Planning Change 5C2

Information about Planning Change 5C2

Published on December 1, 2007

Author: Columbia

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Planning for Change:  Planning for Change Goals, Not Needs:  Goals, Not Needs Revealed Preferences:  Revealed Preferences When in doubt - ASK! The Power of Asking Questions as an Intervention :  When in doubt - ASK! The Power of Asking Questions as an Intervention Rapport Matching the Client's Criteria:  Rapport Matching the Client's Criteria Yes, but …. :  Yes, but …. Finding the client RIGHT!:  Finding the client RIGHT! Blame looks backwards, responsibility looks forwards:  Blame looks backwards, responsibility looks forwards He who has a why to live for can bear almost any how. - Nietzsche:  He who has a why to live for can bear almost any how. - Nietzsche Motivation relates to the sustained interest or involvement in a goal oriented task. Motivation theory deals with how this best can be achieved. :  Motivation relates to the sustained interest or involvement in a goal oriented task. Motivation theory deals with how this best can be achieved. The development of goals is closely involved with the cognitive restructuring process: • awareness: most people are not aware of the goal hierarchies from which they operate; many with problems in living will therefore deny that they even have goals; • attention: once the mind has been probed using a variety of techniques, the operational goals can be held in conscious mind for ‘debugging’; • analysis: the ‘debugging’ process is one of determining whether there is intentionality or just desire for an outcome; • alternatives: if intentionality does not exist for goals presently held, there is need to develop alternatives to which the person can be committed; • adaption: when an intentional goal is developed and attended to through implementation strategies and tactics, adaption can take place.:  The development of goals is closely involved with the cognitive restructuring process: • awareness: most people are not aware of the goal hierarchies from which they operate; many with problems in living will therefore deny that they even have goals; • attention: once the mind has been probed using a variety of techniques, the operational goals can be held in conscious mind for ‘debugging’; • analysis: the ‘debugging’ process is one of determining whether there is intentionality or just desire for an outcome; • alternatives: if intentionality does not exist for goals presently held, there is need to develop alternatives to which the person can be committed; • adaption: when an intentional goal is developed and attended to through implementation strategies and tactics, adaption can take place. Exploring Subjective Experience:  Exploring Subjective Experience Beliefs about one’s self. :  Beliefs about one’s self. Beliefs about other people; including beliefs about what other people believe about you.:  Beliefs about other people; including beliefs about what other people believe about you. Beliefs about future prospects; including beliefs about the causes of success and failure. :  Beliefs about future prospects; including beliefs about the causes of success and failure. To the extent that the helper seeks to deepen understanding, it is necessary to get at the core beliefs, and not just the cognitive errors that represent the ‘leakage’ of those beliefs, from which we can make inferences.. Part of the determination to proceed to a deeper understanding is based on how chronic the problems in living are, and part might be determined by social pressure. Chronic criminals are not likely to see their cognitive errors as a problem; at least not their problem. Anger is the justifying emotion, and antisocial behavior is predicated on anger. Developing a deeper understanding, particularly with a person who believes they already understand everything they need to understand is based on two pivotal and interrelated matters: relationship and goals. No helping relationship can occur unless and until the person being helped believes the help will enhance his/her own goals. And no goals can be defined unless and or until the person begins to look to the future. Very often the people with the most severe and persistent problems in living have no conscious goals except, perhaps, goals of avoidance. Thus no helping relationship can start without a focus of the person being helped on what s/he wants. :  To the extent that the helper seeks to deepen understanding, it is necessary to get at the core beliefs, and not just the cognitive errors that represent the ‘leakage’ of those beliefs, from which we can make inferences.. Part of the determination to proceed to a deeper understanding is based on how chronic the problems in living are, and part might be determined by social pressure. Chronic criminals are not likely to see their cognitive errors as a problem; at least not their problem. Anger is the justifying emotion, and antisocial behavior is predicated on anger. Developing a deeper understanding, particularly with a person who believes they already understand everything they need to understand is based on two pivotal and interrelated matters: relationship and goals. No helping relationship can occur unless and until the person being helped believes the help will enhance his/her own goals. And no goals can be defined unless and or until the person begins to look to the future. Very often the people with the most severe and persistent problems in living have no conscious goals except, perhaps, goals of avoidance. Thus no helping relationship can start without a focus of the person being