Published on August 31, 2016
1. Petroleum Products: Refining and Distillation (Lubricants, Waxes and Petrochemicals) Manufacture of Crude Oil, Gasoline, Kerosene, Absorbent, Oils, and Fuels Oils, Petroleum Asphalts
2. www.entrepreneurindia.co Introduction The most dynamic industry of the century is the petroleum and petrochemicals industry. It has taken the fundamental knowledge of chemistry and chemical engineering and transformed itself from a simple processing industry for fuel and lubricants to an extremely complex chemical process industry which has branched out into synthetic rubber, plastics, fertilizers and many other fields. Petroleum (crude oil) is a mixture of different hydrocarbons. Many useful products can be made from these hydrocarbons. The fractions are separated from one another using a process called fractional distillation.
3. www.entrepreneurindia.co This process is based on the principle that different substances boil at different temperatures. The applications of distillation in petroleum industry are quite varied. The assaying of crude oils and the evaluation many petroleum products depend on distillation. Petroleum products obtained from processes such as distillation often need supplementary purification. Refining is a process of purification of products by means of chemical process. Chemical engineering and petroleum processing have in a very real sense grown up together.
4. www.entrepreneurindia.co Studies on fluid flow, heat transfer, distillation, absorption, and the like were undertaken and applied to wide variety of materials because of need in the petroleum processing field. The largest share of oil products is used as energy carriers: various grades of fuel oil and gasoline. Heavier (less volatile) fractions can also be used to produce asphalt, tar, paraffin wax, lubricating and other heavy oils. Refineries also produce other chemicals, some of which are used in chemical processes to produce plastics and other useful materials.
5. www.entrepreneurindia.co Hydrogen and carbon in the form of petroleum coke may also be produced as petroleum products. Petrochemicals have a vast variety of uses. The use of petroleum hydrocarbons to make synthesis gas has made petroleum and natural gas the world main source of ammonia, the source of almost all nitrogen fertilizers. While petroleum product demand in the western world is relatively stagnant, for developing countries, particularly those in Asia, demand is booming. It is all about growing populations and their escalating need for energy.
6. www.entrepreneurindia.co The marketing of some products had been privatised, partly or wholly, such as LPG, lubricants, kerosene and bitumen. Products used mainly by the automobile industry (diesel and petrol) are marketed through the four public sector companies: Indian Oil (IOC), Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (HPC), Bharat Petroleum (BPC) and IBP (now acquired by IOC under the disinvestment programme of the government with their countrywide network). Expansion notwithstanding, the demand for petroproducts is expected to grow at around 4.5% annually in the coming years. Under the new policy with administered price mechanism abrogated, the oil majors like Shell, Exxon or British Petroleum-Ameco were allowed to sell petrol or diesel to Indian consumers provided they agreed to invest at least Rs. 20 bn over a specified period.
7. Of the refinery products, the middle distillates used to be in short supply, but are now in surplus. Of the total 55% of middle distillates, a share of 39% is high speed diesel oil (HSDO) and 10% is superior kerosene oil (SKO). Light distillates, which constitute more than 27% of the petroleum products, cover LPG (5%), motor spirit (10%) and naphtha (9%). Heavy distillates consist mainly of furnace oil (7.5%) and LSHS/HHS (4.5%). Petroleum is a complex mixture of organic liquids called crude oil and natural gas, which occurs naturally in the ground and was formed millions of years ago. The refining process begins with crude oil. Crude oil is unrefined liquid petroleum, which ranges in color from yellow to black, and may have a paraffin, asphalt or mixed base. Crude oil is composed of thousands of different chemical compounds called hydrocarbons, all with different boiling points. www.entrepreneurindia.co
8. The first processing unit in the refinery is desalination. Crude oil contains various salts and impurities that can be harmful for the other processing units. All the impurities are not removed from the crude oil in desalination unit. Crude oil is processed into a distillation column and separated into different components on the basis of boiling point. The component with low boiling points goes to the top of the tower and the one with the highest boiling point remains at the bottom of the distillation tower. The products from a crude distillation unit from top to bottom are liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, gasoline, kerosene, diesel oils, fuel oil and residue. These products are further processed in various units to remove impurities such as sulfur and nitrogen. www.entrepreneurindia.co
9. www.entrepreneurindia.co Petroleum refineries are large, capital-intensive manufacturing facilities with extremely complexprocessing schemes.More than 660 refineries, in 116 countries, are currently in operation, producing more than 85million barrels of refined products per day. Each refinery has a unique physical configuration, aswell as unique operating characteristics and economics. Rising crude oil prices powered revenue growth as refiners have passed costs down the distribution line. Since 2011, profit has steadily recovered in line with improving demand, while low domestic oil prices further bolstered margins. In 2016, profit is anticipated to rise slightly, though it remains below historic levels. This industry is anticipated to recover over the next five years as fuel prices rise and consumption increases.
10. www.entrepreneurindia.co India remains one of the least-explored countries in the world, with a well density among the lowest in the world. With the annual demand crossing above 100 million tonne, India is the fourth largest oil consumption zone in Asia, even though on a per capita basis the consumption around 0.1 tonne, the lowest in the region- This makes the prospects of the Indian Oil industry even more exciting.
