Published on July 11, 2015
1. © ABCC Australia 2015 THE FOUR FUNDAMENTAL FORCES
2. © ABCC Australia 2015 Particle Accelerators The search for the nature of momentum and force had been yielding no results even into the twentieth century when science and technology began again to progress forward by leaps and bounds. The concepts about force had also undergone serious changes mainly due to the advanced research into the microscopic world with the aid of more and more powerful accelerators. CMS acceleratorChicago's Tevatron particle accelerator
3. © ABCC Australia 2015 The Four Fundamental Forces One of the most popular theories accepted by the scientific community is that all the fundamental forces can be classified into four categories: (i) The Strong; (ii) The weak; (iii) Electromagnetic; and (iv) Gravitation. GRAVITATION WEAK In radiation process STRONG Binding nucleii ELECTROMAGNETIC Binding atoms
4. © ABCC Australia 2015 WEAK ELECTROMAGNETIC STRONG GRAVITATION ELECTROWEAK FORCE Evolution of Forces Scientists also hold the belief that all the four forces were of the same origin in the beginning of the universe. In the course of time, the original force evolved, the various force emerged and became independent. UNIFIED FORCE BIG BANG
5. © ABCC Australia 2015 The Scale of Strengths These forces are shown here in the order of strength. The difference among them is in fact much greater by the factor of trillions. Here they are represented roughly by their relative strength. STRONG ELECTROMAGNETIC WEAK GRAVITATION
6. © ABCC Australia 2015 Relative Strength of the Forces In numerical terms, their strength may be represented as follows. We take the strong force as unity, then the other forces are weaker by the exponential numbers as -2, -8, and -45. One can see that gravitational force is utterly and absolutely out of class. 1. Strong (nuclear) force (1) The force that holds nuclei together. 2. Electromagnetic force (10-2) Interaction among electrically and magnetically charged particles. 3. Weak force (10-8) Responsible for certain nuclear decays and reactions. 4. Gravitational force (10-45) Interaction between masses (all particles) familiar to us as weight.
7. © ABCC Australia 2015 PARTICLE EXCHANGE Forces by
8. © ABCC Australia 2015 Force by Particle Exchange In the 1930’s, Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976) and Ettore Majorana (1906-1938) in postulated that the force between particles is due to the exchange of force carrying particles. For example the electromagnetic force is produced by the exchange of photons between electrons. Positive Positron Mediating Photon Negative Electron
9. © ABCC Australia 2015 Passing Ball as Analogy The mechanism of particle exchange may be compared to a basketball exchange between two players on frictionless ground wearing skates. As the second player catches the ball, he will recoil and moves away from the first player. When he returns the ball to the first player, she will move away on her turn. The actions carry on until both are pushed far apart. Moves back upon receiving the ball Moves back upon throwing the ball
10. © ABCC Australia 2015 No Analogy for Particles The basketball scenario is, of course, a very crude analogy since it can only explain repulsive forces and gives no clue for example of how exchanging particles can result in attractive forces. However it is a good example of contact force which the physicists may have overlooked. What the basketball represents is actually the mechanical momentum which is not included in the basic forces. This momentum exchanges could be viewed as momentum changing hosts. Momentum
11. © ABCC Australia 2015 Momentum Particles It is my postulate that momentum in classical mechanics exists in the form of particles. They are transmitted from one object to another like little bees. That is to say, these bees are the particles that mediated the mechanical forces. Momentum bees
12. © ABCC Australia 2015 From Angels to Particles It had been a long journey and lots of changes. But the road to maturity is firm and clearly oriented: from impetus to momentum; from momentum to particles; (from angels to bees) the true cause of motion has finally unveiled itself as phonons, even if it is a quasi-one for the time being as classified by scientists.
13. © ABCC Australia 2015 The Momentum Particles - Phonons So finally, the true body of momentum has surfaced. It is the phonons that have been there all along, unnoticed by any scientists in the past. Phonons are wave-particles most familiar to solid state physicists. If asked, they would present you with hundreds of documents and books written on it. So it is not a hard subject to follow. Let us see what it will unveil to us in the coming sections.
14. © ABCC Australia 2015 PHONON The Quasi-Particle
15. © ABCC Australia 2015 Igor Tamm & the Phonon The idea of phonons was introduced in 1932 by the Russian physicist Igor Tamm (1895-1971). The phonon was not a real particle but was fabricated as a concept which facilitated many treatment of heat and sound in solids. The virtual particle became a great and successful idea used by all scientists in solid state physics.
16. © ABCC Australia 2015 Importance of Phonons Phonons play a major roles in deciphering many of the physical properties of solids. They are responsible for the electrical conductivity and thermal property of the condensed matter. Interactions between phonons and electrons are thought to be responsible for such phenomena as superconductivity. The importance of phonons in matter is equivalent to the importance of photons in free space.
17. © ABCC Australia 2015 The real Nature of Phonon Overlooked Little did Igor and his follower scientists know that this phonon concept is actually one of the greatest discoveries in the history of physics. Its usefulness has led people to concentrate on the practicality ONLY and not on its real nature. In solid state physics, phonons are only regarded as quasi- particles, that is, it is not in the same rank of real particles.
18. © ABCC Australia 2015 Characteristics of Phonons 1. Phonons carry momenta. 2. Phonons do not play any part in altering the internal structure of any hosting body. 3. According to current studies, phonons do not have a rest mass so that the overall mass change in the particle or in collisions is negligible. 4. Phonons can travel from one object to another. 5. The transfer of phonon from one place to another is so fast that the motion is not measurable in conventional collision experiment.
19. © ABCC Australia 2015 Fulfilment of Newton’s Work With these characteristics recognized, all the pictures about motion come fitting together. It is a simple matter to replace all momentum terms by phonons. In Newton’s time, the concept of particles mediating forces was not yet available. So his concepts about motion could not extend beyond force and momentum. We cannot blame Newton for not providing something more solid than force and momentum. Now it seems settled. All we need to do is to confirm the existence of the phonon particle. In doing so, we may be able to put a smile on Newton’s face which was hardly seen in his life. That is what I have been looking for!
20. © ABCC Australia 2015 The Culmination This is exciting. Since the time of Aristotle, it has been an epoch of over two thousand five hundred years of speculating, philosophising, and calculating until now. The elusive particle is finally found in its full glory. The phonon is not only the crown jewel of modern science, it is also the carrier of momentum, the cause of motion, the origin of almost all particle motions in the universe – provided, of course, we can prove it.
21. © ABCC Australia 2015 PHONON REPRESENTATION The Art of
22. © ABCC Australia 2015 From Angels to Particles In the past, we had been representing momentum by angels or cherubs. Now scientists use balls to stand for phonon particles. Angels and cherubs are religious or mythical, suitable only when the concept of impetus or momentum were introduced. Balls are not what the phonons may look like, especially when they can perform so many functions.
23. © ABCC Australia 2015 Representation by Bees or Butterflies According to conventional theories, phonons can vibrate, carry out wavy motions, attract and repulse, perform heat and sound functions so on and so forth. These duties are beyond what simple balls can perform. So we think that bees and butterflies are still the best alternative before the true forms of the phonons are identified. To have more fun, we can use the images of fairies to show the versatilities of these little particles.
24. © ABCC Australia 2015 Phonon Data • Phonon symbol