Published on June 17, 2007
PARODYSee also “Literary Genres”: PARODY See also 'Literary Genres' by Alleen Pace Nilsen, Don L. F. Nilsen and Lisa Arter WHY DOES SO MUCH PARODY EXIST?: WHY DOES SO MUCH PARODY EXIST? 'Humorous parodies are often created under the philosophy that it is easier to ask for forgiveness than for permission.' (Nilsen andamp; Nilsen 191) Wolcott Gibbs from The New Yorker: Wolcott Gibbs from The New Yorker Wolcott Gibbs said that parody is the hardest form of creative writing because the style of the subject must be reproduced in slightly enlarged form, while at the same time holding the interest of people who haven’t read the original. Slide4: Gibbs said that further complications are posed since it must entertain at the same time that it criticizes and must be written in a style that is not the writer’s own. He went on to say, 'The only thing that would make it more difficult would be to write it in Cantonese.' (Nilsen and Nilsen 220) LEWIS CARROLL’S PARODIES: LEWIS CARROLL’S PARODIES 'Twinkle, twinkle, Little Star, How I wonder where you are,' becomes 'Twinkle, twinkle, Little Bat, How I wonder where you’re at.' With most of his parodies, Carroll was protesting the didacticism and the sentimentality imposed on Victorian children and their parents. G. W. LANGFORD’S ORIGINAL: G. W. LANGFORD’S ORIGINAL The following is a well-known poem by G. W. Langford which not only preached at parents but threatened them with a reminder of the high mortality rate for young children: Speak gently to the little child! Its love be sure to gain; Teach it in accents soft and mild; It may not long remain. LEWIS CARROLL’S PARODY: LEWIS CARROLL’S PARODY Carroll turned this into a song for the Duchess to sing to a piglet wrapped in baby clothes: Speak roughly to your little boy, And beat him when he sneezes. He only does it to annoy Because he knows it teases. ISAAC WATTS’ ORIGINAL POEM: “AGAINST IDLENESS AND MISCHIEF”: ISAAC WATTS’ ORIGINAL POEM: 'AGAINST IDLENESS AND MISCHIEF' How doth the little busy bee Improve each shining hour And gather honey all the day From every opening flower! LEWIS CARROLL’S PARODY: LEWIS CARROLL’S PARODY How doth the little crocodile Improve his shining tail And pour the waters of the Nile On every golden scale? Slide10: Quentin Tarantino’s 1994 film Pulp Fiction, parodies the kinds of flamboyant characters, mystery, and personal greed found in thriller fiction. MARK TWAIN’S “WAR PRAYER” : MARK TWAIN’S 'WAR PRAYER' Oh Lord our God, help us to tear their soldiers to bloody shreds with our shells; Help us to cover their smiling fields with their patriot dead; Help us to lay waste their humble homes with a hurricane of fire; Help us to wring the hearts of their unoffending widows with unavailing grief; Help us to turn them out roofless with their little children to wander unfriended the wastes of their desolated land in rags and hunger and thirst… Slide12: Lord, blast their hopes, blight their lives, protract their bitter pilgrimage, make heavy their steps, water their way with their tears. We ask it in the spirit of love, of Him Who is the Source of Love, and Who is the ever-faithful refuge and friend of all that are sore beset and seek his aid. Amen. (Nilsen and Nilsen 221) MEL BROOKS’ PARODIES: MEL BROOKS’ PARODIES Blazing Saddles The Producers Robin Hood, Men in Tights Young Frankenstein OTHER MOVIE PARODIES: OTHER MOVIE PARODIES Monty Python’s Life of Brian Monty Python and the Holy Grail Monty Python: The Meaning of Life Scary Movie PARODIES IN PRINT, ETC.: PARODIES IN PRINT, ETC. Bulwer Lytton Fiction Contest: 'It was a dark and stormy night.' Harvard Lampoon Julia Moore Poetry Contest (The Sweet Singer of Michigan) MAD Magazine Modest Proposal (2240 N. Scottsdale Road, # 7, Tempe, AZ 85281), cf. Ryan Mckee National Lampoon PARODIES ON TV AND ON LINE: PARODIES ON TV AND ON LINE MAD TV Mark Russell (A Political Cartoonist for the Blind) The Onion Slide17: SHREK PARODIES THE STORY OF SHREK:JEFFREY KATZEMBERG AT DISNEY: THE STORY OF SHREK: JEFFREY KATZEMBERG AT DISNEY From 1975 to 1984 Jeffrey Katzenberg worked with Walt Disney in Who Framed Roger Rabbit, The Little Mermaid, Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin, and The Lion King But in 1984 when expected to become 2nd in command under Michael Eisner, he was passed over. (Arter 3) SHREK: REVENGE OF JEFFREY