Poetry--Meter & Rhythm

Information about Poetry--Meter & Rhythm

Published on May 3, 2008

Author: tccampa

Source: authorstream.com

Content

The Rhythm of Poetry: : The Rhythm of Poetry: Syllable - Poetic feet - Meter Syllables : Syllables English words have clear syllables. We can usually divide words into syllables easily. We can also determine which syllables to emphasize, or “stress” in each word. For example: Angel = AN-gel  (not an-GEL) Complete = com-PLETE  (not COM-plete) More Syllables : More Syllables poem = PO-em…….(1 stressed + 1 unstressed) poetry = PO-e-try…….(1 stressed + 2 unstressed) relief = re-LIEF……. (1 unstressed + 1 stressed) recommend = re-com-MEND……. (2 unstressed + 1 stressed) discomfort = dis-COM-fort… (1 unstressed + 1 stressed + 1 unstressed) entertainment = en-ter-TAIN-ment (2 unstressed + 1 stressed + 1 unstressed) Scansion : Scansion (1) the act of scanning, or analyzing poetry in terms of its rhythmic components (2) the graphic representation, indicated by marked accents, feet, etc., of the rhythm of a line or lines of verse You may have seen scansion marks like the following: The curved lines are “unstressed” syllables while the straight slashes are “stressed” Poetic Meter : Poetic Meter Meters are the rhythms within poems. Meters are the arrangement of stressed/unstressed syllables to occur at apparently equal intervals. Metered verse has prescribed rules as to the number and placement of syllables used per line. Poetic Foot : Poetic Foot A poetic foot is a repeated sequence of rhythm comprised of two or more stressed and/or unstressed syllables. Poetic meter is comprised of poetic feet Five main patterns to poetic feet: : Five main patterns to poetic feet: 1. Iambic 2. Trochaic 3. Anapestic 4. Dactylic 5. Spondaic Iambic pattern : Iambic pattern 1 unstressed syllable followed by 1 stressed syllable EXAMPLES: repose (re-POSE) belief (be-LIEF) complete (com-PLETE) Trochaic Pattern : Trochaic Pattern 1 stressed syllable followed by 1 unstressed syllable EXAMPLES: garland (GAR-land) speaking (SPEAK-ing) value (VAL-ue) Anapestic pattern : Anapestic pattern 2 unstressed syllables followed by 1 stressed syllable EXAMPLES: on the road interrupt (in-ter-RUPT) unabridged, contradict, engineer, masquerade, Galilee Dactylic pattern : Dactylic pattern 1 stressed syllable followed by 2 unstressed syllables EXAMPLE: happiness (HAP-pi-ness) galloping (GAL-lop-ing) fortunate, Saturday, daffodil, murmuring, rhapsody Spondaic Pattern : Spondaic Pattern All syllables have equal stress EXAMPLE: Heartbreak “Out, out…” "pen-knife," "ad hoc," "heartburn" The Iambic foot : The Iambic foot The iamb = (1 unstressed syllable + 1 stressed syllable) is the most common poetic foot in English verse. iambic foot examples: behold destroy the sun (articles such as “the” would be considered unstressed syllables) and watch (conjunctions such as and would be considered unstressed syllables) Lines containing iambic feet : Lines containing iambic feet Behold / and watch / the sun / destroy / and grow (5 iambs) When I / do COUNT / the CLOCK / that TELLS / the TIME [Shakespeare’s Sonnet 12] (5 iambs) Shall I / compare /thee to / a sum / mer's day? [Shakespeare’s Sonnet 12] (5 iambs) Come live/ with me/ and be/ my love (4 iambs) (poem by Christopher Marlowe) Trochaic poem: a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed one : Trochaic poem: a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed one Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's “The Song of Hiawatha” By the / shores of / Gitche / Gumee, By the / shining / Big-Sea /-Water, Stood the / wigwam / of No / komis, Daughter / of the / Moon, No / komis. Dark behind it rose the forest, Rose the black and gloomy pine-trees, Rose the firs with cones upon them; Bright before' it beat the water, Beat the clear and sunny water, Beat the shining Big-Sea-Water. Anapestic poetry: 2 unstressed syllables + 1 stressed oneLimericks contain anapestic meter (in blue) : Anapestic poetry: 2 unstressed syllables + 1 stressed oneLimericks contain anapestic meter (in blue) A Limerick by Edward Lear: There was / an Old Man / with a beard,Who said, "It is just / as I feared!Two Owls / and a Hen,Four Larks / and a Wren,Have all / built their nests / in my beard!" Dactylic poem: 1 stressed + 2 unstressed : Dactylic poem: 1 stressed + 2 unstressed Charge of the Light Brigade by Alfred, Lord Tennyson Half a league, / half a league, Half a league / onward, All in the / valley of / Death Rode the / six hundred. "Forward, the / Light Brigade! Charge for the / guns!" he said: Into the / valley of / Death Rode the / six hundred. Spondaic Poem: 2 equal syllables : Spondaic Poem: 2 equal syllables Because of this nature of the spondee, a serious poem cannot be solely spondaic. It would be almost impossible to construct a poem entirely of stressed syllables. Therefore, the spondee usually occurs within a poem having another dominant rhythm scheme. Combinations of Poetic Feet : Combinations of Poetic Feet One foot per line: monometer Two feet per line : dimeter Three feet per line : trimeter Four feet per line : tetrameter Five feet per line : pentameter Six feet per line : hexameter Type + Number = Meter : Type + Number = Meter Types of Poetic Feet Iambic (1 unstressed + 1 stressed) Trochaic (1 stressed + 1 unstressed) Anapestic (2 unstressed + 1 stressed) Dactylic (1 stressed + 2 unstressed) Spondaic (all syllables equal) Number of feet per line Monometer Dimeter Trimeter Tetrameter Pentameter Hexameter Meters & Feet : Meters & Feet Q: If a poem had 1 foot per line, and the foot was iambic (1 unstressed + 1 stressed), what type of poem would it be? A: Iambic monometer Meters & Feet : Meters & Feet Q: If a poem had 2 feet per line, and the foot was iambic (1 unstressed + 1 stressed), what type of poem would it be? A: Iambic dimeter Meters & Feet : Meters & Feet Q: If a poem had 3 feet per line, and the foot was iambic (1 unstressed + 1 stressed), what type of poem would it be? A: Iambic trimeter Meters & Feet : Meters & Feet Q: If a poem had 4 feet per line, and the foot was iambic (1 unstressed + 1 stressed), what type of poem would it be? A: Iambic tetrameter Meters & Feet : Meters & Feet Q: If a poem had 5 feet per line, and the foot was iambic (1 unstressed + 1 stressed), what type of poem would it be? A: Iambic pentameter Meters & Feet : Meters & Feet Q: If a poem had 3 feet per line, and the foot was trochaic (1 stressed +1 unstressed), what type of poem would it be? A: Trochaic tetrameter Go ahead… experiment with different metric styles in your own poetry! : Go ahead… experiment with different metric styles in your own poetry! End of presentation.

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