11. www.entrepreneurindia.co Some of the fundamental of the book are the nature of petroleum, crude oil processing, distillation in the petroleum industry, refining of lubricating oils, petrolatum, and waxes, residue fluidized catalytic cracking, chemical thermodynamics of petroleum , benefits of biodiesel produced from vegetable oil, petroleum products used as fuel oils, manufacture of asphalt from petroleum, petroleum waxes, chlorinated waxes, synthesis gas etc.
12. www.entrepreneurindia.co The book presents information and data which will help oil companies, large scale users of commercial petroleum products in efficient storage, handling and utilization of these products. Different formulae, processes for the production of petroleum products are given in this book. This will be very useful book for new entrepreneurs, existing units, technocrats, researchers, institutional libraries etc.
13. www.entrepreneurindia.co Table of Contents 1. Introduction Historical The Nature of Petroleum Largest Energy Supplier Origin Constituents of Petroleum Aliphatics, or open chain Hydrocarbons Ring Compounds Lesser Components 2 Crude Oil Processing Fundamentals Ideal Solutions Real Solutions Critical Phenomena Chemical Dissimilarity Azeotropism
14. www.entrepreneurindia.co Immiscibility Ordinary Distillation Steam Distillation Extractive Distillation Absorption Process Equipment Single Stage Plate Columns Differential Columns Wetted Wall Rotary Packed Distillation in the Petroleum Industry Analytical Applications Single stage Processes Multistage Processes Manufacturing Applications Primary Distillation Process feed Preparation Product Fractionation Combination Processing.
15. www.entrepreneurindia.co 3. Refining Refining by Chemical Methods Sulfuric Acid Treating Reactions with Hydrocarbons Paraffinic and Naphthenic Hydrocarbons Aromatics Olefins Manner and Effects of Treating Refining by Physical Methods Bauxite. Fullers Earth (Attapulgite, Floridin, Florida Earth) Acid activated Bentonite Magnesol Florisil Silica Gel Carbon Alumina Commercial Applications Separation of Classes of Hydrocarbons Refining of Lubricating Oils, Petrolatums, and Waxes
16. www.entrepreneurindia.co Stabilizing Gasolines Regeneration of Adsorbents Solvent Refining Processes Aromatics Recovery Refining Lubricating Oil Stocks. Separation of Wax Propane Deasphalting 4. Cracking Introduction Catalytic Cracking Residue Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (RFCC or RCC) Hydrocracking FCC versus HCU Reforming Thermal Reforming Catalytic Reforming Isomerization Hydrocracking Operating Variables
17. www.entrepreneurindia.co 5. Chemical Thermodynamics of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Introduction Fundamental Relationships The Standard Free Energy and Equilibrium Status of Thermodynamic Data Applications to Petroleum Processing General Considerations Aromatization of Paraffins and Naphthenes Isomerization of n Butane 6. Gasoline Introduction Composition, Manufacture, and use of Gasoline Volatility of Gasoline Air Fuel Mixtures and Combustion Phenomena of Knocking Ethyl Alcohol as an IC Engine Fuel Alcohols as auto fuels Issues not in favour of Alcohol Blending Alcohol and Gasoline
18. www.entrepreneurindia.co 7. Diesel Fuels Diesel Combustion Ignition Quality 8. Bio Diesel Introduction Disadvantages of Vegetable Oil as Diesel Fuel Benefits of Biodiesel Produced from Vegetable Oil Disadvantages of Biodiesel produced from Vegetable Oil Biodiesel Production from various vegetable oils on Different Countries Country Source of biodiesel Economics of Biodiesel Project Tax Incentives in Developed Countries World Production Level of Biodiesel Price in USA Projected Indian Demand Scenario For Biodiesel Average annual CAGR for High Speed Diesel
19. www.entrepreneurindia.co Demand for Biodiesel Potential Indian Demand for Biodiesel Choice of Jatropha Cultivation Practices of Jatropha Plant Soil Condition: Conditions for growth: Cultivation practices and yield Jatropha Oil Content Eco Friendly Biodiesel Rich Resources Vigorous Pursuit Fulfilling basic criteria Advantages Feed stock 9. Kerosene, Absorbent, Oils, and Fuels Oils Kerosene Chemical Properties Physical Properties Manufacture
20. www.entrepreneurindia.co Testing Methods Miscellaneous Uses Absorbent Oils Fuel Oils Combustion of Fuel Oils Petroleum Products Used as Fuel Oils Certain Unusual Crude Oils Crude Oil Residua Gas Oils, Distillate Fuel Oils. 10. Lubrication and Lubricants Friction and Lubrication 11. Waxes Beeswax Carnauba Wax Spermaceti Ozocerite Paraffin Wax
