Pompey the Great

Information about Pompey the Great

Published on April 3, 2008

Author: Melinda

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Pompey the Great 106BC-49BC:  Pompey the Great 106BC-49BC An extra ordinary rise Sources of Power ‘The glory of men’s ancestors is….like a shining light on their descendents which Allows neither their virtues nor their vices to be hidden” Sallust:  Sources of Power ‘The glory of men’s ancestors is….like a shining light on their descendents which Allows neither their virtues nor their vices to be hidden” Sallust Slide3:  Lucius Cornelius Sulla 138-78 B.C. Mithridates VI “ It was the memory of Sulla’s example and methods that proved most enduring.” P Brunt. Sulla used his army to wage Civil War He became dictator of Rome with the support of his troops He had used violence( proscriptions) and military violence to become the most powerful person in Roman politics. ATTRIBUTES:  ATTRIBUTES RESOURCEFUL OPPORTUNISTIC IMPUDENT/BOLD FORTUNATE COERCIVE “ He asked Sulla to bear in mind the fact that more people worshipped the rising sun than the setting sun…” Plutarch Marriage-an extension of amicitae:  Marriage-an extension of amicitae Antistia Daughter Of his lawyer Aemilia Scaura Step daughter Of Sulla Mucia Tertia, Daughter of Pontifex maximus Julia, daughter of Caesar Cornelia, Daughter of Crassus, Brought Wealth,Metelli connections Raised his own ‘private’ army to aid Sulla at 23, gained propraetorian imperium and first triumph. :  Raised his own ‘private’ army to aid Sulla at 23, gained propraetorian imperium and first triumph. “That someone of extreme youthfulness, who held no public office, should raise an army in a time of national crisis was innovation. Yet that is what Pompeius did.” Cicero. Granted propraetorian command against Lepidus. Given proconsular command against Sertorius.:  Granted propraetorian command against Lepidus. Given proconsular command against Sertorius. “it was totally unprecedented when two eminent and gallant consuls were available, for a Roman knight to be sent out with consular powers…all the same he was sent.” Cicero. Elected to consulship and given second triumph by threat of force.:  Elected to consulship and given second triumph by threat of force. He was “elected to a consulship actually before he had the legal right to hold any office at all.” Cicero. Refused to take a provincial command after his year as consul. The Lex Gabinia and Lex Manilia were laws giving power to Pompey. Unlike his previous commands awarded by the Senate, these were despite the opposition of the Senate proposed by tribunes and passed by the people.:  The Lex Gabinia and Lex Manilia were laws giving power to Pompey. Unlike his previous commands awarded by the Senate, these were despite the opposition of the Senate proposed by tribunes and passed by the people. Slide11:  ‘ So Pompey, who was not even in Rome at the time, was vested with powers almost as great as those which Sulla had exercized after he had conquered the city by force of arms”. Voted by people for lex Gabinia (pirates) and lex Manilia (Mithridates):  Voted by people for lex Gabinia (pirates) and lex Manilia (Mithridates) Imperium infinitum for 3 years. Pirates - powers over the whole Mediterranean and 50 miles inland, unlimited funds, men and ships. Mithridates - permission to make war or peace on his own initiative. Takes command of all forces under Lucullus as well as his own existing army Slide13:  The Ascendancy of Pompey In 74 BC the King of Bythinia had died, leaving the country to Rome. However the King of Pontus ,MithridatesVI,fearing the encroachment of Rome, had invaded Asia Minor for the third time, thus beginning The Third Mithridatic War. The command against him had been given to Lucullus and he had immediately turned the tide against the King of Pontus. In 73BC he invaded Pontus and destroyed the country’s army at Cabria. Mithridates was forced to flee to Armenia Lucullus then attacked Armenia and by 68BC had conquered most of it, when he was faced with a mutiny of his own soldiers who refused to go on. He was gradually pushed back by Mithridates. In 66BC the lex Manilia deprived him of his command and transferred to Pompey, who with an army of 50,000 men destroyed the last forces of resistance. Appian tells us “Never did any man before Pompey set forth with so great authority conferred upon him by the Romans”. Mithtridates committed suicide and the war was at an end. Pompey then conquered Armenia, Syria and Judaea. Slide14:  Although Pompey was a competent soldier, his military achievements in the East were based on the hard work already done by Lucullus. Plutarch states “So with much less difficulty than could have been expected, Pompey had put the finishing touches to his great actions.” In the settlement of the East , however, Pompey’s skill as an organizer, administrator and diplomat were revealed. He established two new Provinces Bithynia/Pontus and Syria and enlarged Cilicia, creating an almost continuous ring around the coastline from the southern shores of the Black Sea to Palestine. He united the area under Roman rule and fostered the growth of Hellenistic cities. They were