pearson

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Published on September 24, 2007

Author: WoodRock

Source: authorstream.com

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Assessing Reading Comprehension: :  Assessing Reading Comprehension: P. David Pearson UC Berkeley What does the research tell us? What should we do in our schools and classrooms? Responding to earlier presentations:  Responding to earlier presentations I’ve never liked abstract strategies View them with the same suspicion as phonics rules Better to see if they can walk the walk rather than just talk the talk. The paradox of the particular: If you want to develop generalizable strategies, teach them as if the only goal was to really understand the passage at hand. To avoid the inauthentic modeling problem, use student examples from your class or previous classes Responding to earlier presentations:  Responding to earlier presentations What to do in the name of comprehension in K-2 While there is NOT a substantial body of research, there IS a body of research? See Kay Stahl, Reading Teacher (2004) Pearson, P.D., andamp; Duke, N.K. (2001). Comprehension instruction in the primary grades. In C. Collins Block andamp; M. Pressley (eds.), Comprehension instruction: research-based best practices (pp. 247-258). New York: Guilford Press. Strategies can help (Baumann, Brown et al: SAIL in grade 2, Morrow story map) Routines for getting through the key ideas in the text help (KEEP, Stahl, Eldridge) No need to pit decoding against comprehension (lots of best practice and correlational research) Not either/or Overview:  Overview Where have we been? What, if any, are the 'research-based' findings on reading comprehension assessment? What do we do in the name of comprehension assessment? What research needs to be conducted in the next 5 years? What should a school or a district do while we wait for the gold standard to be enacted? Why now?:  Why now? Renewed interest among scholars Rand report Uneasiness among practitioners that the code, as important as it is, may not be the point of reading Comprehension is the most important outcome of reform National thirst for accountability requires impeccable measures (both conceptually and psychometric) Pleas of teachers desperate for useful tools (need a tool that does for RC what running records and fluency assessments have done for word level processes) The real need…:  The real need… While we definitely need better theoretically motivated measures of comprehension,… We desperately need the school/classroom tool. A measure that serves a diagnostic or monitoring function may be more critical than a conceptually elegant outcome measure. Reading comprehension assessment has always vexed researchers:  Reading comprehension assessment has always vexed researchers We want to access the thing itself, the 'click' But We only ever see its residue, its wake, its artifacts We are stuck with artifacts Require them to tell us whether they understood Require them to tell us what they understood or remember Quiz them on the details Request the big ideas Most of the measures interpose some other skill or capacity between the act and the evidence:  Most of the measures interpose some other skill or capacity between the act and the evidence Writing Talking Using (as in an application task) The conventions of multiple-choice assessments (they may provide excessive scaffolding) These interposed processes inevitably compromise our capacity to draw inferences about comprehension (as the ineffable thing itself), either as a generic and a passage specific enterprise What would it mean to meet the gold standard in assessment research?:  What would it mean to meet the gold standard in assessment research? Unlike instruction, we are NOT looking at randomized field trials. Instead, the gold standard for an assessment is meeting the construct validity test. Strong version of construct validity:  Strong version of construct validity We show that our test of RC is consistent with what our theory predicts about relationships among various hypothesized components of and external influences on reading comprehension For example: readers do not recall specific details about an idea unless they also recall and name the idea (Rumelhart, 1977) For example: Can a reader draw an inference about a fact without understanding and recalling the fact. For example: readers do not answer a question about a specific part of the text unless they first demonstrate accurate decoding of that text segment. Weak version:  Weak version When we look across all the evidence we have (face validity, concurrent validity, predictive validity, common sense), things seem, on average, to point to this version of our theory of RC and therefore this set of sub-skill assessments of RC. For most tests, we know whether they are reliable, correlate