Published on February 8, 2008
Slide1: New Technology Support for Electric Vehicles Slide2: Modern Electric Vehicles Significant Improvements in - performance - speed - reliability Through - advanced electronics - improved motors and batteries - shared electronics - low rolling resistance tires - light weight structure - improved aerodynamics Barriers to Wide ScaleAcceptance of Electric Vehicles: Barriers to Wide Scale Acceptance of Electric Vehicles Vehicle Cost Production is limited at the present time. Limited Range Battery energy capacity Recharging infrastructure United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC): United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) USABC Goals for Battery Performance: USABC Goals for Battery Performance Battery Performance Factor Energy Density (Whr/Kg) Power Density (W/Kg) Life (Cycles/years) $/kwh Current Lead Acid 33 100 600/3 $100 USABC Mid-Term Goals 80-100 150 600/5 $150 USABC Long Term Goals 200 400 1000/10 $100 Impact on Vehicle Performance Range Acceleration Life cycle cost Replacement period Acquisition cost Battery replacement cost Lead Acid Batteries: Lead Acid Batteries Current Lead Acid Batteries used in most electric vehicles energy density 33 whr/kg power density 100 w/kg cycle life 300 cost $100/kwhr Advanced Lead Acid Batteries available in 2-3 years energy density 50 whr/kg power density 300-400 w/kg cycle like 400-600 cost $120-$150/kwhr Horizon Battery Nickel Cadmium Batteries: Nickel Cadmium Batteries Sealed Ni-Cd Batteries energy density 55-60 whr/kg power density 80-150 w/kg cycle life >1500 cycles cost $300 /kwhr Outlook: Will Ni-Cd be able to compete with the emerging NiMH battery system? Saft Nickel Cadmium Battery Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries: Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries AB5 type metal hydride (Saft, Varta, Japanese) Present Year 2000 energy density 70 whr/kg 70-80 power density 115-180 w/kg 180-225 cycle life 750-1000 1000-2000 cost >$1000 /kwhr $225-$50 AB2 type metal hydride (Ovonics) At present Year 2001 energy density 70-90 whr/kg 120 whr/kg power density 220 w/kg 250 w/kg cycle life >600 >800 cost $450-$550 $230-$250 Ovonic Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Lithium-Ion Batteries: Lithium-Ion Batteries Present Year 2002 Energy density 100-120 whr/hg 120-140 whr/kg Power density 300 w/kg 300 w/kg Cycle life 1200 cycles >1200 cycles Cost $1000/kwhr $200-$500/kwhr Saft Battery Company Lithium Metal Polymer Batteries: Lithium Metal Polymer Batteries Present Year 2002 Energy density 155 whr/hg 200 whr/kg Power density 315 w/kg 350 w/kg Cycle life 600 cycles 1000 cycles Cost $750-$1500/kwhr $125-$175/kwhr 3M-Hydro Quebec Lithium Polymer Battery Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries: Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries Battery weight 15 grams Energy density 120 whr/kg Cycle life >500 cycles Panasonic Lithium-Ion Batteries Zinc-Air Battery: Zinc-Air Battery Present Year 2002 Energy density 215 whr/hg 350 whr/kg Power density 100 w/kg N.A. Cost N.A. $150/kwhr Electric Fuel Inc. Zinc-Air Battery Range with a 3.500 kg van--320 miles Mechanically recharged United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC): United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) Lead-acid Advanced lead-acid Zinc air Nickel-metal hydride Lithium-ion Lithium polymer 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 Mid-term goal Long-term goal Energy Density 400 300 200 100 Power Density Mid-term goal Long-term goal 2000 1000 Cycle Life Mid-term goal Long-term goal N.A. Present Future Whrs/kg W/kg cycles Advanced EV Batteries: Advanced EV Batteries Projected Range* Projected (Miles) Cycle Life Battery Type Current Lead-acid** Advanced Lead-acid Nickel-Metal Hydride Lithium-Ion Lithium Polymer * Range assumes a constant battery pack weight of 550 kg and a vehicle efficiency of 3 miles/kwhr. ** Current lead-acid battery is included for comparison. 54 82 150 200 250 - 300 500 600 1000 1200 1000 (est.) Zinc-Air 450 - 500 N.A. An Electric Car: An Electric Car A Gasoline Car: A Gasoline Car Transmission Power Unit (internal combustion engine) Fuel (gasoline) Parallel Hybrid Electric Car: Parallel Hybrid Electric Car Transmission Power Unit (motor/controller) Fuel (batteries) Auxiliary Unit Fuel Auxiliary Power Unit Regenerative Brakes Series Hybrid Electric Car: Series Hybrid Electric Car Transmission Power Unit (motor/controller) Fuel (batteries) Auxiliary Unit Fuel Auxiliary Power Unit Regenerative Brakes Generator Combination Hybrid Car: Combination Hybrid Car Transmission Power Unit (motor/controller/generator) Fuel (batteries) Auxiliary Unit Fuel Auxiliary Power Unit Regenerative Brakes Generator Toyota PriusHybrid Electric Vehicle: Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Vehicle Operation of a Combination Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Operation of a Combination Hybrid Electric Vehicle Starting/Low Speed APU engine is off. Electric motor powers the vehicle. Normal Driving APU supplies power to wheels and generator. Electric motor supplies supplemental power. Deceleration/Braking Kinetic energy of motion is converted to electricity to charge the batteries. Stopped APU engine is off. Characteristics of HEVs: Characteristics of HEVs Series HEV Electric motor powers the vehicle. Engine runs at constant speed and charges the battery pack. Location of the APU motor/generator is flexible. Parallel HEV APU engine and electric motor are connected to the drive system--improves efficiency. Greater power is available using the APU engine and electric motor simultaneously. No generator is needed. Combination HEV Characteristics of both series and hybrid HEVs. More components and a more complex control system is needed. Advantages of HybridElectric Vehicles: Advantages of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Range is greater than an EV. Emissions are reduced. Gas mileage is improved. There is a potential for zero harmful emissions. A Fuel Cell: A Fuel Cell Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Carbon Dioxide Emissions Carbon Dioxide Emissions lbs./mile Gasoline combustion Fuel cell running on hydrogen from gasoline Fuel cell running on hydrogen Fuel cell running on hydrogen from methane 0.85 0. 70 0. 15 0 Fuel CellHybrid Electric Vehicles: Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles Ballard Buses Ford Sedan Daimler Chrysler Fuel CellPowered Hybrid Electric Car: Daimler Chrysler Fuel Cell Powered Hybrid Electric Car Slide28: Acknowledgement This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 9850269. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.