Published on April 30, 2008
Artificial Intelligence & Robotics: Artificial Intelligence & Robotics A presentation by: Waqas Anwar Abbasi Faizan-ud-din Qureshi Naureen Ahmed Kinza Khan Burhan Allah Sayed Introduction to the Presentation: Introduction to the Presentation Introduction to Artificial Intelligence- Waqas Anwar Abbasi Introduction to Robotics- Faizan-ud-din Qureshi Applications of Robots Around Us- Naureen Ahmed Pros And Cons of Using Robots- Kinza Khan Robots in Fiction- Burhan Allah Saiyed Introduction To Artificial Intelligence: Introduction To Artificial Intelligence What Do We Mean By Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) History of A.I. Fields of A.I. Use of A.I. What Is A.I.?: What Is A.I.? Definition: “Artificial intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science that deals with intelligent behavior, learning, and adaptation in machines” (Wikipedia) History Of A.I.: History Of A.I. In 1950, Alan Turing introduced the "Turing test“ The first working AI programs were written in 1951 to run on the Ferranti Mark I machine of the University of Manchester John McCarthy coined the term "artificial intelligence" at the first conference devoted to the subject, in 1956 History Of A.I. (contd): History Of A.I. (contd) At the same time, John von Neumann, developed the game theory During the 1960s and 1970s, Joel Moses demonstrated the power of symbolic reasoning for integration problems in the Macsyma program History Of A.I. (contd): History Of A.I. (contd) The team of Ernst Dickmanns built the first robot cars (Robots used by common people) After the September 11, 2001 attacks there has been much renewed interest and funding for threat-detection AI systems, including machine vision research and data-mining Fields Of A.I.: Fields Of A.I. Combinatorial search Computer vision Expert system Genetic programming Genetic algorithm Knowledge representation Machine learning Neural network Natural language processing Robotics Artificial life Artificial being Distributed Artificial Intelligence Swarm Intelligence Machine planning Practical Application Of A.I.: Practical Application Of A.I. Deep Blue Handwriting Recognition Expert Systems Optical Character Recognition Neural Networks Machine Translation Fuzzy Logic Speech Recognition Computer Algebra Systems Machine Vision Introduction to Robotics: Introduction to Robotics Robotics.. What does it mean? Definition of Robots History Of Robots Robotics: Robotics “Robotics” is the science and technology of Robots, their design, manufacture, and application. The word “Robotics” was first used in print by Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction short story "Runaround" (1941). Definition of Robots: Definition of Robots According to The Robot Institute of America (1979) : "A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks." . According to the Webster dictionary: "An automatic device that performs functions normally ascribed to humans or a machine in the form of a human History and Development of Robots: History and Development of Robots The concept of Artificial People can be found in ancient myths and legends even: The ancient legend of Cadmus, who sowed dragon teeth that turned into soldiers The myth of Pygmalion, whose statue of Galatea came to life Jewish legend tells of the Golem, a clay statue animated by Kabbalistic magic In the Younger Edda, Norse mythology tells of a clay giant, Mökkurkálfi or Mistcalf, constructed to aid the troll Hrungnir in a duel with Thor, the God of Thunder History and Development of Robots: History and Development of Robots The word robot was introduced by Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots) which was written in 1920, it is derived from the word “Robotovat” which means “to slave” or “to work” History and Development of Robots: History and Development of Robots One of the first recorded designs of a humanoid robot was made by Leonardo da Vinci in around 1495 An early automaton was created 1738 by Jacques de Vaucanson, who created a mechanical duck that was able to eat grain, flap its wings, and excrete In the 1930s, Westinghouse made a humanoid robot known as Elektro History and Development of Robots: History and Development of Robots General Components of an industrial Robot:- Manipulator The part of the robot that performs the task Controller Brain or computer center which coordinates the robot’s movements Power supply Vehicle Used to move the robot on a track, free wheels, treads, or some type of legs/feet History and Development of Robots: History and Development of Robots Robotic Power Sources:- Hydraulic Pneumatic Electric Vacuum Often a combination; the end-effectors mostly pneumatic Applications of Robots: Applications of Robots Various Fields where robots are used Leading