with other measures that look just like them, and, if we are lucky, exhibit sensitivity to learning over time. Truth be told:  Truth be told We have yet to get the strong version. We do have some candidate versions of the weak version… An obscure but elaborate set of analyses of relationships among reading performance variables over time (Meyer, Linn, andamp; Hastings, circa 1988) Older factor analytic studies What David Francis and Catherine Snow and colleagues are working on. 80s work in Illinois What all this means is…:  What all this means is… When you leave here today We want you to be prepared to make some strategic choices about what you do in your district or school We want you to acknowledge and live with the weak state of our knowledge and certainty about the validity of our measures of reading comprehension We want you to work with us to create the kinds of tests our teachers and kids deserve. Our menu of options for today’s talk:  Our menu of options for today’s talk Sub-routine #1: A lesson in the history of comprehension assessment Subroutine #2: An analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of different formats/tasks Subroutine #3: What do we need to do as a field? Subroutine #4: What should a district/school do in light of all of the evidence (or in many cases, the lack of evidence) available? Subroutine #3: New Initiatives:  Subroutine #3: New Initiatives Lots of psychometric work Lots of conceptual work Share a few examples Reading for Understanding:  Reading for Understanding The standards for good assessment, especially those dealing with instructional sensitivity, are critical Notice that in most of our work, we assume the validity of our measures and test the validity of the interventions. What if we turned that around? Starting Over:  Starting Over Why? Our current collection of assessments are atheoretical They do not map onto any credible theory of the reading comprehension process Driven by Tradition (a by product of concurrent validity) Convenience (it’s there) Efficiency (it’s quick and dirty) Starting over:  Starting over Go back to a set of theoretical conceptualizations of comprehension Component Skill Models Construction-Integration models Executive Control Models Sociocultural Models Convene a Blue Ribbon Panel to mine each for assessment implications Apply each set of implications to a common set of passages to create a set of alternative theory-based assessments Examine internal covariation and external validity. More steps :  More steps Develop a 'gold standard' for comprehension—how do we get as close as possible to that ineffable phenomenon-the click of comprehension? My candidate: Some on-line assessment of both the content (ideas in text) and the affect (phenomenological sense) of comprehension (akin to the write alongs) So what’s new in this section that you didn’t know before…? So on a scale from 1-5, how would you rate your grasp of the ideas in this section Examine the concurrent validity of the assessment models generated from each theoretical perspective in relation to the gold standard Develop a grand theory to test. Conduct a full-scale, theory-based construct validation Be open to the possibility of a mixed model Conclusion leading to today’s situation:  Conclusion leading to today’s situation We have traveled far, sometimes on new roads and sometimes on old. Virtually all the old forms of assessment survive, even flourish because of their Psychometric properties Efficiencies And because challengers often fail to meet either psychometric or efficiency standards Conclusion about research:  Conclusion about research We seem poised to re-energize ourselves in this important enterprise To build assessments that can meet the most rigorous of both measurement and conceptual standards A welcome challenge Back to menu Subroutine #4: So what should a school or district do while we wait for the millenium of comprehension assessment:  Subroutine #4: So what should a school or district do while we wait for the millenium of comprehension assessment We cannot invoke the strong version of construct validity because we don’t have a single measure that can meet it. We could invoke the criterion validity standard, but that just perpetuates some version of the status quo. We don’t know have a gold standard to decide among pretenders to the throne Here are some standards we could invoke even now…:  Here are some standards we could invoke even now… Reliability Multiple indicators of criterion validity (concurrent and predictive) Instructional sensitivity If I teach comprehension well (using the well-validated methods you will learn about today and tomorrow), will the measure show the growth that is occurring? Consequential validity If I use the test to categorize kids, diagnose and prescribe instruction, or monitor progress along the way, will students