT
13. 06. 2009
0 views

THE THREE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT

Structure of Atom
11. 05. 2009
0 views

Structure of Atom

Compression Techniques
05. 03. 2009
0 views

Compression Techniques

DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING
06. 03. 2009
0 views

DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING

Quantum Mechanics
25. 08. 2009
0 views

Quantum Mechanics

Marketing Plan
19. 06. 2009
0 views

Marketing Plan

Book Keeping
24. 06. 2009
0 views

Book Keeping

DFDS
02. 10. 2008
0 views

DFDS

Semiconductors
25. 04. 2009
0 views

Semiconductors

Organic  Chemistry
28. 04. 2009
0 views

Organic Chemistry

Atoms Molecules and Ions
17. 06. 2009
0 views

Atoms Molecules and Ions

Covalent Bond
25. 04. 2009
0 views

Covalent Bond

Cost Accounting Standards
25. 06. 2009
0 views

Cost Accounting Standards

Crisis Management
19. 06. 2009
0 views

Crisis Management

Marketing
18. 03. 2009
0 views

Marketing

Business Strategy
27. 04. 2009
0 views

Business Strategy

Time Management
23. 03. 2009
0 views

Time Management

Network Layer
23. 05. 2009
0 views

Network Layer

Final Accounts
24. 06. 2009
0 views

Final Accounts

ARTIFICIAL  INTELLIGENCE
03. 04. 2009
0 views

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Play with C
08. 04. 2009
0 views