companies building Robots Applications of Robots: Applications of Robots Space Exploration Healthcare Domestic Military defense Manufacturing Recreational/ Social Use Agriculture Applications of Robots: Applications of Robots 700,000 robots were in the industrial world in 1995 and over 500,000 were used in Japan. About 120,000 in Western Europe and 60,000 in the United States and many were doing tasks too dangerous or unpleasant for humans!!!!! Applications of Robots: Applications of Robots Space Exploration Two important devices exist which are proven space robots Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Remote Manipulator System (RMS) Applications of Robots: Applications of Robots This picture shows a Historic Space Handshake between Shuttle and Space Station Robots - Image Courtesy of CSA Applications of Robots: Applications of Robots Healthcare Robots are used sometimes for operations. A human could never drill a hole exactly one 100th of a inch wide and long. There are robots being used to deliver medical supplies, food trays, medication and just about anything to nurse stations. Robots are used also to make medicines. e.g. Tug robot (delivery robot), RoboDoc Slide24: Applications of Robots Applications of Robots: Applications of Robots Robotic Wheelchair can facilitate patient locomotion Applications of Robots: Applications of Robots Domestic Use These robots perform domestic chores and perform simple tasks like grass cutting, vacuum cleaning, plant watering, etc. e.g. Scooba, Robomower Applications of Robots: Applications of Robots Military Defense The U.S. military is currently using robots to diffuse bombs and to transport goods in danger zones. These vehicles (AGVs) use sensors and coordinates to guide themselves through streets and rough terrain to supply ammunition and food stuff to soldiers. e.g. iRobot Packbot, Transbotics Slide28: Applications of Robots Applications of Robots: Applications of Robots Manufacturing Probably the industry which uses robots the most. Robots are useful in repetitive tasks and also work for longer durations without breaks. e.g. Robots in car production assembly line Applications of Robots: Applications of Robots Agriculture Robots can do the work that took a dozen harvesters to do at the same time. Robots are used for harvesting, reaping and sowing purposes. They are sometimes called, ‘Agrobots’. Applications of Robots: Applications of Robots Recreational/ Social Use These robots are built for purely recreational purposes. They provide company and are most life-like. e.g. Asimo (the humanoid robot), Aibo (the widely popular robotic dog) Pros And Cons of Using Robots: Pros And Cons of Using Robots Advantages of using robots Possible harms of using robots Conclusion The Advantages of Using Robots: The Advantages of Using Robots There are numerous advantages of using robots in the industries and in our homes. Robots are basically used in those tasks which are sometimes referred to as the 3-Ds, namely: Dull, Dirty And Dangerous. The Advantages of Using Robots: The Advantages of Using Robots The most basic advantages which we are all aware of are: ACCURACY SPEED INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY FLEXIBILITY The Advantages of Using Robots: The Advantages of Using Robots Business Benefits: Robots have the ability to consistently produce high-quality products and to precisely perform tasks Since they never tire and can work nonstop without breaks, robots are able to produce more quality goods or execute commands quicker than their human counterparts The Advantages of Using Robots: The Advantages of Using Robots Management Benefits: Robot employees never call in sick, never waste time and rarely require preparation time before working With robots, a manager never has to worry about high employee turnover or unfilled positions Advantages of Using Robots: Advantages of Using Robots Employee Benefits: Robots can do the work that no one else wants to do—the mundane, dangerous, and repetitive jobs Common Misconception about Robots: Introducing robots into a work environment does not necessarily mean the elimination of jobs. With the addition of robots comes the need for highly-skilled, human workers Advantages of Using Robots: Advantages of Using Robots Consumer Benefits: Robots produce high quality goods Since robots produce so many quality goods in a shorter amount of time than humans, we reap the benefits of cheaper goods Since the products are produced more quickly, this significantly reduces the amount of time that we are forced to wait for products to come to the marketplace Advantages of Using Robots: Advantages of Using Robots Uses in Manufacturing: Spray Coating Assembling Operations Material Removal Cutting Operations Part inspection, sorting, cleaning, polishing