get the instruction they need and deserve? So what is a body to do?:  So what is a body to do? The Woodworth, MI system Benchmark assessment, used 2 to 3 times per year Scored in PD sessions, across classrooms and across grades Create a school culture School-wide Comprehension Assessment:  School-wide Comprehension Assessment Instructionally embedded Multiple choice questions Individual texts Cross texts Written Response to Reading Position taken in response to the prompt question Support from personal experience Support from texts Listening: Sister Anne’s Hands:  Listening: Sister Anne’s Hands Multiple Choice Question Stemsfacts, relationships, inferences:  Multiple Choice Question Stems facts, relationships, inferences This story is mostly about… Sister Anne showed determination when she said… What did Sister Anne mean when she said, 'For me, I’d rather open my door enough to let everyone in'? The children learned much from Sister Anne. This selection tells us that… Kate Shelly and the Midnight Express:  Kate Shelly and the Midnight Express Multiple Choice Question Stems facts, relationships, inferences:  Multiple Choice Question Stems facts, relationships, inferences An important lesson of this story is… How are Kate and her mother different? In this selection, how do you know Kate showed determination and bravery when crossing the Des Moines River Bridge? Because Kate followed through, how would you predict she will face problems in the future? What dialogue does the author use to show you Kate has determination? How do you know this story takes place in the past? A Day’s Work:  A Day’s Work Multiple Choice Question Stems facts, relationships, inferences:  Multiple Choice Question Stems facts, relationships, inferences By showing determination, Francisco… An important lesson from this selection is… In this selection, why did Francisco and Grandpa leave the weeds? This selection is not only about determination, it is also about… Why did the author have Grandpa and Francisco speak in Spanish? Cross Text Mult Choice Stems facts, relationships, inferences:  Cross Text Mult Choice Stems facts, relationships, inferences What important advice would both Grandpa and Kate give? In both reading selections you read about main characters who… How are Francisco and Kate different? How were the characters rewarded for showing determination and following through? Applying Ideas to a Task:  Applying Ideas to a Task If you were trying to do something that was very hard, and you did not think you could get it done, would you keep trying or quit? Use examples from the two stories we read to support your decision. Scoring:  Scoring Writing in Response to ReadingPoint Score 6:  Writing in Response to Reading Point Score 6 The student clearly and effectively chooses key or important ideas from each reading selection to support a position on the question and to make a clear connection between the reading selections. The point of view and connection are thoroughly developed with appropriate examples and details. There are no misconceptions about the reading selections. There are strong relationships among ideas. Mastery of language use and writing conventions contributes to the effect of the response. Bottom Line:  Bottom Line Mixed model assessment along the lines of NAEP Some multiple choice Some short answer Some constructed response (real performance items Some within text Some cross text Some big ideas Some details Lots of relationships among ideas Why this model?:  Why this model? Acknowledges the conceptual and psychometric contributions of different formats and the theories of comprehension that lie behind them. Admits that we have, at least at present, no conclusive evidence to direct us to the one best model of comprehension assessment Maps onto some useful instructional activities The useful instructional activities that the mixed model maps onto:  The useful instructional activities that the mixed model maps onto Building a rich text base (what does it say?) Facts, relationships, inferences Building a model of what the text means (text filtered through prior knowledge) Reminders, comparisons, unstated details and motives Some analysis and critique What is the author up to? How is (s)he trying to shape my thinking? A metaphor:  A metaphor Instructed passages that come serve as occasions for assessment Possess the same scaffolding that we would offer in our everyday selection readings--shared, guided, and independent reading BUT, respond to the assessment on your own An index of comprehension in situ And that combination seems…:  And that combination seems… Pretty consistent with a long line of research and theory development over the past century. Slide41:  Matching tools with decisions and clients References:  References Pearson, P.D., andamp; Hamm, D.N. (in press). The history of reading comprehension assessment. In S.G. Paris andamp; S.A. Stahl (Eds.), Current issues in reading comprehension and assessment. