Published on July 8, 2014

Author: pariiqbal



PANCHAYAT ELECTIONS IN INDIA: PANCHAYAT ELECTIONS IN INDIA PANCHAYAT :: PANCHAYAT : The word " panchayat " literally means "assembly" ( ayat ) of five ( panch ) wise and respected elders chosen and accepted by the local community. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND During the time of the Rig-Veda (1700 BC), evidences suggest that self-governing village bodies called ' sabhas ' existed. With the passage of time, these bodies became panchayats (council of five persons). The Village Panchayat or elected council had large powers, both executive and judicial . Mughal rule in the medieval period slowly eroded the self-government in villages. During the British rule , the autonomy of panchayats gradually declined with the establishment of local civil and criminal courts, revenue and police organisations : After independence , during the drafting of the Constitution of India, Panchayati Raj Institutions were given an important place wherein the Directive Principles of the State Policy under Article 40 state that, “the state shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of Self- government.” : COMMITTEES :: COMMITTEES : Balwant Rai Mehta Committee 1957 basic unit of democratic decentralisation at the block/ samiti level the higher level body, Zilla Parishad , Ashok Mehta Committee 1978 PRIs as a two-tier system, with Mandal Panchayat at the base and Zilla Parishad at the top, 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act. 1992: 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act. 1992 A uniform three- tier structure of panchayats at village ( Gram Panchayat) At block ( Panchayat Samiti or BDC) and District ( Zilla Parishad /DDB) one-third of the total seats reserved for women. Reservation of weaker castes and tribes To promote bottom-up planning, the District Planning Committee (DPC) in every district : GRAM PANCHAYAT: : GRAM PANCHAYAT: The number of members of a gram panchayats depends on the size of population of the village. Members of gram panchayats are elected by voters of the village who are 18 years or above of age. A panchayat may consist of one or more than one village as notified by the Election Commission. Depending upon the population every panchayat is divided into number of wards, which are always in even numbers i.e. 6, 8, 10. : A panch is elected from every ward, and a sarpanch is elected from a panchayat. An adult with an age of 25 years or above is eligible to contest the elections for the post of panch as well as Sarpanch. In each category, 33 % of the seats are reserved for the women and 27% seats are reserved for the SC/ST candidates. A Naib -Sarpanch is one among the panchs , elected by the panchs of the particular panchayat. In absence of the Sarpanch, Naib -Sarpanch convenes meeting on his/her behalf. The Village Level Worker or Multipurpose worker or Gramsevika acts as the Secretary of the village Panchayat. : FUNCTIONS OF GRAM PANCHAYAT: : FUNCTIONS OF GRAM PANCHAYAT: to prepare the plans for the development of the Halqa ; soil conservation, water management, social forestry, rural industrialisation, agriculture, sheep and animal husbandry, sanitation, health and other welfare programmes ; construction and maintenance of slaughter houses, regulation of fairs and festivals : preparation and implementation of special developmental plans for alleviating poverty and employment generation implementation of scheme of universalization of elementary education and other educational programmes BLOCK DEVELOPMENT COUNCILS OR PANCHAYAT SAMITIS: : BLOCK DEVELOPMENT COUNCILS OR PANCHAYAT SAMITIS: All sarpanch of the village panchayats falling in a block are members. Chairman of Marketing Society within the jurisdiction of the Block Woman or Scheduled Castes or any other class Councillors of Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council ex-officio members of Block Development Council for such block. Chairman, Vice-Chairman and Secretary: Chairman, Vice-Chairman and Secretary Every Block Development Council shall have a Chairman who shall be a person qualified to be elected as a Panch/Sarpanch Chairman of Block Development Council, after being declared elected, vacates his office as Panch or Sarpanch as the case may be. Every Block Development Council has a Vice-Chairman who shall be elected by the members of the Block Development Council from amongst themselves. The Block Development Officer is the Secretary of the Block Development Council. Removal of Chairman.: Removal of Chairman. The Chairman of the Block Development Council vacates his office if a motion of no-confidence is moved against him by any member on any of the prescribed grounds, is carried by a majority of not less than two-third of the total number of Panches and Sarpanches of village Panchayats of the Block at special meeting convened for the purpose. DISTRICT PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT BOARD : DISTRICT PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT BOARD Chairman of the Block Development Councils of the District ; Members of Parliament representing the area. Members of the State Legislature representing the areas within the District Chairman of the Town Area Committees at the District; President of the Municipal Council, if any. The Chairman of the Board shall be nominated by the Government from amongst the members of the District Planning and Development Board.   : The Vice- Chairman shall be elected by the members of the District Planning and Development Board from amongst themselves. No Government servant shall be elected as Vice-Chairman of the Board. The District Development Commissioner shall be the Chief Executive of the District Planning and Development Board and he shall be assisted by the District Level Heads in discharge of functions as such. Powers and functions of the District Planning and Development Board: Powers and functions of the District Planning and Development Board to consider and guide the formulation of development programmes for the District to review periodically progress and achievements of development plans and schemes and make recommendations to function as a working group for formulation of periodic and annual plans for the District To lay down the policy guidelines for the BDC and Halqa Panchayat To approve the budget of the BDC : To undertake special measures for alleviating poverty and employment generation and extending assistance to Halqa Panchayats in this behalf To promote and assist co-operative institutions FINANCE : All the funds provided by the Government or any other agency, meant for the Development of District will flow through the District Planning and Development Board as per the District plans. : : THANK YOU

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