poetry terms 2007

Information about poetry terms 2007

Published on February 7, 2008

Author: Tommaso

Source: authorstream.com

Content

POETRY: POETRY POETRY: POETRY A type of literature that expresses ideas, feelings, or tells a story in a specific form (usually using lines and stanzas) Prose in any form of writing that is not poetry. The Author: The Author POET The poet is the author of the poem. Tone The attitude the writer takes towards the subject, characters, and audience. SPEAKER The speaker of the poem is the “narrator” of the poem. Poetic License The author’s right to stretch the truth POETRY FORM : POETRY FORM FORM - the appearance of the words on the page LINE - a group of words together on one line of the poem STANZA - a group of lines arranged together A word is dead When it is said, Some say. I say it just Begins to live That day. KINDS OF STANZAS: KINDS OF STANZAS Couplet = a two line stanza Triplet (Tercet) = a three line stanza Quatrain = a four line stanza Quintet = a five line stanza Sestet (Sextet) = a six line stanza Septet = a seven line stanza Octave = an eight line stanza SOUND EFFECTS: SOUND EFFECTS RHYTHM: RHYTHM The beat created by the sounds of the words in a poem Rhythm can be created by meter, rhyme, alliteration and refrain. FREE VERSE POETRY: FREE VERSE POETRY Unlike metered poetry, free verse poetry does NOT have any repeating patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables. Does NOT have rhyme. Free verse poetry is very conversational - sounds like someone talking with you. A more modern type of poetry. RHYME: RHYME Words sound alike because they share the same ending vowel and consonant sounds. (A word always rhymes with itself.) LAMP STAMP Share the short “a” vowel sound Share the combined “mp” consonant sound END RHYME: END RHYME A word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line Hector the Collector Collected bits of string. Collected dolls with broken heads And rusty bells that would not ring. INTERNAL RHYME: INTERNAL RHYME A word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line. Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary. From “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe NEAR RHYME: NEAR RHYME a.k.a imperfect rhyme, close rhyme The words share EITHER the same vowel or consonant sound BUT NOT BOTH ROSE LOSE Different vowel sounds (long “o” and “oo” sound) Share the same consonant sound RHYME SCHEME: RHYME SCHEME A rhyme scheme is a pattern of rhyme (usually end rhyme, but not always). Use the letters of the alphabet to represent sounds to be able to visually “see” the pattern. (See next slide for an example.) SAMPLE RHYME SCHEME: SAMPLE RHYME SCHEME The Germ by Ogden Nash A mighty creature is the germ, Though smaller than the pachyderm. His customary dwelling place Is deep within the human race. His childish pride he often pleases By giving people strange diseases. Do you, my poppet, feel infirm? You probably contain a germ. a a b b c c a a ONOMATOPOEIA: ONOMATOPOEIA Words that imitate the sound they are naming BUZZ OR sounds that imitate another sound “The silken, sad, uncertain, rustling of each purple curtain . . .” Dialect: Dialect Dialect is a way of speaking characteristic of a certain geographical area or a certain group of people. “I am thirsty - where is the bubbler?” ALLITERATION: ALLITERATION Consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of words If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick? CONSONANCE: CONSONANCE Similar to alliteration EXCEPT . . . The repeated consonant sounds can be anywhere in the words “silken, sad, uncertain, rustling . . “ ASSONANCE: ASSONANCE Repeated VOWEL sounds in a line or lines of poetry. (Often creates near rhyme.) Lake Fate Base Fade (All share the long “a” sound.) ASSONANCE cont.: ASSONANCE cont. Examples of ASSONANCE: “Slow the low gradual moan came in the snowing.” John Masefield “Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep.” - William Shakespeare REFRAIN: REFRAIN A sound, word, phrase or line repeated regularly in a poem. “Quoth the raven, ‘Nevermore.’” Repetition: Repetition The repeating of sounds, words, phrases, or lines in a poem. I like popcorn! I like candy! I like chips! I need to brush my teeth! SOME TYPES OF POETRY WE MAY BE STUDYING: SOME TYPES OF POETRYWE MAY BE STUDYING LYRIC: LYRIC A short poem Usually written in first person point of view Expresses an emotion or an idea or describes a scene Do not tell a story and are often musical (Many of the poems we read will be lyrics.) Acrostic Poem: Acrostic Poem A poem in which the first letters of each line form a word or message relating to the subject. G iving pleasure to those who play A nyone can win M ore than one player E veryone