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Pearson, P.D., Greer, E. A., Commeyras, M., Stallman, A., Valencia, S.W., Krug, S.E., Shanahan, T., andamp; Reeve, R. (1990). The validation of large scale reading assessment: Building tests for the twenty-first century. Reading Research and Education Center research report, under grant number G 0087-C1001-90 with the Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Urbana: Center for the Study of Reading, University of Illinois. Subroutine #1: Meanwhile, back at the LAST turn of the century….:  Subroutine #1: Meanwhile, back at the LAST turn of the century…. The short history lesson:  The short history lesson Conclusion: Any approach to comprehension assessment you might conjure up, even in your most enlightened moments, has a precedent that is at least 75 years old. Novelty is a conceit but not a virtue Slide45:  'Every one of us, whatever our speculative opinion, knows better than he practices, and recognizes a better law than he obeys.' Check two of the following statements with the same meaning as the quotation above. To know right is to do the right. Our speculative opinions determine our actions. Our deeds often fall short of the actions we approve. Our ideas are in advance of our everyday behavior. From Thurstone, undated circa 1910 Note the multiple correct answers. A curious example from early 1900s 1916 Kansas Silent Reading Test*:  1916 Kansas Silent Reading Test* 'fill in the blanks' some verbal logic problems If A is X and B is Y, what will… some procedural tasks Use your pencil to draw a line between X and Y Complete as many tasks below as possible in a limited 7 minutes. *The first published standardized comprehension test. 1917: Thorndike:  1917: Thorndike Reading as Reasoning Basically an error analysis leading to a set of categories and a theory Understanding a paragraph is like solving a problem in mathematics. It consists in selecting the right elements in the situation and putting them together in the right relations, and also with the right amount of weight or influence or force of each Touton and Berry (1931) Error analyses:  Touton and Berry (1931) Error analyses (a) failure to understand the question (b) failure to isolate elements of 'an involved statement' read in context (c) failure to associate related elements in a context (d) failure to grasp and retain ideas essential to understanding concepts (e) failure to see setting of the context as a whole (f) other irrelevant answers A panoply of measures:  A panoply of measures Courtis (1914): proportion of all words in the text remembered Chapman (1924): First example of error detection: Find the statements in part 2 that do not fit the statements in part 1 of the paragraph. Enter Psychometrics in the late 1930s:  Enter Psychometrics in the late 1930s 1935: IBM introduced the IBM 805 scanner Cemented multiple-choice format Changed the SAT forever 1935: Kelley: Factor Analysis 1944: Davis: Fundamental Factors in Reading Comprehension Davis 1944:  Davis 1944 Word factor and a reasoning factor Other Factor Analyses:  Other Factor Analyses Harris 1948: found a single factor Derrik (1953) found 3 Hunt (1957) Vocabulary was everything Schreiner, Hieronymus, and Forsyth (1971): No differentiation among paragraph meaning, cause and effect, reading for inferences, and selecting main ideas BUT separate LC and lower level processing Davis (1968, 1972) Dominant finding (word factor, gist factor, reasoning factor) Cloze Procedure:  Cloze Procedure Wilson Taylor (1953): every 5th word More importantly, it was an attempt to remove human judgment from the assessment process. Pick a starting point in the text, let the randomization process do its work Doesn’t matter where you start Bormuth (1966): the basis of readability research Modifications to Cloze:  Modifications to Cloze Allow synonyms to serve as correct answers Delete only every 5th content word (leaving function words intact) Use an alternative to every 5th word deletion MAZE: MC for the blanks Macro cloze: phrases Delete words at the end of sentences or paragraphs and provide a set of choices from which examinees are to pick the best answer The conceptual death of cloze:  The conceptual death of cloze Shanahan, Kamil,andamp; Tobin (1983): not sensitive to 'intersentential' comprehension No differences when sentences were scrambled within or across passages or presented in isolation Despite strong evidence showing its invalidity, it still survives:  Despite strong evidence showing its invalidity, it still survives DRP Stanford Diagnostic Lots of other individual and group tests Strong in ESL assessment Why? Feels right, feels good Simplicity of scoring and interpretation Passage Dependency:  Passage Dependency P