ParentsandPeersTPP

Information about ParentsandPeersTPP

Published on December 28, 2007

Author: Rafael

Source: authorstream.com

Content

The Influence of Parents and Peers on Risky Sexual Behavior:  The Influence of Parents and Peers on Risky Sexual Behavior Anastasia R. Snyder Diane K. McLaughlin Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology The Pennsylvania State University Common Questions:  Common Questions What proportion of adolescents have ever had sex? What proportion experiment with risky sex, or engage in regular risky sexual behavior? What predicts risky sexual behavior? How do parents and peers influence risky sexual behavior? Data: YRBS:  Data: YRBS Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) 1997 sample size=16,262 1999 sample size=15,349 2001 sample size=13,601 2003 sample size=15,712 Nationally representative data collected by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to monitor the health of our youth over time. Data are weighted to adjust for non-response and over sampling African American and Latino students. Data: Add-Health:  Data: Add-Health National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (Add Health) Wave I Youth in 7th through 12th grades in 1995 Nationally representative sample Sampling design All high schools and feeder schools, selected a stratified sample of 80 high schools 16,000 students in the in-home survey Slide5:  This research uses data from the Add Health project, a program project designed by J. Richard Udry (PI) and Peter Bearman, and funded by grant P01-HD31921 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to the Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, with cooperative funding participation by the National Cancer Institute; the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; the National Institute on Drug Abuse; the National Institute of General Medical Sciences; the National Institute of Mental Health; the National Institute of Nursing Research; the Office of AIDS Research, NIH; the Office of Behavior and Social Science Research, NIH; the Office of the Director, NIH; the Office of Research on Women’s Health, NIH; the Office of Population Affairs, DHHS; the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, DHHS; the Office of Minority Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HHS; the Office of Minority Health, Office of Public Health and Science, DHHS; the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, DHHS; and the National Science Foundation. These data are not available from the authors. Persons interested in obtaining data files from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health should contact Add Health Project, Carolina Population Center, 123 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997 (http://www.cpc.unc.edu/addhealth). Data (continued): Differences between the YRBS and the Add-Health:  Data (continued): Differences between the YRBS and the Add-Health YRBS is a cross-sectional study,Add-Health is longitudinal YRBS is a good source for prevalence information of high school students over time. Add-Health contains a wealth of data on family, peer, and numerous other potential influences on adolescent outcomes. What do we mean by risky sexual behavior?:  What do we mean by risky sexual behavior? Whether an adolescent has ever had sexual intercourse Determines which adolescents are potentially exposed to risky sexual behaviors Not using condoms Multiple sexual partners (4 or more is considered risky) Combining sex with alcohol or drug use Figure 1. Percent of HS students who reported ever having sex: YRBS:  Figure 1. Percent of HS students who reported ever having sex: YRBS Figure 2. Ever Had Sex: Add-Health:  Figure 2. Ever Had Sex: Add-Health Figure 3. Four or more lifetime partners: YRBS:  Figure 3. Four or more lifetime partners: YRBS Figure 4. Four or More Partners: Add-Health:  Figure 4. Four or More Partners: Add-Health Figure 5. Drank alcohol or used drugs before last sex: YRBS:  Figure 5. Drank alcohol or used drugs before last sex: YRBS Figure 6. Combined drugs/alcohol with Sex that was later regretted: Add-Health:  Figure 6. Combined drugs/alcohol with Sex that was later regretted: Add-Health Figure 7. Did not use condom during last sex: YRBS:  Figure 7. Did not use condom during last sex: YRBS Figure 8. Did not use condoms at first or last sex: Add-Health:  Figure 8. Did not use condoms at first or last sex: Add-Health Descriptive Conclusions:  Descriptive Conclusions About half of all youth have ever had sex and about 60% have had risky sex. Rural youth are about as likely to have ever had sex and to have engaged in risky sexual behavior. Rural youth are less likely to use condoms Rural/Urban often have similar behavior that is distinct from that of Suburban youth. Risky Sex: What is the influence of parents and peers?:  Risky Sex: What is the influence of parents and peers? How do parents and peers uniquely influence youth risky sexual behavior? Data from the Add-Health Study to address this question What factors explain risky sexual behavior?:  What factors explain risky sexual behavior? Focus on family influences compared to influences of peers This requires also considering other influences: Individual youth traits Youth activities and expectations Family background Residence Family versus Peers:  Family versus Peers Theories of development suggest that the influence of families and peers shifts as children become adolescents: Childhood -- families are very influential Adolescence -- peers become important, perhaps increasingly so for teens Increasing peer influence on sexual attitudes and behaviors, especially after age 15 Do parents influence teen risky sexual behaviors, or are they more dependent on peer influence? Parental Influences:  Parental Influences Closeness to parents Parental expectations for the youth’s future Shared activities Parental monitoring Peer Influences:  Peer Influences Peers beliefs about sexual behavior Youth beliefs about what his/her peers are doing Peer support/caring for youth Specific Research Questions::  Specific Research Questions: Which family factors influence risky sexual behavior? Do these vary for different behaviors? Which peer factors influence risky sexual behavior? Do these vary for different behaviors? Are family influences mediated when peer influences are introduced? Do these vary for different behaviors? Are there rural-suburban-urban differences in these family and peer influences? Measures--Categories:  Measures--Categories Family influences Peer influences Control variables Individual traits [age, sex, race, physical development] Individual activities [hanging out, housework, involvement in church, work, mental