Published on August 9, 2007
Personality Disorders : Personality Disorders What is Personality?: What is Personality? An enduring pattern Thinking Ways of looking at Self Others World Feeling Relating Behaving Seen across many situations Onset beginning at adolescence Maladaptive and inflexible Patterns and Themes: Patterns and Themes Each disordered personality is patterned around a kind of theme The theme often tells about the motive behind the patterns found in the person’s Thinking Feeling Behaving Relating The theme also gives some hints at difficulties the person has experienced that contribute to the development of the disorder Paranoid Personality Disorder: Watching for injustice: Paranoid Personality Disorder: Watching for injustice A pervasive and unwarranted belief that others intend to harm Expecting to be exploited Distrust and suspiciousness of even family and friends Interpreting others motives as malevolent Reading malicious intent into even innocuous comments Taking remarks out of context and interpreting them to support own frame of reference Extreme jealousy Hypersensitivity to criticism Controlling; quick to anger Possible family history: active rejection; actual persecution Schizoid Personality Disorder:Detached loner: Schizoid Personality Disorder: Detached loner Pervasive indifference toward others Restricted range of emotional expression Unaffected by praise or criticism Few friends or confidants Maintains superficial connections with relatives; even these are aloof and cool No sense of humor Lacks social skills No overtly bizarre behavior, thinking, etc Possible family history: cold; limited affection; rewarded for being alone and independent Schizotypal Personality Disorder:Peculiarity/eccentricity: Schizotypal Personality Disorder: Peculiarity/eccentricity Acutely uncomfortable around others; esp. those who are unfamiliar Deficient in social relationships Reduced capacity for closeness Peculiar in thought, action, appearance Bizarre fantasies and preoccupations Unkempt, mismatched, prefer to dress in strange clothing Digressive or vague in speech Use words differently than others: neologisms Talk to themselves openly Possible family history: schizophrenic or very eccentric caregiver Avoidant Personality Disorder:Involvement is risky: Avoidant Personality Disorder: Involvement is risky Widespread and longstanding discomfort Shy, distant; exaggerates risk that people pose Hypersensitivity to evaluation Feelings of inadequacy Avoid social activities that involve contact with others Stays in corners at parties tongue-tied Always expecting to say something foolish Highly anxious around others Anxious about looking anxious No close friends or confidants; easily slides into dependence after taking a risk on others Possible family history: engulfing or avoidant family Dependent Personality Disorder:Excessive need to be taken care of; limited sense of self: Dependent Personality Disorder: Excessive need to be taken care of; limited sense of self Widespread and longstanding dependency on and submissiveness to others Even routine daily decisions require advice and reassurance Complete passivity; letting others decide Difficulty initiating projects Discomfort, fear, and helplessness about being alone; goes to great lengths to avoid being isolated or alone Highly sensitive to disapproval Willingness to go along with others even it conflicts with their own wishes or values Does almost anything to help others, seeks reassurance they are liked Paralyzed by the thought of independent thought or action Drives people away with neediness Possible family history: engulfing, abusive, controlling family; not allowed to make independent decisions; rewarded for inaction; told what to do Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder: All about order and structure: Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder: All about order and structure Perfectionistic and inflexible Focus on detail; order; structure; lists Devoted to work; hard-working Performance never good enough; hard to finish when attending to every detail Stubbornly demanding that others do things their way; very controlling Overly conscientious and concerned with moral and ethical issues Scrupulous to the point of rigidity Judges others and self very harshly; demands perfection Not emotionally expressive; distrusts and disapproves of emotion in others Stiff, stilted, 'formal' interactions Possible family history: over attached family who emphasized achievement; oriented to perfection; keenly aware of others; limited sense of self Antisocial Personality Disorder:Disregard for other’s rights: Antisocial Personality Disorder: Disregard for other’s rights Longstanding irresponsible behavior Lying, stealing, vandalizing, bullying as a child Initiating fights, running away from home, physically cruel to others Failure ot honor financial obligations Crimes; drugs; fights; cruelty; 'con' Checkered work history Shirking responsibilities as parent Incapable of sustaining relationships with family members or friends Relationships: shallow, brief, marked by callousness, exploitative Expresses no remorse; feels justified in hurting or mistreating Charming, engaging, persuasive Criminal behavior not enough for diagnosis; lack of concern for feelings of others Possible family history: abuse; neglect; avoidant caregivers Slide11: Slide12: Borderline Personality Disorder:INTENSE, UNSTABLE, EXTREMES: Borderline Personality Disorder: INTENSE, UNSTABLE, EXTREMES Instability Mood Identity Relationships Impulses Self-image Frantic efforts to avoid being abandoned Relationships: high maintenance; turmoil, chaos baffling and exhaustive to others Require constant attention to soothing moods and stroking insecurities Extremes of closeness and distance Possible family history: probable childhood sexual abuse; enmeshed family; no support for individuation Slide14: Histrionic Personality Disorder:“High Drama”: Histrionic Personality Disorder: 'High Drama' Emotionality Excessive Exaggerated Labile Constantly seeking Attention (uncomfortable when not the center) Reassurance Approval Flamboyant Inappropriately flirtatious/seductive Possible family history: enmeshed; engulfing; little support for individuation; more aware of others than self; possible sexual abuse/seduction; little family expectation of accomplishment; emphasis on appearance alone as success Narcissistic Personality Disorder:Grandiose entitlement: Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Grandiose entitlement Pervasive grandiosity about self; self-important masking deep insecurity Sees self as unique Feels entitled to admiration, recognition, special privileges; enraged when they don’t get that Excessive and constant need for admiration Oriented toward success and perfection Lacks empathy Relationships: Must have their own way Focused on their own needs Tends to engulf others with their needs Charms others to get needs met Possible family history: rewarded for accomplishments, not self; anxious or ambivalent caregivers; early privilege; pampering; spoiling.