helped on what s/he wants. Goal Characteristics:  Goal Characteristics • create the future [self-fulfilling prophecies] A Self Fulfilling Prophecy is said to occur when one’s belief concerning the occurrence of some future event...makes one behave in a manner...that increases the likelihood that the expected event will occur....:  • create the future [self-fulfilling prophecies] A Self Fulfilling Prophecy is said to occur when one’s belief concerning the occurrence of some future event...makes one behave in a manner...that increases the likelihood that the expected event will occur.... • reframing [negative to positive; competition to mastery] The goal should not be related to ‘I’m too fat and must lose weight’, but rather to ‘I am thin’. Additionally the performance must be based on increasing the person’s own level of performance regardless of the level of competition. :  • reframing [negative to positive; competition to mastery] The goal should not be related to ‘I’m too fat and must lose weight’, but rather to ‘I am thin’. Additionally the performance must be based on increasing the person’s own level of performance regardless of the level of competition. • present time perspective The present tense time technique assists in visualizing a goal as if it already exists. A goal stated in future time is likely to always remain in the future. :  • present time perspective The present tense time technique assists in visualizing a goal as if it already exists. A goal stated in future time is likely to always remain in the future. • cognitive errors [shoulds] When you have a list of ironclad rules about how you and other people should act, this generally means that the goals operate within the shoulds.:  • cognitive errors [shoulds] When you have a list of ironclad rules about how you and other people should act, this generally means that the goals operate within the shoulds. • visualization [attainment] You can learn new behavior sequences by imagining yourself performing the desired behavior successfully. Called covert modeling, it enables a person to identify, refine, and practice in his/her mind the necessary steps for completing a desired behavior :  • visualization [attainment] You can learn new behavior sequences by imagining yourself performing the desired behavior successfully. Called covert modeling, it enables a person to identify, refine, and practice in his/her mind the necessary steps for completing a desired behavior • intentionality It is expectancy in the sense of that which the expecter believes is likely to occur, rather than that which a person believes ought to occur, that leads to the behavior that fulfills the prophecy. :  • intentionality It is expectancy in the sense of that which the expecter believes is likely to occur, rather than that which a person believes ought to occur, that leads to the behavior that fulfills the prophecy. Goals serve two general functions: • they can be used as reference standards to assess performance and task difficulty; • they can also be used as the focal point for learners to determine performance or implementation strategies. :  Goals serve two general functions: • they can be used as reference standards to assess performance and task difficulty; • they can also be used as the focal point for learners to determine performance or implementation strategies. The purpose of this technique is to assist a child with problems in living in obtaining absolute clarity on what s/he wants in every area of his/her life. If s/he is interested in improving the quality of day-to-day experiences, then s/he must define a richer, fuller, more satisfying life. S/he must face what s/he wants. This technique is designed to be a tool to determine and clarify all of the child’s personal desires, wants, and dreams; becoming aware of what they are, assessing them and making them real by acting on them. :  The purpose of this technique is to assist a child with problems in living in obtaining absolute clarity on what s/he wants in every area of his/her life. If s/he is interested in improving the quality of day-to-day experiences, then s/he must define a richer, fuller, more satisfying life. S/he must face what s/he wants. This technique is designed to be a tool to determine and clarify all of the child’s personal desires, wants, and dreams; becoming aware of what they are, assessing them and making them real by acting on them. Victor Frankl [1959] suggests that the search for meaning is the primary motivation in life. People, he suggests, need “something” for the sake of which to live. ‘Teleology’ is the term for this belief that events are pulled by a purpose toward a definite end. The first and original meaning for telos was formulated by Aristotle: ‘that for the sake of which”.:  Victor Frankl [1959] suggests that the search for meaning is the primary motivation in life. People, he suggests, need “something” for the sake of which to live. ‘Teleology’ is the term for this belief that events are pulled by a purpose toward a definite end. The first and original meaning for telos was formulated by Aristotle: ‘that for the sake of which”. Psychological fitness is based on a certain degree of tension, the tension between what one has already achieved and what one still (ought)/wishes to accomplish, or the gap between what one is and what one (should)/wishes to become. It is a dangerous misconception to assume that what a person needs in the first place is equilibrium or, as it is called in biology, “homeostasis”, i.e., a tensionless state. Homeostasis in children and adolescence is not a state of serenity, but rather one of