health, attitudes about pregnancy and educational aspirations] Family background [family structure, parent(s) education, family poverty] Rural, suburban, urban residence Measures—Family influences:  Measures—Family influences Relationship with parents [close, loving, talks with parents about problems or about school, argues with parents] Parental monitoring [parent home after school, shared religious activities] Youth perceptions of parental expectations/ disappointment [completing high school, completing college] Measures—Peer Influences:  Measures—Peer Influences Youth beliefs about peer views [having sex] Youth beliefs about peer behaviors [sexual activity, smoking, drinking, smoking pot, suicide] How much friends care for youth Parental view of whether best friend is a good or bad influence Results: Increasing the likelihood of ever having sex:  Results: Increasing the likelihood of ever having sex Individual characteristics: older, African American, being physically developed, living in a single parent family, living in a county with a high percent of family poverty. Youth activities: not doing household chores, working Future orientation: not hopeful about the future, have thought about suicide, believe that teachers care Results: Decreasing the likelihood of ever having sex:  Results: Decreasing the likelihood of ever having sex Individual characteristics: Younger, Non-Hispanic White, parent home after school Youth activities: Church attendance, church youth group Future orientation: Pregnancy is the worst thing that could happen, likely go to college Results: Parental influences on ever having sex:  Results: Parental influences on ever having sex Increasing the odds of sex: Youth having at least one big argument with a parent in the past month. Decreasing the odds of sex: feeling close to parents, parents are loving, parents want youth to do well in school, parents disapprove of youth having sex Results: Peer influences on ever having sex:  Results: Peer influences on ever having sex Increasing the odds of sex: having friends who drink, smoke cigarettes and pot, parents think your best friend is a bad influence Decreasing the odds of sex: feel that peers would not respect you if had sex, believe that if you use birth control peers will think you are looking for sex Results: Increasing the likelihood of not using a condom:  Results: Increasing the likelihood of not using a condom Individual characteristics: Hispanic, living in a county with a high percent of family poverty. Youth activities: none Future orientation: not hopeful about the future, have thought about suicide, believe that teachers care Results: Decreasing the likelihood of not using a condom:  Results: Decreasing the likelihood of not using a condom Individual characteristics: African American Youth activities: works Future orientation: Pregnancy is the worst thing that could happen, likely go to college Results: Parental influences on not using a condom:  Results: Parental influences on not using a condom Increasing the odds: parents disapprove of youth having sex Decreasing the odds: parents want youth to do well in school, Results: Peer influences on not using condoms:  Results: Peer influences on not using condoms Increasing the odds: having friends who smoke pot, believe that if you use birth control peers will think you are looking for sex Decreasing the odds: feel that friends care about you Results: Increasing the likelihood of combining sex with alcohol or drug use:  Results: Increasing the likelihood of combining sex with alcohol or drug use Individual characteristics: being physically developed Youth activities: none Future orientation: have thought about suicide, believe that teachers care Results: Decreasing the likelihood of combining sex with alcohol or drug use:  Results: Decreasing the likelihood of combining sex with alcohol or drug use Individual characteristics: African American Youth activities: none Future orientation: Pregnancy is the worst thing that could happen, teachers care Results: Parental influences on combining sex with alcohol or substance use:  Results: Parental influences on combining sex with alcohol or substance use Increasing the odds: none Decreasing the odds: none Results: Peer influences on combining sex with alcohol or drug use :  Results: Peer influences on combining sex with alcohol or drug use Increasing the odds: having friends who smoke cigarettes and pot, drink alcohol, believe that if you use birth control friends will think you are looking for sex Decreasing the odds: none Results: Increasing the likelihood of having multiple partners:  Results: Increasing the likelihood of having multiple partners Individual characteristics: male, African American, being physically developed, single parent family, foster family, suburban residence Youth activities: none Future orientation: have thought about suicide Results: Decreasing the likelihood of having multiple partners:  Results: Decreasing the likelihood of having multiple partners Individual characteristics: Non-Hispanic White Youth activities: church attendence Future orientation: Pregnancy is the worst thing that could happen, will likely go to college, likes school Results: Parental influences on having multiple partners:  Results: Parental influences on having multiple partners Increasing the odds: big argument with parent in past month Decreasing the odds: parents would disapprove if you had sex Results: Peer influences on multiple partners :  Results: Peer influences on multiple partners Increasing the odds: having friends who smoke cigarettes and pot, drink alcohol, believe that if you use birth control friends will think you are looking for sex Decreasing the odds: believe friends care, believe peers would not respect you if you had sex Summary :  Summary Parental effects: More on ever sex than risky sex Positive relationship with parents helps Clearly communicating expectations for youth helps Conflict with parents promotes sex and risky sex Peer effects More on ever sex than risky sex Having friends who use substances promotes sex and risky sex Believing friends think using BC means looking for sex promotes sex and risky sex Friends who care helps Implications for programs:  Implications for programs Parental education programs can have an impact, especially for ever having sex. Should include emphasis on building a good relationship and clearly communicating expectations. Peer mentoring programs can also have an impact, perhaps more so for preventing risky sex. Should emphasize avoiding substance use, developing goals and plans for the future, identifying youth with depression or mental health problems. Comprehensive programs

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