Ocean

Information about Ocean

Published on April 7, 2008

Author: Mentor

Source: authorstream.com

Content

The Oceans:  The Oceans A Presentation on Atmosphere-Ocean Interaction National Weather Service Shreveport, LA Presented by: Why study major bodies of water?:  Why study major bodies of water? Water covers nearly ¾ of the earth’s surface More than 50% of the world’s population lives within an hour of the coast Plays a role in both climate and day-to-day weather FOOD! Cost of your food could depend on it The “Basics”:  The “Basics” There are FOUR oceans ATLANTIC PACIFIC INDIAN SOUTHERN Around the World in 4 Slides…:  Around the World in 4 Slides… Around the World in 4 Slides…:  Around the World in 4 Slides… Around the World in 4 Slides…:  Around the World in 4 Slides… Around the World in 4 Slides…:  Around the World in 4 Slides… “Defined” in 2000 Ocean or Sea, What’s the Big Deal?:  Ocean or Sea, What’s the Big Deal? SEAS Delineated by land masses Doesn’t matter if they’re largely enclosed Also “communicate” with the ocean Black Sea Mediterranean Sea Africa Europe Gulf of Mexico United States Mexico Bragging Rights…:  Bragging Rights… Which ocean is the biggest? Bragging Rights…:  Bragging Rights… Which ocean has the most coastline? Water is Water…or is it?!:  Water is Water…or is it?! FRESHWATER Rivers Streams Lakes SALTWATER Oceans Gulfs Seas Water is Water…or is it?!:  Water is Water…or is it?! QUESTION: Is saltwater the same everywhere? ANSWER: Nope. In general, the Atlantic Ocean is the “saltiest.” Please Pass the Salt…:  Please Pass the Salt… “Run-of-the-mill” concentration? 3.5 grams/liter Like weather, there are areas of HIGH salinity LOW salinity So, where are these “highs” and “lows”? Please Pass the Salt…:  Please Pass the Salt… H H H H H L L L Mmmmm…Salty!:  Mmmmm…Salty! DEAD SEA FACTS: Really a large lake Water gets in, but not out! Fed by River Jordan Evaporation only way out Has nearly 10 times the salinity of the oceans! Leads to increased density So??:  So?? The increased density means just about anything will float! We can see this through the use of eggs! We’re Goin’ Down, Down, Down…:  We’re Goin’ Down, Down, Down… Just like the atmosphere, the ocean has layers! The Epipelagic Zone:  The Epipelagic Zone “Sunlight Zone” Most solar heating Lots of temperature change Surface to 200m Influenced by wind Bridge Over Troubled Waters…:  Bridge Over Troubled Waters… A transition layer Temperature decreases rapidly Relevance to you? Higher bass concentrations (oxygen is just right) The Mesopelagic Zone:  The Mesopelagic Zone “Twilight Zone” Most temperature change near top of layer Between 200 and 1000m Animal characteristics begin to change The Bathypelagic Zone:  The Bathypelagic Zone “Midnight Zone” No light at all Only light comes from animals Very little temperature change Pressure reaches over 5800 p.s.i. The Abyssopelagic Zone:  The Abyssopelagic Zone “The Abyss” Greek word meaning “no bottom” Between 4000 and 6000m Water temperature near freezing The Hadalpelagic Zone:  The Hadalpelagic Zone “The Trenches” Anything below 6000m Worth repeating: Deepest trench is the Mariana Trench “Weight”: >8 t.s.i. Life still exists here! That’s TONS per square inch! Our Mr. Sun:  Our Mr. Sun “Driving Force” Solar radiation affects the ocean differently More on this later Ultimate cause of wind Ocean Currents – Just the Facts:  Ocean Currents – Just the Facts Two types: Wind-driven Currents Deep Water Currents 40% of the global heat transport Move slower than surface winds Kilometers per day vs. kilometers per hour Long-term climate impacts Gulf Stream most important in our region Ocean Currents -- Development:  Ocean Currents -- Development Oceans near equator “heat up” more than the poles Sets up… Temperature imbalance Semi-permanent pressure areas Constant push of wind on water Ocean Currents – The Big Picture:  Ocean Currents – The Big Picture The Gulf Stream:  