21. www.entrepreneurindia.co Montan Wax Candelilla Wax Synthetic Waxes Petroleum Waxes Chemical Properties and Composition Crystallization of Wax Dewaxing of Heavy Oils 12. Petroleum Asphalts Chemical and Physical Composition Chemical composition Mineral Oil Resins Asphaltenes Carbenes and Carboids Possible Structures of the Nuclei in Resins, and Asphaltenes Physical Constitution Physical Properties and Tests Manufacture of Asphalt from Petroleum
22. www.entrepreneurindia.co Residual or Straight run Asphalts Air blown Asphalts Uses of Asphalts Road Oils Asphalt Emulsions Solid Asphalts. 13. Miscellaneous Petroleum Products and Derived Products Miscellaneous Petroleum Products White Oils Industrial Naphtha Solvents Paints, Varnishes and Lacquers Dry Cleaning Cutback Asphalt Rubber Miscellaneous Petroleum Insecticides By Products
23. www.entrepreneurindia.co Petroleum Coke Sulfuric Acid Sludge Petroleum Sulfonic Acids Chemicals Derived from Petroleum Acetylene Chemicals Derived from Olefinic Hydrocarbons. Alcohols Ethyl Alcohol Isopropyl Alcohol Secondary Butyl Alcohol Tertiary Alcohols Higher Alcohols Glycols And Glycerol Addition of Halogenes Polymers Oxidation Products Miscellaneous Products Chemicals Derived from Paraffinic Hydrocarbons Chlorination Products
24. www.entrepreneurindia.co Nitration Products Oxidation Products. Chemicals Derived from Aromatic Hydro carbons Hydrogen Carbon Blacks Fischer Tropsch Process and Products 14. Propylene Introduction Polypropylene Propylene Trimer and Tetramer Acrylonitrile Acrylic Fibers Acrylamide Other Acrylonitrile Derivatives Acetonitrile Allyl Chloride Epichlorohydrin Epoxy Resins Other Epichlorohydrin Derivatives
25. www.entrepreneurindia.co Allyl A lcohol Derivatives Diallyl Amine 1,2 Dibromo 3 Chloropropane Dichloropropanes, Dichloropropenes Acrolein Methionine 1,2,6 Hexane Triol Glutaraldehyde Propylene Oxide Propylene Glycol Polyethers Dipropylene Glycol Higher Propylene Glycols Isopropanolamines Propylene Carbonate 1,3 Propylene Diamine Polypropylene Oxide Elastomers Isopropanol Acetone
26. www.entrepreneurindia.co Diacetone Alcohol (DAA) Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (MIBK) Hexylene Glycol Methyl Isobutyl Carbinol (MIBC) Isopropylamines Isoprene 15. Synthesis Gas Introduction Mettiane reforming Naphtha reforming Fuel oil partial oxidation Reformer off gas purification by low temperature fractionation Topsfe SEA autothermal process using naphtha Ammonia Nitrogen Fertilizers Mixed Fertilizers Urea Urea formaldehyde resins
27. www.entrepreneurindia.co Sulfamic acid Melamine Nitric Acid Ammonium nitrate Potassium nitrate Nitroparaffins Ammonium Phosphates Ammonium Sulfate Ammonium Chloride Hydrazine Carbon Dioxide Methanol Formaldehyde Hexamethylene tetramine Pentaerythritol Polyacetals Glycolic acid Textile finishes Methylamines Monomethylamine
28. www.entrepreneurindia.co Dimethylamine Trimethylamine Methyl Chloride Silicones Methyl cellulose Arsenicals Tetramethyl lead Dimethylsulfate Methyl Glucoside Methyl Bromide OXO Chemicals n Butyraldehyde Ethyl 1, 3 hexanediol Trimethylolpropane Butyric acid Butyraldehyde Isobutanol Isobutyric acid Neopentyl glycol Pantothenic acid
29. www.entrepreneurindia.co Octanols Octoic acid Propionic acid n Propanol Heavy Oxo Chemicals PHOSGENE Diisocyanates Polycarbonates Chlorinated Isocyanurics Substituted Urea, Carbamate and Thiocarbamate Pesticides Other Phosgene Derivatives FORMIC ACID Oxalic Acid NEO ACIDS PURE HYDROGEN Hydrogenated Fats and Oils Tetrahydrofuran Sorbitol
30. www.entrepreneurindia.co Hydrogen Peroxide Organic Peroxides Other hydrogen peroxide derivatives Furfuryl Alcohol Fatty Alcohols Fatty Nitriles and Amines 16. Other Petrochemicals Petroleum Waxes Chlorinated Waxes n Paraffins Detergent Raw Materials Carbon Black Cresols Synthetic p Cresol Synthetic o Cresol Tricresyl Phosphate Cyclopentadiene Petroleum Resins
31. www.entrepreneurindia.co Naphthenic Acids Hydrogen Sulfide Sulfur Phosphorus Pentasulfide Mercaptans Thioglycolic Acid Thiourea Dimethyl Sulfoxide
32. Niir Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) can provide Process Technology Book on Distillation and Refining of Petroleum Products (Lubricants, Waxes and Petrochemicals) See more http://goo.gl/hFbfk3 http://goo.gl/kdbj7r http://goo.gl/N4POyi
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