Claims and Predictions : Claims and Predictions "In from three to eight years we will have a machine with the general intelligence of a human being." -Marvin Minsky, MIT, 1970 "In an astonishingly short time, scientists will be able to transfer the contents of a person's mind into a powerful computer, and in the process make him, or at least his living essence, virtually immortal." -Hans Moravec, Carnegie Mellon University, 197 "Before the next century is over, human beings will no longer be the most intelligent or capable type of entity on the planet. Actually, let me take that back. The truth of that last statement depends on how we define human." -Ray Kurzweil, Kurzweil Technologies,1999. Shortcomings of Robots: Shortcomings of Robots Robots do not exactly have disadvantages but shortcomings! They are not “super-workers” but tools people use!! Shortcomings of Robots: Shortcomings of Robots Are not creative or innovative Do not think independently Do not make complicated decisions Do not learn from mistakes Do not adapt quickly to changes in their surroundings Limitations in the field of Medicine: Limitations in the field of Medicine physical examinations, feeling for various organs in the abdomen, positioning a speculum to look into the ear, etc., are going to be hard to replace with machines. machines don't move very fast in emergency situations, nor can they make judgments based on fact, but tempered by human kindness and understanding. Robotic Surgery: Robotic Surgery Robotic assisted heart surgery can take nearly twice the amount of time that a typical heart surgery takes, but this is variable depending on the surgeon's expertise and practice with the equipment. At this early stage in the technology, the robotic systems are very expensive. It’s believed that with these improvements in technology the systems will become more complicated and the costs will rise. Ethical Issues in advanced AI : Ethical Issues in advanced AI Artificial intellects need not have humanlike motives. Artificial intellects may not have humanlike psyches. The cognitive architecture of an artificial intellect may also be quite unlike that of humans. The inner conscious life of an artificial intellect, if it has one, may also be quite different from ours. They may not have human-like feelings such as that of mercy. Conclusion….: Conclusion…. Every successful business must depend on real people for these abilities!!! Robots in Fiction: Robots in Fiction Robots in Books Robots in Movies Notable writers and science fiction authors What does that have to do in the real world? Where will it all end? Robots in Books: Robots in Books There are many famous authors who have discussed robots. The top authors being: Isaac Asimov- the brain behind the 3 laws of robots Daniel Ichbiah- wrote a book on robots in our everyday life William F. Wu- science fiction writer took inspiration from Isaac Asimov and wrote many stories Robots in Books: Robots in Books Many different magazines in circulation the most famous being “Robot City” and “Robots in Time” which were both created by Isaac Asimov Robots In Movies: Robots In Movies Robots are mostly shown as destructive killing machines who are bent on destroying earth and all humans. E.g. Terminator (1-3) The Day the Earth Stood Still Forbidden Planet Robots In Movies: Robots In Movies In other cases robots are shown to bear human like characteristics and wanting to be ‘Human’ E.g. Bicentennial Man Blade Runner The Iron Giant Robots In Movies: Robots In Movies Top 5 Robot Movies: Blade Runner (1982) Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991) Robocop (1987) The Terminator (1984) Westworld (1973) What do Movies have to do with Real Life?: What do Movies have to do with Real Life? Many great thinkers take inspiration from around them… Albert Einstein ----- Compass Isaac Newton ------ Falling Apple What do Movies have to do with Real Life?: What do Movies have to do with Real Life? The key to great thoughts lie in thinking ‘outside the box’. Daydream, Fantasize, Doodle and never think your ideas are dumb or worthless Where will it all end?: Where will it all end? Hans Moravec reckons the robots-rule scenario is a good thing because we will hand on civilization to our cyber-children Warwick envisions robots snatching the world before we want to hand it over Where will it all end?: Where will it all end? Ray Kurzweil sees nanocomputers in our brains letting us join the super-intelligence party Hugo de Garis fears a war between robots and humans Where will it all end?: Where will it all end? Absurd Postulates: Moore's Law: Predicts that computers double in power every 18 months Evolution Theory: Evolution disposes us to stay alive by supposing that anything displaying aspects of animate behavior is animate ?: ?