Published on February 26, 2008
Fork Lift Operation: Fork Lift Operation By: Chou Lor, Safety Coordinator 29 CFR 1910.178 Fork Lift Operation: Fork Lift Operation Training Objectives: Requirements for Fork Lift Drivers Lifts are for Handling Materials General Safety Rules Drive Safely Safety and Operational Checks Fork Lift Operation Picking Up a Load Putting a Load Down Safe Unloading of Trailer Safe Stacking of Loads Fork Lift Stability Tips to Avoid “Tipping” Propane Fuel Handling Requirements for Fork Lift Drivers: Requirements for Fork Lift Drivers Must posses a valid driver’s license and be authorized to drive university vehicles. Must be approved by FP&M to operate a Fork Lift. Must have complete “hands on” Fork Lift Training. Observe all traffic signs and regulations. Lifts are for Handling Material: Lifts are for Handling Material Never raise anyone with a lift truck Do not allow anyone to ride on the side or forks. Never allow anyone to walk under raised forks. Do not use the upright for a ladder. General Safety Rules: General Safety Rules Watch out for pedestrians They may not watch for you. Wear safety equipment when required. Do not block safety or emergency equipment. No eating, drinking or smoking on fork lift. Do not operate fork lift when under influence of drugs or alcohol. No horseplay or stunt driving. Drive Safely : Drive Safely Use well defined traffic routes Free from obstruction. Keep a clear view of the path of travel, and always look in the direction of travel. If the load blocks your view, travel in reverse. Keep fork lift under control at all times. Travel at a speed that permits stopping in a safe manner Starts and stops should be gradual. Drive Safely Cont.: Drive Safely Cont. Keep both hands on the steering wheel whenever possible. Keep arms and legs within the cab or overhead guard supports at all times that the fork lift is in motion. Never drive toward a person standing in front of fixed object. Reduce speed and sound horn at cross aisles and other locations where vision is obstructed. Drive Safely Cont.: Drive Safely Cont. Remove loose objects from drive path Do not drive over or around them. Be alert at pedestrian crossing points. Unattended trucks must be shut off with lowered load. Stop at intersections, blind corners or entrances used by other traffic. Drive Safely Cont.: Drive Safely Cont. Maintain a safe distance from the edge of ramps or platforms while on any elevated dock or platform. Be extra careful when pedestrians are near. Keep a safe distance between you and any vehicle you may be following. Safety and Operational Checks: Safety and Operational Checks Fork Lifts must be inspected and serviced by a qualified technician at least every 3 months. Drivers should inspect the following each day: Steering Brakes Lights Check for leaks Note: Keep your hands, feet and legs out of the chains, upright, carriage or attachment. Fork Lift Stability: Fork Lift Stability Forklift is based on the principle of two weights balanced on opposite sides of a pivot, or “Fulcrum Point”. The forward wheels are the fulcrum point. Fork Lift Stability Cont.: Fork Lift Stability Cont. The Center of Gravity of the fork lift is the single point about which the fork lift is balanced in all directions. Any load the fork lift carries also has its own CG. When the fork lift picks up a load, the fork lift and load have a new combined CG. The stability of the fork lift is determined by the location of its CG, or if it is carrying a load, the combined CG. Fork Lift Stability Cont.: Fork Lift Stability Cont. In order for the forklift to be stable, the CG must stay within the area of the forklift represented by a triangle drawn between the drive wheels and the pivot of the steering axle. This triangle is routinely called the “Stability Triangle”. Fork Lift Stability Cont.: Fork Lift Stability Cont. If the CG moves forward, in front of the drive axle, the forklift will tip forward. If the CG moves outside of the line represented by the lines drawn between the drive wheels & the steer axle pivot, the forklift will tip to the side. Fork Lift Stability Cont.: Fork Lift Stability Cont. The CG, and therefore the stability, of the loaded truck is affected by the following factors: Size. Weight. Shape. Position of the load. Height to which the load is elevated. The amount of forward or backward tilt. Tire pressure. The dynamic forces created when the truck is moving. Fork Lift Operation: Fork Lift Operation Always travel with a load tilted slightly back for added stability. Do not lift or lower the load when the forklift is in motion. Keep the forks in the lowest position from the floor when vehicle is moving. Fork Lift Operation Cont.: Fork Lift Operation