Play with C

Software Development Cycle
23. 03. 2009
0 views

Software Development Cycle

THE GREEDY METHOD
06. 03. 2009
0 views

THE GREEDY METHOD

JOB SEQUENCING
06. 03. 2009
0 views

JOB SEQUENCING

Electricity and Magnetism
29. 04. 2009
0 views

Electricity and Magnetism

Optical Fiber
24. 05. 2009
0 views

Optical Fiber

Quality Assurance
06. 03. 2009
0 views

Quality Assurance

Object-oriented Design
11. 04. 2009
0 views

Object-oriented Design

A.R. Rahman
08. 03. 2009
0 views

A.R. Rahman

Hollywood Female Celebrities
13. 03. 2009
0 views

Hollywood Female Celebrities

Flow nets
04. 09. 2009
0 views

Flow nets

Energy and Nanotechnology
22. 11. 2009
0 views

Energy and Nanotechnology

LOGIC  DESIGN
06. 03. 2009
0 views

LOGIC DESIGN

VB-IDE
06. 03. 2009
0 views

VB-IDE

DLF IPL FINAL
25. 05. 2009
0 views

DLF IPL FINAL

MINIMUM SPANNING TREES
06. 03. 2009
0 views

MINIMUM SPANNING TREES

CPU Scheduling
05. 03. 2009
0 views

CPU Scheduling

Virtual Memory
05. 03. 2009
0 views

Virtual Memory

POK
09. 05. 2009
0 views

POK

2D Transformations
05. 03. 2009
0 views

2D Transformations

Greedy Algorithms
05. 03. 2009
0 views

Greedy Algorithms

BACKTRACKING
05. 03. 2009
0 views

BACKTRACKING

DIVIDE And CONQUER
06. 03. 2009
0 views

DIVIDE And CONQUER

ELEMENTARY DATA STRUCTURES
06. 03. 2009
0 views

ELEMENTARY DATA STRUCTURES

JPEG Compression
06. 03. 2009
0 views

JPEG Compression

Mpeg-compression
06. 03. 2009
0 views

Mpeg-compression

NP - HARD
06. 03. 2009
0 views

NP - HARD

TRAVELLING SALESPERSON PROBLEM
06. 03. 2009
0 views

TRAVELLING SALESPERSON PROBLEM

VBA Introduction
06. 03. 2009
0 views

VBA Introduction

Introduction to Java
09. 03. 2009
0 views

Introduction to Java

Java  Basics
09. 03. 2009
0 views

Java Basics

Heuristic Search
13. 03. 2009
0 views

Heuristic Search

HSM
19. 03. 2009
0 views

HSM

Tata's  Nano  Car
25. 03. 2009
0 views

Tata's Nano Car

Air Cranes
08. 04. 2009
0 views

Air Cranes

Newborn Care
10. 04. 2009
0 views

Newborn Care

Photosynthesis Process
10. 04. 2009
0 views

Photosynthesis Process

ActionScript
13. 04. 2009
0 views

ActionScript

Xml
15. 04. 2009
0 views

Xml

Snakes mis use
17. 04. 2009
0 views

Snakes mis use

Php Web Development
21. 04. 2009
0 views

Php Web Development

Cricket Intro
21. 04. 2009
0 views

Cricket Intro

Cricket Umpiring and Rules
21. 04. 2009
0 views

Cricket Umpiring and Rules

Arm and Forearm
23. 04. 2009
0 views

Arm and Forearm

Elements Ions Isotopes
25. 04. 2009
0 views

Elements Ions Isotopes

Chemical Bond
25. 04. 2009
0 views

Chemical Bond

Discovering Newtons Laws
29. 04. 2009
0 views

Discovering Newtons Laws

FreeFall
29. 04. 2009
0 views

FreeFall

Digital photography
26. 04. 2009
0 views

Digital photography

Health Effects of Alcohol
26. 04. 2009
0 views

Health Effects of Alcohol

Poetry Terminology
27. 04. 2009
0 views

Poetry Terminology

Indian Force
05. 05. 2009
0 views

Indian Force

Machine Intelligence
14. 05. 2009
0 views

Machine Intelligence

Data Link Layer
16. 05. 2009
0 views

Data Link Layer

Database Development Cycle
15. 05. 2009
0 views

Database Development Cycle

Queue
15. 05. 2009
0 views

Queue

Presentaion Skills
23. 04. 2009
0 views

Presentaion Skills

Network Layers
23. 05. 2009
0 views

Network Layers

Narmada Dam, India
23. 05. 2009
0 views

Narmada Dam, India

User Datagram Protocol
24. 05. 2009
0 views

User Datagram Protocol

Linear Momentum
28. 05. 2009
0 views

Linear Momentum

Stack and Queue
04. 06. 2009
0 views

Stack and Queue

Information Management
19. 06. 2009
0 views

Information Management

Role of Senior Management
19. 06. 2009
0 views

Role of Senior Management

Wake Up India
07. 06. 2009
0 views

Wake Up India

Adobe Flex 3.0
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Adobe Flex 3.0

Adobe Flex Presentation
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Adobe Flex Presentation

Introduction to Adobe Flex
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Introduction to Adobe Flex

Adobe Flash Media Server
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Adobe Flash Media Server

Dreamweaver
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Dreamweaver

Adobe Flash
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Adobe Flash

Flash CS4 Professional
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Flash CS4 Professional

Adobe Flash Lite
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Adobe Flash Lite

Digital Camera
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Digital Camera

Mozilla_Firefox
15. 06. 2009
0 views

Mozilla_Firefox

Managerial Accounting
27. 06. 2009
0 views

Managerial Accounting

Accounting  Information  System
01. 07. 2009
0 views

Accounting Information System

RETAILING AND MARKETING
06. 07. 2009
0 views

RETAILING AND MARKETING

ACCOUNTING IN BUSINESS
05. 07. 2009
0 views

ACCOUNTING IN BUSINESS

STRATEGIC RETAIL MANAGEMENT
05. 07. 2009
0 views

STRATEGIC RETAIL MANAGEMENT

Reiki
01. 08. 2009
0 views

Reiki

Using Buttons in PowerPoint
26. 04. 2009
0 views

Using Buttons in PowerPoint

Nanotechnology  for  Students
21. 08. 2009
0 views

Nanotechnology for Students

NANOSCIENCE
25. 08. 2009
0 views

NANOSCIENCE

Fundamentals of Nanoscience
27. 08. 2009
0 views

Fundamentals of Nanoscience

Nanoscience in Nature
27. 08. 2009
0 views

Nanoscience in Nature

Applied Mechanics
04. 09. 2009
0 views

Applied Mechanics

Accounts Payable Training
27. 06. 2009
0 views

Accounts Payable Training