passage - P isolation A quiet stir in the late 60s and early 70s The basic idea is that if you read the passage, you ought to get the item right (even if an inference) more often than if you don’t read the passage. Died in the wake of Schema Theory’s embrace of prior knowledge--which encouraged us to embrace, not lament, the PK-Comprehension relationship. Criterion-referenced assessment:  Criterion-referenced assessment Make a virtue out of sub-skills Took the notions of mastery learning coming out of Carroll, Gagné and Bloom Define sets of subskills Set a level of mastery Test-teach-test Assumes a componential skill view of reading Data: Bloom’s experiments with Ed Psy courses Slide59:  The children wanted to make a book for their teacher. One girl brought a camera to school. She took a picture of each person in the class. Then they wrote their names under the pictures. One boy tied all the pages together. Then the children gave the book to their teacher. What happened first? a. The children wrote their names b. Someone brought a camera to school c. The children gave a book to their teacher 2. What happened after the children wrote their names? a. A boy put the pages together. b. The children taped their pictures. c. A girl took pictures of each person 3. What happened last? a. The children wrote their names under the pictures. b. A girl took pictures of everyone. c. The children gave the book to their teacher. (adapted from the Ginn Reading Program, 1982) Back to menu Reactions to this movement:  Reactions to this movement Provided fuel for the constructivist reforms that were already gathering momentum Died in the early 90s basals for about 6 years Only to be revived recently in the name of curriculum-embedded assessments The Cognitive Revolution:  The Cognitive Revolution The powerful impact of schema The evolution of text analytic systems Story grammars ala Stein andamp; Glenn Propositional analysis of texts ala Kintsch andamp; vanDijk Inference taxonomies ala Trabasso The Impact of Cognitive Science on Assessment:  The Impact of Cognitive Science on Assessment more attention to the role of prior knowledge attention to text structure (in the form of story maps and visual displays to capture the organizational structure of text) the introduction of metacognitive monitoring Used to critique the existing assessment traditions on the way to new assessments Back to menu A sense that we had:  A sense that we had Paid too much attention to measurement theory and Not enough to reading theory Authentic Texts:  Authentic Texts Select, not construct, texts for understanding Can’t tinker with the text to rationalize items and distractors More than one right answer:  More than one right answer How does Ronnie reveal his interest in Anne? Ronnie cannot decide whether to join in the conversation. Ronnie gives Anne his treasure, the green ribbon. Ronnie gives Anne his soda. Ronnie invites Anne to play baseball. During the game, he catches a glimpse of the green ribbon in her hand. Rate all of the responses on some scale of relevance:  Rate all of the responses on some scale of relevance How does Ronnie reveal his interest in Anne? (2)(1)(0) Ronnie cannot decide whether to join in the conversation. (2)(1)(0) Ronnie gives Anne his treasure, the green ribbon. (2)(1)(0) Ronnie gives Anne his soda. (2)(1)(0) Ronnie invites Anne to play baseball. (2)(1)(0) During the game, he catches a glimpse of the green ribbon in her hand. Best predictor of retelling scores Include:  Include Metacognition Habits, attitudes, and dispositions Some findings:  Some findings Comprehension plus PK, Metacognition, Habits/Attitude Factor Analyses (Pearson, et al, 1991) demonstrated three reliably separable factors Metacognitive stances habits/attitudes items a combination of the comprehension and prior knowledge items (could not separate them) Fate:  Fate Went the way of all tests that challenge the conventional wisdom No one got the more than one right answer metaphor Validated for group decisions not individual (as accountability changed…) Not good to teach to (e.g. metacognitive items) Back to menu Sociocultural and Literary Perspectives:  Sociocultural and Literary Perspectives Learning and understanding are inherently social Assessment should be responsive, interactive, and dynamic Texts are inherently political documents with points of view and agendas and authors Rosenblatt: Reader, text, and poem Langer: Into, through, and beyond CLAS: California Learning Assessment System:  CLAS: California Learning Assessment System If you were explaining what this essay is about to a person who had not read it, what would you say? What do you think is important or significant about it? What questions do you have about it? This is your chance to write any other observations, questions, appreciations, and criticisms of the story' The demise