administered by local authorities and had considerable autonomy In order to protect these Roman provinces from future threats from the powerful kingdom of Parthia, Pompey organized and promoted a large number of Client States, which were independent but maintained friendly relations with Rome Pompey’s Eastern settlement consolidated Rome’s empire and added 480 million sesterces in war spoils to the Roman treasury. It raised Rome’s annual revenue from tribute by 70 percent. Pompey became a patron for the provincials in their dealings with Rome and he increased his clientale which was to prove vital for his role in the civil war Although Pompey was the preeminent man in Rome, he wanted and needed the backing of the optimates in order to gain land for his veterans and to have his innumerable arrangements in the east ratified. To allay fears, Pompey had disbanded his army to prove to the optimates that he had no intention of overthrowing the government, but the Senate mood was still hostile. Pompey had alienated Metellus Celer, the consul designate for 60BC, by divorcing his wife Mucia. Pompey hoped to marry into the family of Cato, who was the optimates spokesman ,however Cato had refused, according to Plutarch, he thought “ it was a form of bribery and the whole scheme an attempt to corrupt him”. Lucullus who had been treated badly by Pompey in Asia, was encouraged to take a more active part in politics now that Pompey was back in Rome, and he began by attacking Pompey’s arrangements in the East. Pompey in the East- “the wealth that accrued to the conqueror was sufficient to make him the richest man in Rome….and had acquired clientale on a scale hitherto unwitnessed” Seager :  Pompey in the East- “the wealth that accrued to the conqueror was sufficient to make him the richest man in Rome….and had acquired clientale on a scale hitherto unwitnessed” Seager Consolidation of the provinces of Pontus, Syria, Asia and Bithynia Appointed controller of the corn supply for five years.:  Appointed controller of the corn supply for five years. He was in total control of “all ports and trading centres, with authority to arrange the distribution of foodstuffs” Plutarch. This command “made Pompey once again virtually the master of all Roman possessions by sea and land.” Plutarch. Second and third consulships and Spanish command :  Second and third consulships and Spanish command Consulships within 3 years of each other. Spain governed in absentia, given a five year command instead of the usual one year. Given sole consulship by Senate. Spanish command extended for a further five years. Numismatical Evidence of Pompey’s Power:  Numismatical Evidence of Pompey’s Power Theatre of Pompey:  Theatre of Pompey Command against Caesar:  Command against Caesar Proconsular imperium with control over all military forces in Italy. “The power and glory he enjoyed had been earned by state services and military achievements of the highest importance and by the most signal military achievements.” Cicero. UNCONSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS:  UNCONSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS Propraetorian command against Marians and Lepidus. Proconsular command against Sertorius. Two ‘illegal’ triumphs. Too young for first consulship, had never held any office Exceptional imperium given in command against pirates. Slide22:  Imperium of corn supplier overlapped all others. Second consulship gained by preventing elections. Five year command of Spain governed through legates. Appointed as sole consul, only 3 years since last consulship, retained command of Spain Appointment against Caesar with imperium over all military forces in Italy. Significance of Pompey’s Career The rise of Pompey ran parallel to the breakdown of the Sullan Constitution because:  Significance of Pompey’s Career The rise of Pompey ran parallel to the breakdown of the Sullan Constitution because In Sulla’s lifetime, due to Pompey’s insubordination After his death, to the revolt of Lepidus and the Senates nomination of Pompey to proconsular Imperium To the unleashing of the tribunate and the restoration of the veto To the partial restoration of the courts to equite control To the unprecedented and limitless Imperium, granted through the Lex Gabinia and Lex Manilia To the formation of the First Triumvirate, a combined effort of private influences to secure private ambitions, against the Senate’s will. More Quotes:  More Quotes The “trouble with Pompeius [was that] he didn’t want anyone to be his equal in dignity.” Caesar. “The abilities of Gnaeus Pompeius are too vast for any words to do them justice…Pompeius excels all other generals we have ever seen or heard of.” Cicero. Plutarch Quotes:  Plutarch Quotes “His pursuit of glory, as they say, always took an unusual course.” “Fortune somehow or other managed to give Pompey a share.” Pompey “would merely reap the honour of triumph rather than undertake the difficulties of war.” (On the Mithridates command) Political Alliances- Pompey, Caesar and Cicero changing friends and enemies:  Political Alliances- Pompey, Caesar and Cicero changing friends and enemies

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