phakka roga

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Published on July 15, 2014

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Growth and development: Growth and development Dr. Aziz I.A. PowerPoint Presentation: An understanding of the normative patterns of physical growth & the emergence of motor, cognitive and emotional competence allows pediatricians to monitor children’s progress and to identify delay or deviance. Understanding how biologic & environmental forces interact to shape development allows pediatricians to target factors that increase risk. Understanding how parent conceptualizes development facilitates anticipatory guidance & remedial intervention. Important of understanding of Growth and development PowerPoint Presentation: Definition Growth :- is defined as an increase in the size of an individual due to increase in number and size of the cells,in an overall increase. Development :- specifies maturation of functions. PowerPoint Presentation: Samvardhana is made up of two words i.e. Sam and Vardhana . Sam means even, Smooth, upright, good, honest . Vardhana means Increasing, growing, thriving, prosperity Samvardhana PowerPoint Presentation: 1.I¶d¬dSddy›d 2.±®dªdd®d±dae±deÔ 3.AdUµdT±ddzÝ®d 4.Ae®dœdd£d ¯dTfT ®dmeÕI¶T ªdd®d PowerPoint Presentation: 1.©d¬d®d£§dgè°d Qy¯d ¡d¦«d 2.I¶d¬dSddy›d 3.±dgšdŸd I¶d¬dSddy›d 4.©df¡d ´dyÎd ›dgPd ±da§d£d 5.AdUµdT ±da§d£d 6. ¯dTfT ±da§d£d 7±dd£«Sd ±da§d£d 8. ±d£®d ±da§d£d 9.±®dªdd®d±dae±deÕ 10.Sddz®d¦d 11.I¶«d‰ 12.±daUµ°d‰ ©d¬d®dmeÔI¶T ªdd®d PowerPoint Presentation: Genetic factors 1.Phenotype 2.characteristics of parents 3. Race 4.Sex 5.biorhythm and maturation 6.Genetic disorders Environmental factors Prenatal period Hormonal influences on growth Postnatal period Nutrition, chemical agents, Trauma, Social factors, Emotional factors Factors affecting growth and development PowerPoint Presentation: Period of growth in ayurveda Garbha :- The period of foetal growth and development Baala :- period of growth and development from birth till 16 years of age 1.Ksheerapa - from brith till one year. 2.Ksheeraannada - one to two year. 3.Annada - 2 to 16 years of age. Kumaara - the period of pubescence. In female-16years. In male - 25years. Periods of growth : Periods of growth Prenatal period Ovum 0 to 14days Embryo 14 days to 9 weeks Fetus 9weeks to birth Perinatal period 28weeks of gestation to 7days after birth PowerPoint Presentation: Postnatal period Newborn First 4weeks after birth Infancy First year Toddler 1 to 3years preschool child 3 to 6 years School age child 6 to 10 years (girls) 6 to 12 years (boys) PowerPoint Presentation: Adolescence Preadolescence 10 to 12 years(girls) 12 to 14 years(boys) Pubescent 12 to 14years(girls) 14 to 16years(boys) Postpubescent 14 to 16years(girls) 16 to 20years(boys) Growth and development divided into 3 part: Growth and development divided into 3 part Fetal growth and development Child growth and development Adolescence growth and development PowerPoint Presentation: Fetal development PowerPoint Presentation: Fetal growth and development is understood in 3 stages ( From fertilization to implantation 1st week to 3rd week) Garbhavakranti (Embryonic period-4th week to 8th week) Garbha (Fetal period - 3rd month to till birth) Garbhadhana samskara PowerPoint Presentation: Garbhadhana samskara The rite by the performance of which a woman receive semen scattered is called Gardhadhana (Saunaka) From fertilization to implantation(1st Week) : From fertilization to implantation(1st Week) Fertilization 12-24hours after ovulation. Male and Female pronuclei. Spindle of 1st mitotic division Two-cell stage(30hours) Morula containing 12-16blastomeres(3days) Advanced morula stage reaching uterine lumen(4 days) Early blastocyst stage(41/2days) Early phase of implantation (blastocyst 6days) 2 nd Week: 2 nd Week Endoderm and ectoderm appers (Bilaminar embryo started) 3rd Week: 3rd Week Formation of mesoderm Appearance of the primitive streak (Trilaminar germ disc ) PowerPoint Presentation: Garbhavakranti Embryonic Period 4th to 8thweek PowerPoint Presentation: 4th week & 5th week Neural folds fuse folding of embryo into human like shape; arm legs buds appear; crown-lump length 4-5mm. Lens plecodes primitive mouth,digital rays on hands. PowerPoint Presentation: 6th week Primitive nose,phitnum,primary plate CRL (21-23mm) PowerPoint Presentation: 7th week Eyelids begin. PowerPoint Presentation: Ovaries & testes distinguishable. At the end of 8 th week, as the embryogenic period closes,the rudiments of all major organ systems have developed. Weight about – 6grm CRL – 2cm-3cm(21.0-31.0mm) 8th week PowerPoint Presentation: Derivatives of germ layers are Ectodermal layer- CNS, PNS, sensory epithelium of ear,nose and eyes, Skin and hair. Mesodermal layer - Muscle,bone and other connective tissues,and peritoneum. Enodermal layer - Epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal track, respiratory tract,and several other organs. PowerPoint Presentation: 1st month- 1st day