The Gulf Stream Dust in the Wind – During the Day:  Dust in the Wind – During the Day Beach heats faster than ocean Air rises onshore Slightly cooler, denser air moves onshore to replace the “lost” air Results: Onshore breeze Possible storm development Dust in the Wind – At Night:  Dust in the Wind – At Night Beach cools faster than ocean Air rises offshore Slightly cooler, denser air moves offshore to replace the “lost” air Results: Offshore breeze Possible storm development Wave Action:  Wave Action Another byproduct of wind Size depends on THREE things: Speed Duration Distance Longer the wave, the faster it moves Here’s a cool fact: You can estimate the wind speed using the size of waves Battle of the Bulge:  Battle of the Bulge Tides are another type of wave action Definition: A change in the ocean water level, which results from the gravitational pull of the moon POP QUIZ:  POP QUIZ Where are the largest ranges from high to low tide in the world? Battle of the Bulge:  Battle of the Bulge Why the moon? Sun’s gravitational pull is greater But the moon is closer Mariners have known for a long time that tides were related to the moon Battle of the Bulge:  Battle of the Bulge Famous dead people who have studied tidal motion: Galileo Descartes Newton Laplace Lord Kelvin Kepler POP QUIZ:  POP QUIZ Where are the largest ranges from high to low tide in the world? HINT: It’s in North America Two tides? Four tides?:  Two tides? Four tides? Number of tides per day related to… Shape of the coastline Sea floor elevation Some places have one high/low tide cycle Called a diurnal tide Examples: Lake Charles, LA Gulfport, MS Gulf Shores, AL Pensacola, FL Two tides? Four tides?:  Two tides? Four tides? Number of tides per day related to… Shape of the coastline Sea floor elevation Other places have two high/low tide cycles Called a semi-diurnal tide Examples: Galveston, TX Apalachicola, FL Largest Tidal Range in the World:  Largest Tidal Range in the World Bay of Fundy! Where is the Bay of Fundy?:  Where is the Bay of Fundy? The Knights Who Say “Neap”:  The Knights Who Say “Neap” Occur when the pull of the moon and sun partially cancel each other RESULT: Very little change between high and low tides Springing Onward…:  Springing Onward… Occurs when the pull of the sun and moon act together RESULT: Greater than normal tidal range experienced About the Cost of Your Food…:  About the Cost of Your Food… Normally… Warm waters over Central Pacific Cooler waters off Peruvian coast Colder, nutrient-rich waters pulled up from western coast of South America About the Cost of Your Food…:  About the Cost of Your Food… El Nino: Equatorial Countercurrent strengthens Nutrient-rich water supply lessens RESULT: Waters warm off Peruvian Coast About the Cost of Your Food…:  About the Cost of Your Food… La Nina: Weaker Equatorial Countercurrent Nutrient-rich water supply increases RESULT: Warm waters “pile up” in the western Pacific What Does This Mean Weatherwise?:  What Does This Mean Weatherwise? For El Nino Events – What Does This Mean Weatherwise?:  What Does This Mean Weatherwise? For La Nina Events – So???:  So??? A lot of fishing takes place off the coast of Peru Anchovy fish thrive in the nutrient-rich waters of this area Anchovies are caught and used to make chicken feed So???:  So??? During big El Nino events: Waters are not full as nutrients Not as many anchovies Cost of chicken feed increases Therefore, the cost of chicken increases Thank You!!!:  Thank You!!! Douglas Butts Senior Forecaster WFO Shreveport 5655 Hollywood Ave. Shreveport, LA 71109 318.631.3669 Slide51:  CREDITS: Texas A&M University Oceanography Department www-ocean.tamu.edu NWS Southern Region Jetstream Program www.srh.noaa.gov/srh/jetstream CREDITS: Texas A&M University Oceanography Department www-ocean.tamu.edu NWS Southern Region Jetstream Program www.srh.noaa.gov/srh/jetstream

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