immobility; wherein nothing matters. :  Psychological fitness is based on a certain degree of tension, the tension between what one has already achieved and what one still (ought)/wishes to accomplish, or the gap between what one is and what one (should)/wishes to become. It is a dangerous misconception to assume that what a person needs in the first place is equilibrium or, as it is called in biology, “homeostasis”, i.e., a tensionless state. Homeostasis in children and adolescence is not a state of serenity, but rather one of immobility; wherein nothing matters. Ultimately, the person should not ask what the meaning of his/her life is, but rather s/he must recognize that it is s/he who is asked. Each person is questioned by life; and can only answer to life by answering for his own life; to life s/he can only respond by being responsible. Responsibility is a term common in everyday life and refers to aspects of experience with which we are all acquainted. It suggests obligation. [Niebuhr, 1968]. This is intended to help the mentor understand why it is important to help the child make a DECISION about their life. The child may maintain that “my life stinks.” However the mentor’s challenge is to help the client recognize that this is actually a decision and to help him/her reformulate the decision to something else which will guide their future. The client can make a decision which will help them be different. Don’t talk about ‘goals’, talk about ‘decisions’ and choices.:  Ultimately, the person should not ask what the meaning of his/her life is, but rather s/he must recognize that it is s/he who is asked. Each person is questioned by life; and can only answer to life by answering for his own life; to life s/he can only respond by being responsible. Responsibility is a term common in everyday life and refers to aspects of experience with which we are all acquainted. It suggests obligation. [Niebuhr, 1968]. This is intended to help the mentor understand why it is important to help the child make a DECISION about their life. The child may maintain that “my life stinks.” However the mentor’s challenge is to help the client recognize that this is actually a decision and to help him/her reformulate the decision to something else which will guide their future. The client can make a decision which will help them be different. Don’t talk about ‘goals’, talk about ‘decisions’ and choices. Slide29:  READ THIS LET IT REALLY SINK IN...THEN CHOOSE HOW YOU START YOUR DAY ... Michael is the kind of guy you love to hate. He is always in a good mood and always has something positive to say. When someone would ask him how he was doing, he would reply, "If I were any better, I would be twins!" He was a natural motivator. If an employee was having a bad day, Michael was there telling the employee how to look on the positive side of the situation.Seeing this style really made me curious, so one day I went up to Michael and asked him, "I don't get it! You can't be a positive person all of the time. How do you do it?" Michael replied, "Each morning I wake up and say to myself, Mike, you have two choices today. You can choose to be in a good mood or you can choose to be in a bad mood. I choose to be in a good mood. Each time something bad happens, I can choose to be a victim or I can choose to learn from it. I choose to learn from it. Every time someone comes to me complaining, I can choose to accept their complaining or I can point out the positive side of life. I choose the positive side of life. "Yeah, right, it's not that easy, "I protested. "Yes, it is," Michael said. "Life is all about choices.When you cut away all the junk, every situation is a choice. "You choose how you react to situations. You choose how people will affect your mood. You choose to be in a good mood or bad mood. The bottom line: It's your choice how you live life." I reflected on what Michael said. Soon thereafter, I left the Tower Industry to start my own business. We lost touch, but I often thought about him when I made a choice about life instead of reacting to it. Slide30:  Several years later, I heard that Michael was involved in a serious accident, falling some 60 feet from a communications tower. After 18 hours of surgery and weeks of intensive care, Michael was released from the hospital with rods placed in his back. I saw Michael about six months after the accident. When I asked him how he was, he replied. "If I were any better, I'd be twins. Wanna see my scars?" I declined to see his wounds, but did ask him what had gone through his mind as the accident took place. "The first thing that went through my mind was the well-being of my soon to be born daughter," Michael replied. "Then, as I lay on the ground, I remembered that I had two choices: I could choose to live or I could choose to die. I chose to live." "Weren't you scared? Did you lose consciousness?" I asked. Michael continued, "..the paramedics were great. They kept telling me I was going to be fine. But when they wheeled me into the ER and I saw the expressions on the faces of the doctors and nurses, I got really scared. In their eyes, I read, 'he's a dead man.' I knew I needed to take action." "What did you do?" I asked."Well, there was a big burly nurse shouting questions at me," said Michael. "She asked if I was allergic to anything. 