Cont. Drive in reverse rather than looking around the load if you are unable to see over it. Use extra caution when traveling longer distance in reverse. When driving on a hill or incline, keep the load up hill or up grade. To keep the load up grade When empty travel up in reverse and down forward – with a load travel up forward and down in reverse. Ascend & descend grades slowly. Picking Up a Load: Picking Up a Load Make sure the load is within the rated load capacity for the forklift. Adjust long or high loads which may affect capacity. A long load will reduce the capacity of the truck. Wide loads should be kept low. Center load. Stack and tie uneven or loose loads. Drive into the loading position and insert the forks far enough to be sure the pallet is completely on the forks. Picking Up a Load Cont.: Picking Up a Load Cont. Drive under the load until it slightly touches the carriage. Tilt the forks back to shift the weight of the load back, making it more stable. If the load is unbalanced, keep the heavier end closer to you. Tilt the mast back. Lift the load and tilt it back a little more before traveling. Stop when the tips of the forks are about a foot away from the load. Picking Up a Load Cont.: Picking Up a Load Cont. Level the forks and slowly drive forward until the load is resting against the backrest. Lift the load high enough to clear whatever is under it. Carefully tilt the mast back to stabilize the load. Clear the stacks by slowly backing Check behind and to both sides before moving. Keep the forks low for travel. Putting a Load Down: Putting a Load Down Square up and stop about a foot away. Level the forks and then drive the rest of the way in. Lower the load. Tilt the forks slightly forward to avoid hooking the load. Look over both shoulders and back straight out until the forks clear the pallet. Safe Unloading of Trailer: Safe Unloading of Trailer Make sure brakes are set and wheel chocks are in place under the rear wheels. Use jack stands if appropriate. Inspect or install the dock pale (secure in place and check load capacity). Check flooring for breaks and weaknesses before driving into the trailer. Safe Stacking of Loads: Safe Stacking of Loads Take precautions when loading or pulling from a stack. Do not stack materials too high. Move towards the stack with the load low and tilted backward. Slow down and stop at the face of the stack. Make sure the area is clear of personnel. Safe Stacking of Loads Cont.: Safe Stacking of Loads Cont. Stop about one foot away from the loading area & lift the mast high enough to clear the top of the stack. Reduce the backward tilt to stabilize the load. Bring mast forward retaining only sufficient back tilt to secure the load. Elevate the load to the desired stacking height. When the load is clear of the top of the stack, move slowly forward. Safe Stacking of Loads Cont.: Safe Stacking of Loads Cont. When the load is securely stacked, lower forks until free of pallet. Check behind and withdraw by reversing the forklift. A slight forward tilt may be helpful at this position. When clear of the stack, lower the forks to just above the ground level, tilt the mast backward to the usual traveling position. Safe Stacking of Loads Cont.: Safe Stacking of Loads Cont. DO NOT straighten the stack by pushing against it with the forks or with the end of the forklift. Slowly move forward until the load is squarely over the top of the stack. Level the forks and lower the mast until the load is no longer supported by the forks. Look over both shoulders for obstructions and back straight out if the path is clear. Tips to Avoid “Tipping”: Tips to Avoid “Tipping” Do not exceed the weight capacity of the lift. Never turn on a grade. Avoid loose or slippery surfaces. Turning onto a soft shoulder can tip a truck over Keep the steer wheels on the road. Tips to Avoid “Tipping” Cont.: Tips to Avoid “Tipping” Cont. Turning too sharp with a raised load can cause truck to tip over even at slow speed. Carry loads low and tilted back. Note: If tip over occurs: Stay with the truck Chance for survival is better. Stay in the seat Grip the wheel and brace your feet. Propane Fuel Handling: Propane Fuel Handling All valves, nozzle, and hoses should be secure and free of leaks. The propane tank should be inspected for cracks, broken weld points, and other damage. If you smell propane, shut off the valve. Propane Fuel Handling: Propane Fuel Handling The valve on the fuel cylinder must be closed when the PIT is not in operation and parked overnight. The fuel cylinder must be secured in the brackets when the PIT is in operation. Change propane tanks in a well-ventilated area free of open flames. No smoking. Slide31: Any Questions ??