Occupational Therapy and Disaster

Information about Occupational Therapy and Disaster

Published on July 16, 2014

Author: Ohtee_0424

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Occupational Therapy and Disaster : Occupational Therapy and Disaster Psychosocial Interventions OCT 5406C Sheri Montgomery, OTR/L, OTD, FAOTA Learning Objectives: Learning Objectives Describe the impact of disasters on mental health including factors that may predispose a person to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Discuss the role of OT practitioners in addressing the needs of individuals, families, and communities at various stages of disasters. Describe how OT practitioners might address the needs of special populations during disaster . Identify potential training needs of OT personnel in order to more effectively participate in disaster work. Definition of Disaster: Definition of Disaster A dangerous accidental or uncontrollable situation or event that causes: significant environmental destruction; loss of life; and disruption of social structure and normal daily routines Disasters overwhelm the local capacity to respond and necessitate requests for external assistance Stages of a Disaster: Stages of a Disaster Disasters progress through a sequence of stages: pre-impact; Impact; immediate post-impact; and recovery and reconstruction periods (Each period requires different responses) Following disaster, most survivors experience acute stress reactions Common acute stress reactions: Common acute stress reactions Emotional Grief Fear Guilt Numbness Despair Cognitive Confusion Limited concentration Lack of focus Difficulty making decisions Post traumatic stress disorder: Post traumatic stress disorder Predisposing Factors Childhood abuse Previously unresolved losses or trauma Substance use Previous psychiatric history Multiple life stressors Post T raumatic Factors Lack of social and family supports Extensive personal loss Adverse reactions from others (blame or rejection) Survivor guilt Special needs Populations: Special needs Populations Evacuees in shelters Disaster relief workers Children Persons with disabilities Compassion Fatigue: Compassion Fatigue Sometimes referred to as secondary traumatic stress reaction Occurs when the disaster relief worker becomes preoccupied with the suffering and distress being experienced by the recipients of care Results in “ â€Ĥa deep physical, emotional and spiritual exhaustion accompanied by acute emotional pain. ” Pfifferling & Gilley, 2000, p. 39 Can be prevented by: good nutrition; adequate sleep; enjoyable physical activity; time with family and friends; and prayer and meditation Trauma informed care: Trauma informed care Assessment and intervention that reflects understanding of trauma on the individual, Focus on support for trauma survivors and avoiding further trauma Strengths-based approach, recognizing that the individual ’ s response is a normal response to an abnormal situation Is the standard of care in mental health Compatible with OT philosophy, theory and practice Stages of Disaster: Stages of Disaster Preparation Stage Design evacuation plans and/or plans for sheltering in place Train personnel and volunteers for special needs shelters Provide consultation for community agencies Address accessibility issues Post-Impact Stage Assist indiviudlas to transition out of temporary housing into permanent housing Provide comfort to children and respite for parents Rebuild accessible housing through working with volunteer groups Provide mental health services for survivors and disaster relied workers Recovery and Reconstruction Stages Facilitate return to routines as much as possible Promote stress management and personal care strategies Support participation in leisure and social activities Restore social and community connections and supports Encourage people to talk about their experiences Who to collaborate with: Who to collaborate with American Red Cross Salvation Army Federal and state emergency management agencies Community emergency response teams Mental health crisis centers Employee assistance programs Critical incident stress management teams

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