'Yes, I replied."The doctors and nurses stopped working as they waited for my reply. I took a deep breath and yelled, "Gravity." Over their laughter, I told them, 'I am choosing to live. Operate on me as if I am alive, not dead'." Michael lived, thanks to the skill of his doctors, but also because of his amazing attitude. I learned from him that every day we have the choice to live fully. Attitude, after all, is everything Slide31:  The Trouble Tree I hired a plumber to help me restore an old farmhouse, and after he had just finished a rough first day on the job, a flat tire made him lose an hour of work & his electric drill quit, his ancient one ton truck refused to start. As I drove him home, he sat in stony silence. On arriving he invited me in to meet his family. As we walked toward the front door, he paused briefly at a small tree, touching the tips of the branches with both hands. Upon opening the door he had undergone an amazing transformation. His tanned face was wreathed in smiles and he hugged his two small children and gave his wife a kiss. Afterward he walked me to the car. We passed the tree and my curiosity got the better of me. I asked him about what I had seen him do at the little tree. "Oh, that's my trouble tree," he replied. "I know I can't help having troubles on the job, but one thing's for sure, those troubles don't belong in the house with my wife and the children. So I just hang them up on the tree every night when I come home and ask God to take care of them. Then in the morning I pick them up again." Funny thing is," he smiled, "when I come out in the morning to pick them up, there aren't nearly as many as I remember hanging up the night before." Yet obligation, duty and responsibility are very likely to be issues of concern when we talk about people with problems in living. The framework for orderly interaction is somehow skewed. Responsibility, Niebuhr tells us, is not a thing. It is a relationship between self and others, or a relationship the person has to certain situations. Yet these responsibilities seem somehow irrelevant when there is no personal context; no meaning; no telos.:  Yet obligation, duty and responsibility are very likely to be issues of concern when we talk about people with problems in living. The framework for orderly interaction is somehow skewed. Responsibility, Niebuhr tells us, is not a thing. It is a relationship between self and others, or a relationship the person has to certain situations. Yet these responsibilities seem somehow irrelevant when there is no personal context; no meaning; no telos. Frankl suggests that we can discover our own personal telos, or meaning in life in three different ways: 1) by creating a work or doing a deed: 2) by experiencing something or encountering someone: 3) by the attitude we take toward unavoidable suffering::  Frankl suggests that we can discover our own personal telos, or meaning in life in three different ways: 1) by creating a work or doing a deed: 2) by experiencing something or encountering someone: 3) by the attitude we take toward unavoidable suffering: Personal worthlessness cannot exist when one has purpose, responsibility and obligations.:  Personal worthlessness cannot exist when one has purpose, responsibility and obligations. MOTIVATION STRATEGIES:  MOTIVATION STRATEGIES John M. Keller proposed four main conditions leading to motivation: • attention • relevance • confidence • satisfaction potential :  John M. Keller proposed four main conditions leading to motivation: • attention • relevance • confidence • satisfaction potential Referred to as ARCS, he then linked specific corresponding strategies: • analyze the audience • define motivational objectives • design a motivational strategy • test and revise.:  Referred to as ARCS, he then linked specific corresponding strategies: • analyze the audience • define motivational objectives • design a motivational strategy • test and revise. Step 1. Analyze the audience:  Step 1. Analyze the audience The dialogue of goal development will need to focus the child’s attention on the success/failure of the avoidance strategy in reaching his/her goals. It is not sufficient for the helper to simply state the obvious, but rather to help the child conclude the situation. Thus the dialogue will probably need to be Socratic questioning which brings new information to the child. :  The dialogue of goal development will need to focus the child’s attention on the success/failure of the avoidance strategy in reaching his/her goals. It is not sufficient for the helper to simply state the obvious, but rather to help the child conclude the situation. Thus the dialogue will probably need to be Socratic questioning which brings new information to the child. Strategy #1. Novel Information Dialogue You might begin probing the child's goal hierarchy by asking him/her what his/her goals are. If s/he resists or insists that s/he has no goals, you might state one or more of the following verbal probes, which are contrived to arouse interest. Share the additional information as well. Keep notes on these conversation or any goal fragments that may come out so you can refer to them at a later date. :  Strategy #1. Novel Information Dialogue You might begin probing the child's goal hierarchy by asking him/her what his/her goals are. If s/he resists or insists that s/he has no goals, you might state one or more of the following verbal probes, which are contrived to arouse interest. Share the additional information as well. Keep notes on these conversation or any goal fragments that may come out so you can refer to them at a later date. PROBE: You can have anything you want, you just cannot have everything you want. This is about choice, focus and persistence. All of us need to decide what we want and then persistently go for it. At the same time we will need to realize that choosing what to go for means that there will be things we cannot