Published on January 10, 2008
Chapter 27: Chapter 27 Nationalism and Revolution Around the World 27-1 Struggle in Latin America: 27-1 Struggle in Latin America Courtney, Segene, Derek, Eric The Mexican Revolution: The Mexican Revolution 1910- Porfirio Diaz was reelected president for 35 years. Country’s prosperity benefited only a small group. Majority of the people lived in desperate poverty. The peasants worked on HACIENDAS which are large plantations controlled by the landowning elite. The majority of peasants, growing urban class, and the elite were unhappy about the government in some way. Diaz resigns as resistance increases. Revolution Leads to Change: Revolution Leads to Change When Venustiano Carranza was elected in 1917 he created the Constitution of 1917. This new constitution strengthened governmental control over the economy, broke up large estates, restricted foreigners owning land, and allowed NATIONALIZATION, which is government takeover of natural resources. After Carranza’s overthrow in 1920, The government organized the PRI, or institutional revolutionary party, which brought stability to Mexico. The PRI adopted some of the goals of groups in Mexican society as a way to satisfy the population while keeping real power in their hands. Cont.: Cont. The government returned land that had been taken from the population and established schools and libraries. The government took a stronger role in the directing of the economy. They nationalized Mexico’s oil resources to prevent labor disputes. Nationalism at work in Latin America: Nationalism at work in Latin America When the great depression occurred in 1929, ECONOMIC NATIONALISM, or emphasis on home control of the economy, increased in Latin America with the creation of industry to provide for its own people. The great depression brought about political nationalism with the end of trust in the ruling oligarchies and the ideas of liberal government. CULTURAL NATIONALISM, or pride in one’s own culture, was brought about with the revival of mural paintings, a major art form of the Aztecs and Maya. When Mexico tried to get rid of foreign influence, the US intervened. They started attacking cities and ports throughout Mexico, therefore raising anti-American feelings. This all ended when President Franklin Roosevelt passed the GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY, where the US pledged to lesson its interference in he affairs of Latin American nations. It helped to re-strengthen relations. Nationalism in Africa and the Middle East: Nationalism in Africa and the Middle East By Wayne Howard Adam Cluverius Ben Angwin Susan Schell Africans Resist Colonial Rule: Africans Resist Colonial Rule Colonial powers tried to control African life by taking money from exported crops, forcing Africans off the best land, forcing them to pay taxes, and restricting where they could live and travel. Over time apartheid, a policy of rigid segregation, became law. The African Nation Congress was formed to protest unfair laws against Africans. Its efforts had no effect on the white government, but it built a framework for later political change. Nationalism and an “Africa for Africans”: Nationalism and an “Africa for Africans” Pan-Africanism: Emphasized unity of Africans and African descent world wide. Pan-African Congress established cooperation among African and African American leaders. Negritude movement: Writers expressed pride in their African roots and protested colonial rule. Leopold Senghor, poet of the negritude movement, rejected negative views of Africa spread by colonial rulers. Turkey and Persia modernize: Turkey and Persia modernize Turkish nationalists, lead by Mustafa Kemal, defeated the Greeks and declared Turkey a republic. Asia Minor: Turkish peninsula between the Black sea and the Mediterranean sea. Kemal took the name Atatϋrk, meaning father of the Turks, then began to westernize Turkey. Success in Turkey encouraged Reza Khan of Persia to modernize his country. Arab Nationalism in the Middle East: Arab Nationalism in the Middle East Pan-Arabism, nationalist movement that built on the shared heritage of Arabs, grew in response to foreign influence after WWI. Balfour Declaration was a British attempt to win the support of European Jews by advocating the idea of setting up a Jewish state in Palestine. The Declaration created tensions between Jews and Arabs because the Arabs felt that they deserved control of Palestine after helping the Allies in WWI. India!: India! Chapter 27-3 Calls for Independence : Calls for Independence Indians wanted independence from British rule. After fighting in WWI Britain