gets a turn S portsmanship is the key Ballad: Ballad A song or poem that tells a story. The outlook wasn’t brilliant for the Mudville nine that day, The score stood four to two, with but one inning more to play And then when Cooney died at first, and Barrows did the same, A pall-like silence fell upon the patrons of the game. Limerick Poems: Limerick Poems Comical poem made up of five long lines and three short lines. The long lines (1,2,5) rhyme with each other and the short lines (3,4) rhyme with each other. There was a young man from Perth a Who was born on the day of his birth. a He was married, they say b On his wife’s wedding day, b And died when he quitted the earth. a HAIKU: HAIKU A Japanese poem written in three lines Five Syllables Seven Syllables Five Syllables An old silent pond . . . A frog jumps into the pond. Splash! Silence again. CINQUAIN: CINQUAIN A five line poem containing 22 syllables Two Syllables Four Syllables Six Syllables Eight Syllables Two Syllables How frail Above the bulk Of crashing water hangs Autumnal, evanescent, wan The moon. Tonka: Tonka A Tonka is an expanded Haiku consisting of five unrhymed lines of five, seven, five, seven, and seven syllables. You were not afraid Catching snowflakes on your tongue Standing beside me Cold making your cheeks so red Winter days laughing with me NARRATIVE POEMS: NARRATIVE POEMS A poem that tells a story. Generally longer than the lyric styles of poetry b/c the poet needs to establish characters and a plot. Examples of Narrative Poems “The Raven” “The Highwayman” “Casey at the Bat” “The Walrus and the Carpenter” CONCRETE POEMS: CONCRETE POEMS In concrete poems, the words are arranged to create a picture that relates to the content of the poem. Poetry Is like Flames, Which are Swift and elusive Dodging realization Sparks, like words on the Paper, leap and dance in the Flickering firelight. The fiery Tongues, formless and shifting Shapes, tease the imiagination. Yet for those who see, Through their mind’s Eye, they burn Up the page. Poetry from the Past: Poetry from the Past Fable A brief story told in prose or poetry that contains a moral or a practical lesson about how to get along in life. Folk Tale A story that has no known author, and was originally passed on from one generation to another by word of mouth. Nursery Rhyme A short poem for children written in rhyming verse and handed down in folklore. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE: FIGURATIVELANGUAGE SIMILE: SIMILE A comparison of two things using “like, as than,” or “resembles.” “She is as beautiful as a sunrise.” METAPHOR: METAPHOR A direct comparison of two unlike things “All the world’s a stage, and we are merely players.” - William Shakespeare EXTENDED METAPHOR: EXTENDED METAPHOR A metaphor that goes several lines or possible the entire length of a work. Hyperbole: Hyperbole Exaggeration often used for emphasis. Idiom: Idiom An expression where the literal meaning of the words is not the meaning of the expression. It means something other than what it actually says. Ex. It’s raining cats and dogs. PERSONIFICATION: PERSONIFICATION An animal given human-like qualities or an object given life-like qualities. from “Ninki” by Shirley Jackson “Ninki was by this time irritated beyond belief by the general air of incompetence exhibited in the kitchen, and she went into the living room and got Shax, who is extraordinarily lazy and never catches his own chipmunks, but who is, at least, a cat, and preferable, Ninki saw clearly, to a man with a gun. Imagery: Imagery Words or phrases that appeal to the five senses: see, hear, taste, touch, smell Imagery is what helps you paint a picture or imagine what is happening or what the poet is feeling The juicy hamburgers snapped and sizzled on the steaming charcoal grill. OTHER POETIC DEVICES: OTHERPOETIC DEVICES SYMBOLISM: SYMBOLISM When a person, place, thing, or event that has meaning in itself also represents, or stands for, something else. = Innocence = America = Peace Allusion: Allusion Allusion comes from the verb “allude” which means “to refer to” An allusion is a reference to something famous. A tunnel walled and overlaid With dazzling crystal: we had read Of rare Aladdin’s wondrous cave, And to our own his name we gave. From “Snowbound” John Greenleaf Whittier IMAGERY: IMAGERY Language that appeals to the senses. Most images are visual, but they can also appeal to the senses of sound, touch, taste, or smell. then with cracked hands that ached from labor in the weekday weather . . . from “Those Winter Sundays” Theme: Theme The message that the poet gives the reader through the poem. Triumph over Evil Overcoming Adversity Coming of Age

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