go for, because time is a limited product. :  PROBE: You can have anything you want, you just cannot have everything you want. This is about choice, focus and persistence. All of us need to decide what we want and then persistently go for it. At the same time we will need to realize that choosing what to go for means that there will be things we cannot go for, because time is a limited product. PROBE: Once you commit to a goal, you can only have two results: You achieve the goal, or you have reasons [excuses] why you didn’t.:  PROBE: Once you commit to a goal, you can only have two results: You achieve the goal, or you have reasons [excuses] why you didn’t. PROBE: Most of us are motivated by one of two things: inspiration or desperation. :  PROBE: Most of us are motivated by one of two things: inspiration or desperation. PROBE: In order to be successful at anything in life, you need to take the CPR approach: - Consistent in your actions - Persistent in your motivation - Resistant to setbacks and naysayers :  PROBE: In order to be successful at anything in life, you need to take the CPR approach: - Consistent in your actions - Persistent in your motivation - Resistant to setbacks and naysayers PROBE: Don’t wish things were easier; wish you were better! - Jim Rohn :  PROBE: Don’t wish things were easier; wish you were better! - Jim Rohn PROBE: Chance favors the prepared mind - Louis Pasteur:  PROBE: Chance favors the prepared mind - Louis Pasteur PROBE: What currently is in your life that you would like not to be there? What currently is not in your life that you would like to be there?:  PROBE: What currently is in your life that you would like not to be there? What currently is not in your life that you would like to be there? Merely thinking about an action increases the likelihood of it occurring.:  Merely thinking about an action increases the likelihood of it occurring. Strategy #2 Social Role Opportunities:  Strategy #2 Social Role Opportunities Role/Goal Chart Role Performance Goal Confidence Satisfaction CBT#30-001:  Role/Goal Chart Role Performance Goal Confidence Satisfaction CBT#30-001 Strategy # 3 Goal Protocol :  Strategy # 3 Goal Protocol A. Goal Awareness: The beginning of any cognitive intervention is usually to make a person aware of their own thoughts. People with problems in living often will deny having any goals at all, but it should be clear that they do not act randomly. :  A. Goal Awareness: The beginning of any cognitive intervention is usually to make a person aware of their own thoughts. People with problems in living often will deny having any goals at all, but it should be clear that they do not act randomly. B. Goal Inventory: The establishment of a list of possible goals increases the probability of establishing such goals. The initial statement of goals does not need to be a commitment. The idea is to expand the thinking through a ‘creative thinking’ [process which begins to expand goal alternatives]. :  B. Goal Inventory: The establishment of a list of possible goals increases the probability of establishing such goals. The initial statement of goals does not need to be a commitment. The idea is to expand the thinking through a ‘creative thinking’ [process which begins to expand goal alternatives]. Goal Domains Family: What is the relationship to the present family and how does it coincide with desires for a future family. Is it likely, hoped, expected that the child will marry and have children, and if so, how will that family relate to the present family of parents and siblings? What supports would be necessary to make this work? If the child is unlikely to marry and/or have children, what is the potential for continuing relationships to siblings. What are the goals regarding the family and family life that make sense.:  Goal Domains Family: What is the relationship to the present family and how does it coincide with desires for a future family. Is it likely, hoped, expected that the child will marry and have children, and if so, how will that family relate to the present family of parents and siblings? What supports would be necessary to make this work? If the child is unlikely to marry and/or have children, what is the potential for continuing relationships to siblings. What are the goals regarding the family and family life that make sense. Goal Domains Social: What is the present personal support network [unrelated adult, best friend, peer group, etc.] and how might it expand? The assurance of a personal support group is an important aspect of adult life particularly for people who need cognitive, emotional and or behavioral support. While it is possible to be a loner, this requires a very strong personality and personal self sufficiency. :  Goal Domains Social: What is the present personal support network [unrelated adult, best friend, peer group, etc.] and how might it expand? The assurance of a personal support group is an important aspect of adult life particularly for people who need cognitive, emotional and or behavioral support. While it is possible to be a loner, this requires a very strong personality and personal self sufficiency. Goal Domains Educational: What are the educational goals of the child. Will there be academic or technical learning beyond high school? What special preparation will be needed to make this involvement have satisfactory outcome? :  Goal Domains Educational: What are the educational goals of the child. Will there be academic or technical learning beyond high school? What special preparation will be needed to make this involvement have satisfactory outcome? Goal Domains Employment: What is the likelihood of work and what type of work is preferred? What training is necessary? Has a full vocational evaluation been done or is it planned. Has the adolescent had the opportunity to use computer programming to help identify areas of work interest? What technical training is necessary to ensure that the child is prepared for employment within the area of preferred choice.:  Goal Domains Employment: What is the likelihood of work and what type of work is preferred? What training is necessary? Has a full vocational evaluation been done or is it planned. Has the adolescent had the opportunity to use computer programming to help identify areas of work interest? What technical training is necessary to ensure that the child is prepared for employment within the area of preferred choice. Goal Domains Health: Are there medical issues that can be predicted? How can these best be addressed? Is the child capable of learning health, nutrition and hygiene adequately enough to be self sufficient? :  Goal Domains Health: Are there medical issues that can be predicted? How can these best be addressed? Is the child capable of learning health, nutrition and hygiene adequately enough to be self sufficient? Goal Domains Psychology: What emotional supports are necessary for the emerging adult as s/he and the family age? If the child is reliant on his/her family for emotional support, what happens when the family is no longer capable of such support? How can s/he plan to provide such support in the future? :  Goal Domains Psychology: What emotional supports are necessary for the emerging adult as s/he and the family age? If the child is reliant on his/her family for emotional support, what happens when the family is no longer capable of such support? How can s/he plan to provide such support in the future? Goal Domains Legal: Are there legal issues that need to be addressed? Does the child display or demonstrate the potential of criminal behavior? What supports can be built in to help the child take responsibility for these issues? Are there other kinds of legal issues to be addressed [trusts, suits, etc]? :  Goal Domains Legal: Are there legal issues that need to be addressed? Does the child display or demonstrate the potential of criminal behavior? What supports can be built in to help the child take responsibility for these issues? Are there other kinds of legal issues to be addressed [trusts, suits, etc]? Goal Domains Safety: If the child has medical, physical or emotional limitations which place them in potential danger, what supports are necessary to ameliorate such hazard? :  Goal Domains Safety: If the child has medical, physical or emotional limitations which place them in potential danger, what supports are necessary to ameliorate such hazard? Goal Domains Home: Are there physical requirements to future living arrangements? Who would the child prefer to live with now and in the future? What kinds of locations, homes are preferred [urban, suburban, rural]? Does the child choose to learn how to care for a home and be self sufficient within their own personal environment? :  Goal Domains Home: Are there physical requirements to future living arrangements? Who would the child prefer to live with now and in the future? What kinds of locations, homes are preferred [urban, suburban, rural]? Does the child choose to learn how to care for a home and be self sufficient within their own personal environment? Goal Domains Mobility: Many of the above domains demand the ability to get to and from places. What requirements need to be fulfilled to ensure that the child will be able to be adequately mobile to participate in the community, work, worship and play? :  Goal Domains Mobility: Many of the above domains demand the ability to get to and from places. What requirements need to be fulfilled to ensure that the child will be able to be adequately mobile to participate in the community, work, worship and play? Goal Domains Personal: The ability to care for oneself, handle financial matters, schedule and use time effectively, relate interpersonally, use time alone effectively, etc. are significant contributors to a quality life style. What are the child’s strengths and weakness and how should s/he plan to adequately deal with these issues as an adult. What is the child’s spiritual identification?:  Goal Domains Personal: The ability to care for oneself, handle financial matters, schedule and use time effectively, relate interpersonally, use time alone effectively, etc. are significant contributors to a quality life style. What are the child’s strengths and weakness and how should s/he plan to adequately deal with these issues as an adult. What is the child’s spiritual identification? Goal Domains Community: Independent people use community resources such as libraries, shopping centers, recreational facilities, voting areas and the like as everyday events. Emerging adults need to learn how to use the community resources effectively. :  Goal Domains Community: Independent people use community resources such as libraries, shopping centers, recreational facilities, voting areas and the like as everyday events. Emerging adults need to learn how to use the community resources effectively. Vision Statement:  Vision Statement C. Goal Analysis can be developed as a formal process in which decision making apparatus is involved.:  C. Goal Analysis can be developed as a formal process in which decision making apparatus is involved. Goal Analysis Chart Goal MUST WANT Weight CBT#30-003 :  Goal Analysis Chart Goal MUST WANT Weight CBT#30-003 D. Goal Selection must include a process