promised India a greater self government, but they never received one. The Amritsar Massacre was due to public meetings being held by Indians which was banned by British Commander General Reginald Dyer. The Amritsar Massacre resulted in many deaths and injuries. The Power of Nonviolence: The Power of Nonviolence Many Indians had nonviolent protests. Mohandas Gandhi was a leader of many nonviolent protests. He preached from the ahimsa which was an Hindu belief of nonviolence and reverence for all life. Gandhi believed in civil disobedience, the refusal to obey unjust laws. He also believed in equal rights for all men and women and untouchables, the lowest caste. Gandhi Takes a Stand: The Salt March : Gandhi Takes a Stand: The Salt March Gandhi persuaded Indians to boycott or refuse to buy British goods. The Salt March: Indians were forced to buy salt from the British monopoly even though it easily available in the sea. Gandhi and 78 followers marched 240 miles to the sea and collected lumps of sea salt. This resulted in thousands of Indians imprisoned and later Britain gave more power to Indians. Looking Ahead: Looking Ahead In 1939, WWII began. Britain postponed independence to Indians and forced them to fight for Britain. When the war ended in 1945, India was closer to becoming independent. This brought about conflict between Hindus and Muslims. Upheaval in China: Upheaval in China By: Pooja Tasha Alicia Stephanie Lucas The Chinese Republic in trouble.: The Chinese Republic in trouble. “twin evils”- the warlord uprisings and foreign imperialism. Twenty-one demands- list of demands given to China by Japan in 1915 that would have made China a protectorate of Japan. Student protests in Beijing, called the May Fourth Movement, soon spread across other Chinese cities, some Chinese turned to revolutionary ideas of Marx and Lenin. Struggle for a new China: Struggle for a new China Mao Zedong became a more revolutionary leader because he was more willing for change Sun Yixian and his Nationalist Party (Guomindang) established a government in south China; they wanted to raise an army, defeat the warlords, and spread government’s rule over China The Long March (a march where Chinese communists retreated from Guomindang by marching over 6,000 miles) was used to harass Mao’s retreating army Japanese Invasion: Japanese Invasion The Japanese invaded Manchuria and added to their empire They started the Second Sino-Japanese War and bombed Chinese cities such as Beijing and Guangzhou Japanese troops marched to Nanjing and killed hundreds of thousands of soldiers and civilians, became known as the “Rape of Nanjing” Japan bombed Pearl Harbor in 1941 Looking Ahead: Looking Ahead When Japan bombed Pearl Harbor in 1941, the United States formed an alliance with China By the end of World War II, the Guomindang controlled China’s central government and Mao’s communist party controlled much of northern and central China Mao imposed revolutionary change on China Conflicting Forces in Japan: Conflicting Forces in Japan Chapter 27-5 Japan on the rise in the 1920’s: Japan on the rise in the 1920’s Japan moves to a democracy making political parties grow strong. Also allowing new freedoms such as all adult man allowed to vote regardless of their class. Democratic foreign policy slowed down to protect relations. The government also reduced military spending. Hirohito ruled Japan during these successful years and became a well known and respected emperor. The Nationalist Reaction : The Nationalist Reaction Due to the slow down of overseas expansion unrest built in Japan, peasants didn’t share nations prosperity and government corruption blasted as well as young teen disobeying Japanese customs by wearing western fashion fads that shocked there elders. When the Japanese immigrants were shut out of racial policies in foreign countries they were resented being treated as second class. Manchuria an empire with much needed natural resources and raw materials was a cause of the exiting of Japan in the league of nations because when china decided to attempt and steal Manchuria, Japan attacked and fought with military forces without asking permission the League of Nations proclaimed them to have been aggressive and Japan exited the league. Militarists in Power: Militarists in Power Ultranationalist, or extreme nationalist and military officials, became admired by the public when they began tough conquests and stood against western powers. When they finally came to power they suppressed democratic freedoms. They also wanted to bring back old customs through schools they built that taught service to the emperor.