KATZEMBERG : SHREK: REVENGE OF JEFFREY KATZEMBERG To get his revenge on Disney, in 1994 Katzenberg joined Steven Spielberg and David Geffen to form 'Dreamworks.' And Dreamworks parodied all things Disney in their 'Shrek' movies. Shrek is a Yiddish word and also a German word. In both languages, it means 'fear,' or 'terror.' (Arter 3-4) PARODIES OF DISNEY CHARACTERS: PARODIES OF DISNEY CHARACTERS Dreamworks used words, actions, behaviors, and visual effects in Shrek to parody such Disney icons as Beauty and the Beast, Cinderella, Dumbo, the Little Mermaid, Peter Pan, Pinocchio, and Sleeping Beauty. Earlier, Shrek says that ogres are layered, like onions. At the end of the movie, Shrek and Fiona ride off in an onion-shaped carriage. (Arter 10) PARODIES OF FOLK LITERATURE: PARODIES OF FOLK LITERATURE Since much of Disney’s success was grounded in the recreation of folk literature, parodies can also be found of the Gingerbread Man, Goldilocks and the Three Bears, the Three Blind Mice and the Three Little Pigs. For example, in the parody of the Three Bears, Mama is wearing a pink hair bow, and later there is a bear rug in Farquaad’s bedroom which is also wearing a pink hair bow. (Arter 4) PARODIES OF DISNEY STUDIOS: PARODIES OF DISNEY STUDIOS Dreamworks also parodied Disney Studios in Shrek by reproducing its parking lot (called 'Lancelot'), its long winding lines of people, its turnstyles, and its sets, and its buildings. For example, when people enter DuLac, the puppets are singing 'Welcome to DuLac' in the same key and tempo as 'It’s a Small World.' (Arter 5) PARODIES OF POPULAR CULTURE: PARODIES OF POPULAR CULTURE In Shrek there are parodies of Flatley’s Lord of the Dance, and of The Matrix, and of Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and of Men in Tights. Since four of the Shrek illustrators studied at Notre Dame, there is also a parody of that university, in the buildings, and in the name 'Farquaad,' which is an allusion to a distant quad at Notre Dame University. The full name is 'University of Notre Dame DuLac.' (Arter 8) PARODIES OF EDUCATED CULTURE: PARODIES OF EDUCATED CULTURE Art is parodied in the scene where Farquaad lies under a Sandro Botacelli tryptych in the position of Venus in Boticelli’s 'The Birth of Venus' (Arter 8) SHREK, THE BOOK AND THE MOVIE: SHREK, THE BOOK AND THE MOVIE In fact, the The movie Shrek is actually a parody of William Steig’s book Shrek Despite the similarity of the plot line and illustrations almost all of the details of the movie are parodies of music, movies, pop culture, or literature. Slide26: PARODIES OF EDGAR ALAN POE PARODIES OF EDGAR ALAN POE’S “BELLS”: PARODIES OF EDGAR ALAN POE’S 'BELLS' Hear the sledges with the bells— Silver bells! What a world of merriment their melody foretells! How they tinkle, tinkle, tinkle, In the Icy air of night! While the stars that oversprinkle All the heavens, seem to twinkle With a crystalline delight; Slide28: Keeping time, time, time, In a sort of Runic rhyme, To the tintinnabulation that so musically wells From the bells, bells, bells, bells, Bells, bells, bells— From the jingling and the tinkling of the bells. Slide29: II: Hear the mellow wedding bells Golden bells! III: Hear the loud alarum bells Brazen bells? IV: Hear the tolling of the bells— Iron bells! Slide30: Thus, the poem takes us from the merry silver bells to the harmonious wedding bells to the clamorous alarum bells and finally to the solemn death nell of the iron bells. Until we come to the final line in the poem: To the moaning and the groaning of the bells. (Hart 70, 661-663) DEMER CAPE’S PARODY OF “BELLS”: DEMER CAPE’S PARODY OF 'BELLS' See the doctors with their pills— Silver-coated pills. What a world of misery their calomel instills. How they twingle, twingle, twingle in the icy-golden night. Slide32: You have taken two that mingle. And you wish you’d had a single; While your cheeks are ashy white… Oh, the pills, pills, pills— Pills, pills, ,pills, pills. So ends my rhyming and my chiming on the pills. (Falk 112) BARRY PAIN’S PARODY OF “BELLS”: BARRY PAIN’S PARODY OF 'BELLS' Here’s a mellow cup of tea, golden tea! What a world of rapturous thought its fragrance brings to me! Oh, from out the silver cells How it wells! How it smells! Slide34: Keeping tune, tune, tune To the tintinnabulation of the spoon And the kettle on the fire Boils its spout