of organizing the hierarchy of each set of goals and searching for the level of commitment at lower and lower levels.:  D. Goal Selection must include a process of organizing the hierarchy of each set of goals and searching for the level of commitment at lower and lower levels. Step 2 Define Motivational Objectives :  Step 2 Define Motivational Objectives Goal Framing involves development of • specific statement(s) which define clearly what the intention requires. :  Goal Framing involves development of • specific statement(s) which define clearly what the intention requires. • Mastery statement(s) The goal should not be to have better grades than all the other children in a class, but to improve one’s own grades. :  • Mastery statement(s) The goal should not be to have better grades than all the other children in a class, but to improve one’s own grades. • affirmative statement(s) which define positive outcomes. :  • affirmative statement(s) which define positive outcomes. • proximal statement(s) which maintain a nearness of the feedback and reward system. :  • proximal statement(s) which maintain a nearness of the feedback and reward system. • Learning statement(s) which define the evaluative criterion for truth.:  • Learning statement(s) which define the evaluative criterion for truth. Develop a goal hierarchy :  Develop a goal hierarchy Goal Setting Chart Life Career Long Term Short Term Implementation Goals Goals Goals Goals Strategies CBT#30-004 :  Goal Setting Chart Life Career Long Term Short Term Implementation Goals Goals Goals Goals Strategies CBT#30-004 It is helpful to get the child to think in terms of the future and of life in general. Since this is often difficult, another set of probes might be considered. :  It is helpful to get the child to think in terms of the future and of life in general. Since this is often difficult, another set of probes might be considered. Ask the child to identify the person who s/he believes has the best life philosophy and why? :  Ask the child to identify the person who s/he believes has the best life philosophy and why? Ask the child if there is one thing that they wish they could change today - and set a goal in this regard. :  Ask the child if there is one thing that they wish they could change today - and set a goal in this regard. Step 3 Design a motivational strategy:  Step 3 Design a motivational strategy Implementation Strategies If any of the columns of the Goal Setting Chart are filled in, the next step is to develop implementation strategies.:  Implementation Strategies If any of the columns of the Goal Setting Chart are filled in, the next step is to develop implementation strategies. Helper as Coach :  Helper as Coach Anticipation and coping plans :  Anticipation and coping plans Goal pursuit requires • anticipative decisions which define favorable and unfavorable situations, instrumental behavior and conflict coping tactics. • implementation intentions which include specified situations and intended behaviors:  Goal pursuit requires • anticipative decisions which define favorable and unfavorable situations, instrumental behavior and conflict coping tactics. • implementation intentions which include specified situations and intended behaviors Focus - The Mentor must help ensure that the child is focused. S/he should maintain an emphasis on the mastery focus not comparisons with others. The child must be trained to think of each test as a test against his/her own prior achievements, not against others. :  Focus - The Mentor must help ensure that the child is focused. S/he should maintain an emphasis on the mastery focus not comparisons with others. The child must be trained to think of each test as a test against his/her own prior achievements, not against others. Clarity of instruction - The rules and instructions need to be clearly communicated to the child before the activity is introduced. This may include the repetition of the implementation strategy plan.:  Clarity of instruction - The rules and instructions need to be clearly communicated to the child before the activity is introduced. This may include the repetition of the implementation strategy plan. Provide feedback - Feedback alone does not affect performance, nor do goals alone; it is when the two are combined that performance changes.:  Provide feedback - Feedback alone does not affect performance, nor do goals alone; it is when the two are combined that performance changes. Provide additional knowledge - Knowledge of results is ‘motivational’ in that it leads to goal setting, not the other way around. Correct knowledge of results is better than no knowledge or false knowledge. :  Provide additional knowledge - Knowledge of results is ‘motivational’ in that it leads to goal setting, not the other way around. Correct knowledge of results is better than no knowledge or false knowledge. Set the schedule for personal evaluation - Following the receipt of knowledge of results requires a period of evaluation which entails the formulation of behavioral intentions linked to goals for the next behavior. Time is needed for this consideration and so repetitions should be separated by reflection intervals. :  Set the schedule for personal evaluation - Following the receipt of knowledge of results requires a period of evaluation which entails the formulation of behavioral intentions linked to goals for the next behavior. Time is needed for this consideration and so repetitions should be separated by reflection intervals. ‘Raising the bar’- The performance of one trial affects the goal levels for the next trial providing the child has had the