Published on December 24, 2007
Dispositional vs. Situational Goal Orientation: Effects on Self-efficacy and Performance: Dispositional vs. Situational Goal Orientation: Effects on Self-efficacy and Performance Walter Davis Neal Mero School of Business University of Mississippi June 4, 2002 Background: Background Learning orientation the extent to which an individual seeks to learn new competencies in a given task (Button, Mathieu, & Zajoc, 1996) Performance orientation the extent to which an individual seeks to demonstrate task competence for the purpose of gaining favorable judgments from others (Button, et al. 1996) Learning Orientation: Learning Orientation respond to task challenges with feedback seeking (VandeWalle & Cummings, 1997) increased effort (Button et al. 1996) focus on development and refinement of skills during training (Brett & VandeWalle, 1999) perform better in learning and training settings (Fisher & Ford, 1998) Performance Orientation: Performance Orientation seek to avoid task difficulties (Phillips & Gully, 1997) react to failures with lower self-efficacy lower self-set goals (Phillips & Gully, 1997) focus on comparing favorably to others and avoiding demonstration of incompetence in training settings (Brett & VandeWalle, 1999) Research Questions: Research Questions Can goal orientation be manipulated by task instructions or training environment? (see Stevens & Gist, 1997; education literature) Can task instructions or training environment "wash out" dispositional effects? Or does dispositional goal orientation overpower task or training variables? Accountability: Accountability Being answerable to audiences for performing up to certain standards, thereby fulfilling obligations, duties, expectations and other charges (Schlenker et al, 94) Links the individual and the social system (Tetlock, 1985) May motivate individuals to greater effort (Shepperd, 1993) Makes goals and standards salient (Schlenker, 1986) Effects on decision processing: More thorough search for data Improved recall More complex judgment strategies (Schlenker, 1986) Accountability: Potential positive effects Increased cognitive complexity Greater effort Improved information processing Potential negative effects Undermine intrinsic interest Serve as a distraction Lead to poor performance Accountability Hypotheses: Hypotheses Process Accountability Instructions will lead to higher Learning Orientation. Outcome Accountability Instructions will lead to higher Performance Orientation. Methods: Methods 2 X 2 experimental design Information Fidelity Ambiguous Outcome Perfect Process Accountability Sample 120 undergraduate students (30 per cell) Task - “TANDEMS": Task - “TANDEMS" TActical Navy Decision Making System Developed by Naval Training Systems Center / Dwyer et al. 1992 Simulated radar screen Targets Menus access information regarding target origin, direction, altitude/depth, etc. Subjects determine Craft type: air, surface, submarine Military, Civilian, Unknown Intent: Peaceful, Hostile Subjects decide Shoot target Clear target Manipulation: Manipulation Accountability Process – pre-trial instructions inform students that their decision making process will be monitored Outcome – pre-trial instructions inform students that their performance will be monitored Information Fidelity Perfect – all information regarding craft origin, speed, altitude/depth is correct Ambiguous – most information is correct but some is incorrect Measures: Measures Pre-experiment Survey Dispositional Learning orientation (VandeWalle & Cummings, 1997) Dispositional Performance orientation (VandeWalle & Cummings, 1997) "Big 5" (Costa & McCrae, 1991) Self-esteem (Rosenberg, 1965) Demographics Pre-trial Survey Situational Learning Orientation Situational Performance Orientation Self-efficacy Measures: Measures Task Performance Measures Performance on each of 2 trials points gained or lost due to correct or incorrect shoot/clear decisions Post-trial Surveys Task interest Performance satisfaction Self-efficacy Analysis: Analysis Scale reliabilities Correlation MANOVA Regression Implications: Implications Selection & Classification Design of Training Programs Manipulate Goal Orientation?