of performance assessment in wide-scale:  The demise of performance assessment in wide-scale The social aspect: Whose work is it anyway? Generalizability: Too passage specific Expense: Scoring and rubric development Invasion of privacy (don’t ask my kid about his inner thoughts) The legacy: Mixed models Classroom assessment Back to menu NAEP:  NAEP Circa 1970 Goal free evaluation What you see is what you get Report the p-values of individual items and let the readers conclude what they will NAEP 1970s:  NAEP 1970s Demonstrate the ability to show comprehension of what was read analyze what is read, use what is read reason logically make judgments have attitude/interest in reading NAEP 1980s:  NAEP 1980s value reading and literature comprehend written works respond to written works in interpretive and evaluative ways apply study skills NAEP 1990s:  NAEP 1990s FORMING INITIAL UNDERSTANDING Which of the following is the best statement of the theme of the story DEVELOPING INTERPRETATIONS What caused this event PERSONAL REACTION AND RESPONSE How did this character change your ideas of _____ READER TEXT CONNECTIONS DEMONSTRATE CRITICAL STANCE What could be added to improve the author’s argument New NAEP:  New NAEP Understanding written text Developing and interpreting meaning Using meaning as appropriate to type of text, purpose, and situation NAEP concerns:  NAEP concerns The current framework does not pass psychometric muster (no structural independence of the stances) Not much information at the lower end of the performance scale (no floor) Item format: Do CR items add any value over MC to the information gained? Not if they are MC in disguise? Back to menu Sub Loop #2: A simulation activity:  Sub Loop #2: A simulation activity I want each of you to participate as a 'comprehender' by responding to a passage Directions for Comprehension Task:  Directions for Comprehension Task The task today is put yourself in the role of a reader, maybe one of your students, who has been asked to read a passage and complete a comprehension task. Each of you will be completing different tasks so that in our later discussions, we can compare our experiences. So turn the page to the text you will be responsible for and follow the directions you find there. You have 10 minutes to complete your reading and the assessment task that comes with it. If you finish early, do not disturb your neighbors. Instead, take out a book and read quietly at your seat while others are still working on the test. Logistics:  Logistics If your last name starts with A, G, M, S Task A B, H, N, T Task B C, I, O, U Task C D, J, P, V Task D E, K, Q, W Task E F, L, R, X, Y, Z Task F The text:  The text Emily’s Memory Quilts By Clifford E. Trafzer Emily Yellow Wolf was the oldest known Native American in the state. My editor had heard of this old woman from his wife, who met Emily briefly at an exhibition of her quilts at the Byrd Museum. As a result, my editor decided that I should write a feature story about her life for the Seattle World Times. I admit that at first I was not interested in the story of an elderly and obscure Native American woman. I know nothing about Native American people and was not inclined to learn about the quilts just to write a newspaper article. All this changed after I met Emily Yellow Wolf, an unforgettable character. Slide83:  Emily lived in the university district of the city, and I visited her at her home on 45th Street. She answered the door with a warm smile, strong stature making her look amazingly younger than her actual years. Without an introduction, she invited me into her living room. I found a spot to sit on her couch, which was covered with small scraps of colorful cloth. The elderly lady laughed as we sat down. 'All of these memories,' Emily said with a chuckle, 'all of these memories.' I took out my pencil and paper and briefly explained the purpose of my visit. Emily flashed a grin, as if she wondered what she could say that would be of interest to me. Slide84:  'Tell me about yourself,' I said. 'Tell me where you were born and how you learned to make such beautiful quilts.' Emily gave me a serious look, running her fingers over her gray hair. 'I’ve been living here in Seattle for a long time now,' Emily responded. 