off with desire, … But he always came home to tea, tea, tea tea, tea, tea, tea. (Wells 362, MacDonald 323, Falk 111) ANONYMOUS’ PARODY OF “BELLS”: ANONYMOUS’ PARODY OF 'BELLS' Hear the fluter with his flute, Silver flute! Oh, what a world of wailing is awakened by its toot! How it demi-semi quavers On the maddened air of night! And defieth all endeavors To escape the sound or sight Slide36: Of the flute, flute, flute, With its tootle, tootle, toot… Of the flute, flewt, fluit, floot, Phlute, Phlewt, Phlewght, And the tootle, tootle, tooting of its toot. (Wells 140-141, MacDonald 103) C. F. LUMIS’ PARODY OF “ANNABEL LEE”: C. F. LUMIS’ PARODY OF 'ANNABEL LEE' It was many and many a year ago, On an island near the sea, That a maiden lived whom you mightn’t know By the name of Cannibelee; And this maiden, she lived with no other thought Than a passionate fondness for me. Slide38: The poem continues by developing the nature of this fondness by Cannibelee, and it ends, With a love that could take me roast or fried Or raw, as the case might be. Hood names his parody poem, 'A Poe-’em of Passion' (Falk 121) THOMAS HOOD JR.’S PARODY OF “ANNABEL LEE”: THOMAS HOOD JR.’S PARODY OF 'ANNABEL LEE' It was many and many a year ago In a District called E.C., That a Monster dwelt whom I came to know By the name of Cannibel Flea, And the brute was possessed with no other thought Than to live—and to live on me! (Falk 121) BARBARA ANGELL’S “ULABEL LUME”: BARBARA ANGELL’S 'ULABEL LUME' I was a child and she was a child And childishly childlike we’d romp. But we loved with a lovlier love than love In this old barge on the swamp. With a love that made the winged seraphs in heaven Foam at the mouth and stomp. (Falk 121) C. L. EDSON’S “RAVEN’S OF PIUTE POET POE”: C. L. EDSON’S 'RAVEN’S OF PIUTE POET POE' Once upon a midnight dreary, eerie, scary, I was wary, I was weary, full of worry, Thinking of my lost Lenore. Of my cheery, airy, faery, fiery Dearie— (Nothing more). (Falk 114) HOLLY CHIVERS’ “HUMPTY-DUMPTY: A LA POE”: HOLLY CHIVERS’ 'HUMPTY-DUMPTY: A LA POE' As an egg, when broken, never Can be mended but must ever Be the same crushed egg forever— So shall this dark heart of mine Which, though broken, is still breaking, And shall nevermore cease aching For the sleep which has no waking— For the sleep which now is thine. (Falk 114) Slide43: Chivers’ parody of Poe’s 'The Raven' is very dark. He wrote it when Poe died, and the death in the poem refers both to the death of Poe, and the death of his lover, whose name was Isadore. For Chivers felt that Poe had stolen his own poem, entitled, 'Isadore.' Chivers’ original poem read as follows: Slide44: ! While the world lay round me sleeping I alone for Isadore Patient Vigils lonely keeping, Someone said to me while weeping: 'Why this grief forever more?' And I answered: 'I am weeping for my blessed Isadore. (Falk 113) NOW BACK TO CHIVERS’ PARODY!!: NOW BACK TO CHIVERS’ PARODY!! As an egg, when broken, never Can be mended but must ever Be the same crushed egg forever— So shall this dark heart of mine Which, though broken, is still breaking, And shall nevermore cease aching For the sleep which has no waking— For the sleep which now is thine. (Falk 114) !!!: !!! Did Poe steal Chivers’ poem? You be the judge. Slide47: References # 1: Arter, Lisa. 'The Parody of Shrek.' LIN 515 Research Paper. Tempe, AZ: A.S.U., April 11, 2006. Falk, Robert P., ed. American Literature in Parody: A Collection of Parody, Satire, and Literary Burlesque of American Writers Past and Present. New York, NY: Twayne, 1955. Hart, James D. The Oxford Companion to American Literature, 4th Edition. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1965. Hutcheon, Linda. A Theory of Parody: The Teachings of Twentieth-Century Art Forms. New York, NY: Methuen, 1985. Slide48: References 2: Macdonald, Dwight, ed. Parodies: An Anthology from Chaucer to Beerbohm—And After. New York, NY: Random House, 1960. Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. Encyclopedia of 20th-Century American Humor. Westport, CT: Greenwood/Oryx, 2000. Nilsen, Don L. F. 'Parodies of Poe: A Study in the Nature of Grounding.' Massachusetts English Teacher, May, 1989, 4-7. Wells, Carolyn, ed. A Parody Anthology. New York, NY: Scribner, 1904. Yan, Gao. The Art of Parody: Maxine Hong Kingston’s Use of Chinese Sources. New York, NY: Peter Lang, 1996.