Published on January 17, 2008
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S W W W . P R E N H A L L . C O M / R O B B I N S T E N T H E D I T I O N AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER,YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:: AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: Contrast terminal and instrumental values. List the dominant values in today’s workforce. Identify the five value dimensions of national culture. Contrast the three components of an attitude. Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior. Identify the role consistency plays in attitudes. L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER,YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:: AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: State the relationship between job satisfaction and behavior. Identify four employee responses to dissatisfaction. L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S (cont’d) Value: Value Values represents basic convictions (certainty) that “a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence”. Types of Values –- Rokeach Value Survey: Types of Values –- Rokeach Value Survey Values in the Rokeach Survey: Values in the Rokeach Survey Values in the Rokeach Survey(cont’d): Values in the Rokeach Survey (cont’d) Mean Value Rankings of Executives, Union Members, and Activists: Mean Value Rankings of Executives, Union Members, and Activists Dominant Work Values in Today’s Workforce: Dominant Work Values in Today’s Workforce Values, Loyalty, and Ethical Behavior: Values, Loyalty, and Ethical Behavior Ethical Climate in the Organization Ethical Values and Behaviors of Leaders Hofstede’s Five Value Dimensions: Hofstede’s Five Value Dimensions Power Distance Individualism versus Collectivism Quantity of life and Quality of Life Uncertainty Avoidance Long-term versus Short-term Orientation Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures: Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d): Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d): Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d): Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d): Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Attitude: Attitude 1. Cognitive 2. Affective 3. Behavioral Components of Attitudes Attitudes, Contd.,: Attitudes, Contd., Types of Attitudes: Types of Attitudes Job Satisfaction Job Involvement Organizational Commitment job satisfaction Job satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitude toward his or her job. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes toward the job, while a person who is dissatisfied with his or her job holds negative attitudes about the job. Types of Attitudes: Types of Attitudes Attitude and Consistency: Attitude and Consistency Desire to reduce dissonance Importance of elements creating dissonance Degree of individual influence over elements Rewards involved in dissonance Attitude and Consistency, Contd.,: Attitude and Consistency, Contd., • Any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and that individuals will attempt to reduce the dissonance and, hence, the discomfort. • Therefore, individuals will seek a stable state in which there is a minimum of dissonance. E.g., Mrs Smith is a corporate managers. She strongly believes that no company should pollute the air or water. Unfortunately, Mrs. Smith, because of the requirements of her job, is placed in the position of having to make decisions that would trade off her company’s profitability against her attitudes on pollution. She knows that dumping the company’s sewage into the local river (which she assume is legal) is in the best economic interest of her firm. What she will do? Clearly, she is experiencing a high degree of cognitive dissonance. Measuring the Attitude and Behavior (A-B) Relationship: Measuring the Attitude and Behavior (A-B) Relationship Recent research indicates that the attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account. Moderating Variables Importance of the attitude Specificity of the attitude Accessibility of the attitude Social pressures on the individual Direct experience with the attitude Self-Perception Theory for Measuring A-B Relationship: Self-Perception Theory for Measuring A-B Relationship When asked about an attitude toward some object, individuals recall their behavior relevant to that object and then infer their attitude from their past behavior. An Application: Attitude Surveys: An Application: Attitude Surveys The preceding review indicates that a knowledge of employee attitudes can be helpful to managers in attempting to predict employee behavior. Sample Attitude Survey: Sample Attitude Survey Job Satisfaction: Job Satisfaction Single Global Rating Method Single global rating method is nothing more than asking individuals to respond to one question, such as, “ All things considered, how satisfied are you with your job?” The respondents then reply by circling a number between 1 and 5 that corresponds to answers from “highly satisfied” to “highly dissatisfied”. Summation Score Method It is a more sophisticated method. It identifies key elements in a job and asks for the employees feelings about each. Typical factors that would be included are the nature of the work, supervision, present pay, promotion opportunities, and relations with workers. Job Satisfaction, Contd.,: Job Satisfaction, Contd., How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? Job satisfaction declined to 50.7% in 2000 Decline attributed to: Pressures to increase productivity Less control over work The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance: The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance Satisfaction and Productivity Satisfied workers aren’t necessarily more productive. Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers. Satisfaction and Absenteeism Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences. Satisfaction and Turnover Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. Organizations take actions to cultivate high performers and to weed out lower performers. Responses to Job Dissatisfaction: Responses to Job Dissatisfaction How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction: How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction Job Satisfaction and OCB: Job Satisfaction and OCB Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job.