standards for evaluation and the time to reflect so that the next level of goals can be set. Generally, the greater the performance change, the higher will be the subsequent goal. Person do not normally aim for goals that their previous performance indicates would be unrealistic or non-challenging. Mentors have to be honest and realistic in performance analysis and when setting goals. Attempting to ‘motivate’ by setting ‘impossible’ goals [as perceived by the child], is unlikely to improve performance and more likely will cause performance to worsen. :  ‘Raising the bar’- The performance of one trial affects the goal levels for the next trial providing the child has had the standards for evaluation and the time to reflect so that the next level of goals can be set. Generally, the greater the performance change, the higher will be the subsequent goal. Person do not normally aim for goals that their previous performance indicates would be unrealistic or non-challenging. Mentors have to be honest and realistic in performance analysis and when setting goals. Attempting to ‘motivate’ by setting ‘impossible’ goals [as perceived by the child], is unlikely to improve performance and more likely will cause performance to worsen. Step 4 Test & revise The process of goal setting, test, evaluation and re-setting of goals is a constantly changing endeavor. :  Step 4 Test & revise The process of goal setting, test, evaluation and re-setting of goals is a constantly changing endeavor. Summary of Steps To Consider In Goal Setting:  Summary of Steps To Consider In Goal Setting Goal Formulation: When goals are selected, they should be formulated primarily in terms of personal mastery and preference. The goals should be framed affirmatively. There should always be more than one goal established for a classification. The intent of performing should always be to achieve a number of outcomes. The reason for establishing multiple goals should always ensure that the attainment of the majority of them is highly probable. This will produce a positive orientation towards performance with a high expectation of success. The higher the expectation of success, the better will be the performance. :  Goal Formulation: When goals are selected, they should be formulated primarily in terms of personal mastery and preference. The goals should be framed affirmatively. There should always be more than one goal established for a classification. The intent of performing should always be to achieve a number of outcomes. The reason for establishing multiple goals should always ensure that the attainment of the majority of them is highly probable. This will produce a positive orientation towards performance with a high expectation of success. The higher the expectation of success, the better will be the performance. The setting of goals is not a trivial task.:  The setting of goals is not a trivial task. The Comprehensive Goal Hierarchy has four major parts: 1) goal statement, 2) action [implementation] plan, 3) responsibility and time chart, and 4) contract. :  The Comprehensive Goal Hierarchy has four major parts: 1) goal statement, 2) action [implementation] plan, 3) responsibility and time chart, and 4) contract. Developing a Plan of Change:  Developing a Plan of Change “A dream is just a dream. A goal is a dream with a plan and a deadline” - Harvey Mackay:  “A dream is just a dream. A goal is a dream with a plan and a deadline” - Harvey Mackay The goal of assessment is not to create a diagnostic label, but rather to provide a profile of functioning that will yield concrete guidelines for selection of intervention strategies. :  The goal of assessment is not to create a diagnostic label, but rather to provide a profile of functioning that will yield concrete guidelines for selection of intervention strategies. If you don’t know where you are going, you may not get there. Yogi Berra:  If you don’t know where you are going, you may not get there. Yogi Berra We must start the Plan of Change with an understanding of expected outcomes. :  We must start the Plan of Change with an understanding of expected outcomes. Vision Statement:  Vision Statement Well Formed Outcomes:  Well Formed Outcomes Stated in the Positive:  Stated in the Positive Appropriately specific and contextualized:  Appropriately specific and contextualized Verifiable:  Verifiable Initiated and Maintained by the Client:  Initiated and Maintained by the Client Secondary Gain Is Taken Care Of:  Secondary Gain Is Taken Care Of ‘Ecological’:  ‘Ecological’ Outcome is a Complex Equivalent:  Outcome is a Complex Equivalent Identify Natural Supports:  Identify Natural Supports Identify Stressors:  Identify Stressors Process:  Process Create a Worksheet:  Create a Worksheet List the Interpretations [Cognitive Errors or Internal Logic]:  List the Interpretations [Cognitive Errors or Internal Logic] List the Goals [Outcome expectations]:  List the Goals [Outcome expectations] List the Goal Hierarchy [Objectives] :  List the Goal Hierarchy [Objectives] List the Techniques & Procedures:  List the Techniques & Procedures Create A Protocol:  Create A Protocol Define a goal Attainment documentation process :  Define a goal Attainment documentation process Develop a Change Order process:  Develop a Change Order process Write the Plan of Change:  Write the Plan of Change Build a Bridge between the present and the future as intended:  Build a Bridge between the present and the future as intended Develop a Contract:  Develop a Contract The customer is always right!:  The customer is always right!

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