'I live here alone with al these memories.' Emily moved her arms out from her body in a wide, sweeping motion. I asked here what she meant by 'all these memories' and waited for her answer. Emily sat quietly looking at the scraps of cloth scattered around us. Slide85:  'That red bandana cloth you see over there,' Emily said, pointing to her sewing machine, 'well, that is the last of the blouse I was wearing when my girl Hayley was born. That square is more than a piece of cotton, you see. It is memory, too. I put those memories into each quilt I make.' Emily claimed that her success as a quilter was the result of incorporating her personal memories into each work of art. That was more important to her than what other people thought of her quilts. My interview with this remarkable Native American elder sparked my interest in learning more about the ways of Native American people and their interest in preserving what is important in their past. Slide86:  Clifford E. Tafzer, a Wyandot Indian, has written many books about the histories and cultures of Native Americans. He is a college professor and has been involved in numerous American Indian and tribal projects. Multiple Choice Version:  Multiple Choice Version The theme of the story has to do with _____ A. the qualities of friendship B. the importance of honesty C . taking care of older people D. remembering the past This story is most like ____ A. a legend B. historical fiction C. a first-hand narrative D. a newspaper article Summarization Task:  Summarization Task Read the text and write a summary of no more than 50 words; in your summary, try to convey the most important ideas in the text. Summary ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Personal Response:  Personal Response Read the text. Think about Emily’s memory quilts and the role that they played in her life. Now think about your life, your experiences, and your connections to the past and to others. Write a paragraph (about 50-100 words) about something in your life that helps you connect to your past in the way that Emily’s quilts helped her. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Short answer:  Short answer Read the text and answer the questions that follow on the next page. Be as brief as possible, but be sure to use complete sentences. Short-answer questions What is the theme of this story? How does the interviewer's attitude change by the end of the story? Support your answer with evidence from the text. Is this story more like a newspaper article or a legend? Explain your answer. Retelling:  Retelling Read the text. When you finish, raise your hand. One of the monitors will listen to you retell the passage as best you can. Cloze:  Cloze Emily’s Memory Quilts By Clifford E. Trafzer Emily Yellow Wolf was _____ oldest known Native American _____ the state. My editor _____ heard of this old _____ from his wife, who _____ Emily briefly at an _____ of her quilts at the _____ Museum. As a result, _____ editor decided that I _____ write a feature story _____ her life for the Seattle _____ Times. I admit that at _____ I was not interested _____ the story of an _____ and obscure Native American _____ . I know nothing about _____ American people and was _____ inclined to learn about _____ quilts just to write _____ newspaper article. All this _____ after I met Emily Yellow _____ , an unforgettable character. Costs and Benefits of Different Approaches:  Costs and Benefits of Different Approaches A. Multiple Choice:  A. Multiple Choice Costs Tends to focus on factual or lower level tasks (but is that inevitable?) Garden path problem of distractors (sometimes a student knows but is seduced by the attraction of a distractor) Benefits Scaffolds responding (reminds folks of things forgotten) Time efficient Can probe many different relationships, facts, inferences Writing/speaking do not confound the task B. Written Summary:  B. Written Summary Costs Lots of writing Just because you don’t include a proposition doesn’t mean you didn’t understand it Standards can be vague Benefits Focuses on integration of ideas and relationships Focuses on KEY information and understandings C. Personal Response:  C. Personal Response Costs Sacrifices the 'text' to one’s knowledge. Makes reading more personal than social or public Writing as a barrier Even in speaking, there may be reluctance to share Benefits Privileges the 'known to new' relationship Cuts to the chase of what reading, especially literary reading, is all about Allows everyone access to the floor (no right answer) D. Short Answer:  D. Short Answer Costs Writing Tend to focus on the low level (but need they?) Benefits Writing yes, but not much Can tap many different relationships, facts, inferences E. Oral Retelling:  E. Oral Retelling Costs Memory reliant Just because you did not include an idea doesn’t mean you did not understand it. Hard to implement in a 1/30 classroom context Judgment involved Benefits Oral response is usually more readily available than written Gets at relationships and integration of ideas F. Cloze:  F. Cloze Costs Empirically proven to be insensitive to relations across sentences Lacks the face validity of questions Unknown impact of deleted text (what if the word had been there?) Privileges the role of prior knowledge Benefits Transparent to operationalize Removes the element of human judgment Minimal format intrusions Back to menu

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