Kalala (morula) 10 day (bubdudha) blastocyst 15day solids 20day Flesh mass 25day formation of different body parts 2nd month- solid form, pinda(male), peshi(female), arbuda(hermaphrodite) Garbha Masanumasika Vriddhi PowerPoint Presentation: Six components and their role in formation of embryo and organogenesis Maternal : - All soft tissues and parts of the body eg:Twak, Medas etc. Paternal :- All hard tissues parts of the body eg; bones,nails etc. Aatma :- Functional aspects are derived eg: kaama, Krodha,the voice etc. Rasa :- Developmental aspects eg;various tissues,trupti,pusti and utsaaha. Saatmya :- Developmental aspects eg;indriya prasaadam,varna,ojus etc. Satwa :- Saatwik, Raajasik,and Taamasik. PowerPoint Presentation: 12th week The gender of the external genitals becomes clearly distinguishable lung development proceeds with the budding of bronchi, bronchioles and successively smaller divisions.CRL(5-8cms,10-45grms) PowerPoint Presentation: During this month all the body parts and Indrias become apparent. Embryo becomes capable of appreciating sorrow or happiness. It starts praspandana and develops consciousness. 3rd month PowerPoint Presentation: Head large in proportion to rest of body, Face takes on human looks and hairs appears on head.Many bones ossified, and joints begins to from, Rapid development of body systems. CRL-9-14cms Wt-60-200grms. 13-16weeks(4 th month) PowerPoint Presentation: During this month foetus gets more stability and its body parts become more conspicuous. Garbha hridaya becomes Pravyakta and Chethana (consciousness) also get manifests. Head becomes more Prominent and formation of hairs also take place during this month 4th month PowerPoint Presentation: Head less disproportionate to rest of body, Fine (laungo) covers body.Brown fat forms and is the site of heat production. Fetal movements commonly felt by mother (quicking)Rapid development of body stems. CRL-15-19cms Wt-250-450grms 17-20weeks(5 th month) PowerPoint Presentation: Mana becomes more enlightened and foetus become ‘sujiva’, 5th month PowerPoint Presentation: Head becomes even less disproportionate to rest of body,Eyelids separate & Eyelashes from, Substanital wt.gain. Skin wrinkled. Type II alveolar cells begins to produce surfactant CRL-20-23cms. Wt-500-820grms 21-24weeks(6 th months) PowerPoint Presentation: More bala and varna. Sensory and motor organs attain some more maturity and skin becomes more pinkish. Development of hair, body hair, nails, bones tendons become prominent during this month. 6 th month PowerPoint Presentation: Head & body more proportionate, Skin wrinkled 7 months fetus fetus assumes an upside-down position. Testes starts to descends into scrotum. CRL-24-27cms Wt-900-1300grms. 25-28weeks(7 th months) PowerPoint Presentation: During this month almost all the features of the body and its part become more conspicuous and well developed. 7th month PowerPoint Presentation: subcutaneous fat deposited, Skin less wrinkled chances of survival much greater at end of 8 th months CRL-28-30cms Wt-1400-2100grms 29-32weeks(8 th months) PowerPoint Presentation: During this month ‘Oja’ is said to be asthira and fluctuate between the mother and foetus. 8th month PowerPoint Presentation: additional subcutaneous fat accumulates,lungo shed Nails extend to tips of fingers and may be beyond CRL-31-34cmsr,Wt-2200-2900grms. 33-36weeks(9 th months) PowerPoint Presentation: Term CRl-35-36cms wt-3000-3400grms. 37-38weeks(91/2months) PowerPoint Presentation: Child Growth & development Assessment of growth: Assessment of growth Nutritional anthropomentry Assessment of tissue growth Bone age Dental age PowerPoint Presentation: In ayurveda anthropometrical values in growth is not given much more importance. Vag and charka -as explained the various measurement of the body in ones own anguli. Lenth of a Child should be 3 1/2 times the length of his forearm.(from olecranon to the tip of the little finger) PowerPoint Presentation: Growth from birth to puberty Nutritional anthropomentry 1.Weight Instrument using :-Infant - Detecto scale (+-20g) Children - Electronic scale (+_10g) In field - Spring machine. Growth velocity Ist few days after birth - 10% of wt.decreases Ist 3 months - 25 to 30 g/day From 3month-1year -400g / day At 5month- double the Br.wt 1year - Triple the Br.wt 2year - Fourth the Br.wt wt.in Kg = (Age in year +3) *2 PowerPoint Presentation: Height Techniques:- In infant- child in supine position, Legs are straightened,Keep feet at right angles to legs with toes pointing upward In older children - The child stand with bare feet on a flat floor against a wall with feet parallel and with hells,buttocks,shoulders and occiput touching the wall,top most point of the vertex is identified. Instrument:- upto 1 year - Infantometer older children- standometer infantometer standometer PowerPoint Presentation: Height velocity A. At birth 20 inches (50 cm) Gain during 1st year 10 inches (25 cm) Gain during 2nd year 5 inches (12.5cm) Gain during 3rd year 3.4 inches (7.5-10cm) Gain during 3-12 year 2-3 inches/year(5.0-7.5cms) Adolescence 8cm/year girls 10cm/year boys B.Expected height upto 12 years Height(inches)= Age in year*2.5+30 Height(cm) = Age in year*6+77 PowerPoint Presentation: Head circumference Techniques:- tape should be encircle over the most prominent part of occiput supraoribtal frontal areas. Instrument: Fibre-glass tape Growth velocity Till 3 months 2 cm / month 3 months - 1 year 2 cm / 3month(1/3of initial velocity) 1-3 years 1cm / 6month (1/2 of initial velocity} 3-5 years 1cm/year (1/24 of initial velocity} Note:-Brain rapid growth in infancy Mild to moderate degree of undernutrition is unaffected the brain growth PowerPoint Presentation: Mid-upper arm Circumference Technique:- MUAC is measured at the midpoint b/w acromian & olecranon Instrument :- Fibre glass or steel tape. Normal :- 1-5year is 15-17cm <12.5cms severe malnutrition b/w 12.5-13.5cm-moderate malnutrition PowerPoint Presentation: Chest circumference Techniques:- C.C is measured at the level the nipples midway b/w inspiration & expiration,while the child is in recumbent position. Relationship with H.C - At birth H.C is larger by upto 3 cm as compared to C.C Changes in - Preterm,Small-for-dates and hyderocephalic. C.C is equal H.C - around 9 months to the 1 year of age PowerPoint Presentation: Tissue growth 1. Triceps Skin fold thickens : - posterior surface of the triceps muscle 2. Subscapular skin fold thickens :- inferior angle of scapula 3. Biceps skin fold thickens :- belly of biceps PowerPoint Presentation: Dental age The number of days a tooth takes to erupt is just the age of the child in months in which it cuts,and that tooth after having shed out new tooth erupts again in the same of years, the number of months in which the first erupt, Each side of the jaw is said to contain from before backwards in succession 2 raaja dhantas(incisors) 2Vasti dhataas(canine) 2damstra dantaas(premolars) 2hanu dantaas(molars) Normally people have 32 teeth in total Swarudha dhantas - 8 Dwija dhantas -24 PowerPoint Presentation: Dental age PowerPoint Presentation: Bone age or skeletal maturity Bone age is an indicator of physiological development Assessment of bone age is based on 1.Number, Shape and size of epiphyseal centers 2.Size, Shape, and Density of the ends of bones. 20 ossification centres are used for bone age 1.Carpal bones 2.Metacarpals and patella in both sexes 3.Distal and middle phalanges in boys and distal and phalanges in girls 4.Distal and proximal toes. Which bones should be evaluted for skeletal age New born - X-rays of foot and knee Infants b/w 3 to 9 months -shoulder From 1 to 13 years - Single film of hand or wrist. From 12 to 14 years - elbow and hip PowerPoint Presentation: Growth charts Growth chart is the important tool in assessment of growth of an individual child. Velocity of growth charts They show the rate of change which could be due to chronic illness or growth hormone deficiency Great britain :- Tanner’s growth charts. In india :- Agarwal et al charts. Development: Development An understanding of normal child development can guide us in planning activities that will help the disabled child progress. PowerPoint Presentation: Some of the samskaaras help for understanding development 1st month - Sooryodaya darshana- ability look at objects. 4th month - Niskramana-head control,react to social contact by a smile or produce sounds. 5th month - Upaveshana -cild is made to sit. 5th year - Akshara Lekhana- child made to learn alphabets. 8th year - Upanayana -left under guidance of a teacher. 16thyear- Godana samakara-beard shaving done for the 1st time. PowerPoint Presentation: Stimulation of motor development Motor development PowerPoint Presentation: Movement, body control, strength, and balance: . Use of the hands The senses . Communication Basic activities for daily living Interaction with other people Observing, thinking, and doing Personal & social Behaviour PowerPoint Presentation: Language development and stimulation method PowerPoint Presentation: Responds to sounds of bell Scoop on a pellet crudely with his hand Arms activate on sight of dangling object Adaptive Behaviour child can match objects of similar shape, size, and color. Start with simpler games with square or round figures. PowerPoint Presentation: Hanging toys for baby Toys for touching Toys to taste or smell Toys for seeing Toys for balance Toys for hearing TOYS AND PLAYTHINGS TO STIMULATE A CHILD'S SENSES CONLUSIONS: CONLUSIONS 1. G & D is a qualitative & quantitative increase in an individual. 2. It is important to know G & D for normal milestones & monitor various developmental disorders. 3. Understanding of G & D should be done at various stages like prenatal, post natal & adolescence. 4. G & D depends on various factors like physical, environmental including psycho-social factors. 5. Various standard parameters are to be used to assess G & D at different stages. PowerPoint Presentation: Thank u

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