Published on January 24, 2008
PRELIMINARY STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL (AM) EFFECTS OF STARCH-BASED FILM INCORPORATED WITH NISIN, LYSOZYME AND LAURIC ACID Nozieana Khairuddin, Ida Idayu MuhamadDepartment of Bioprocess Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. Email: [email protected]: PRELIMINARY STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL (AM) EFFECTS OF STARCH-BASED FILM INCORPORATED WITH NISIN, LYSOZYME AND LAURIC ACID Nozieana Khairuddin, Ida Idayu Muhamad Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. Email: [email protected] Abstract Active Packaging (AP) concept is a current trend in food packaging industries. An antimicrobial (AM) Active Packaging can be made by incorporating and immobilizing suitable AM agents into food packages and applying a bio switch concept. By that, the mechanism of antimicrobial release between the developed bio-switch particles and the stimulus of a microbial contamination can be studied. A starch-based film was prepared and incorporated with antimicrobial agents, i.e. nisin, lysozyme and lauric acid. This film was then inoculated with the bacteria Escherichia Coli to carry out the microbial contamination study. The inhibition of E. Coli by the AM film was clearly observed in the broth and culture agar test. The decreased of optical density (OD600 nm) showed the inhibition of E. Coli growth. While, the clear zones formed on the film appearance showed that AM agents give good inhibition to the growth of E. Coli with satisfying inhibition rate. Lysozyme-incorporated film shows better inhibition than the other two in both tests. Keywords: Antimicrobial film; Bio-switch concept; Nisin; Lysozymes; Lauric Acid; Escherichia Coli A current trend in the food industry is the manufacture of mildly preserved, healthy and easy to prepare products driven by consumer demands for fresh ‘natural’ convenience food. In response to the dynamic changes in current consumer demand and market trends, the area of Active Packaging (AP) is becoming increasingly significant. The active food packaging is a specially designed food packaging system to preserve food quality, improve safety and prolong the shelf-life of the packaged food products. In general, active packaging provides several functions that do not exist in conventional packaging systems. One of the special active functions that distinguish it from conventional packaging systems is the anti-microbial (AM) activity on spoilage bacteria. The mechanism of AM inhibitory effect is shown in Figure 1. AM-enhanced packaging films have great potential for ensuring the safety of food surfaces through controlled release of AM substances from the carrier film structure to food surface. The AM compounds and their incorporation into packaging materials have been well reviewed by Appendini and Hotchkiss . Previous study by Hoffman et.al  shows that Lauric acid could reduce the population of L.monocytogenes. Padgett et.al  found that films containing Lauric acid alone did not have a significant effect on Lactobacillus plantarum using a zone of inhibition method but successfully reduced the population when film was contact with a liquid broth. After realizing these previous successes, lysozymes, nisin and lauric acid may be among good candidates in order to develop a new AM starch-based film. Nisin activity is restricted to Gram-positive bacteria but can be active against Gram-negative bacteria when combined with chelators and surfactants . Dawson  reported that nisin and lysozyme combined with EDTA when incorporated into the structure of corn zein film inhibited the growth of selected strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The present article reports on the ability of starch-based film incorporated with those antimicrobials to inhibit growth of E.coli. Objective - to investigate the inhibitory effect of AM-film (starch based film incorporated with lysozymes, nisin and lauric acid) on E.coli . As a conclusion, the inhibition effects were observed by clear zone formed on the agar during agar diffusion test. In the liquid culture test, turbidity decrease resulted from the inhibition reaction. Lysozyme incorporated film effectively inhibits the growth of E. Coli better that nisin and lauric acid incorporated films. 1. Appendini, P. and Hotchkiss, J.H. 2002. Review of antimicrobial food packaging. Journal of Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 3 (2):113-126. Bouman, H. 2003. Release-on-command: Bio-switch. Newsletter of TNO Nutrition and Food Research. Fifth Year of Publication. 2. Hoffman K. L, Han., I. Y., and Dawson P. L. (2001). Antimicrobial Effects on Corn Zein Films Impregnated with Nisin, Lauric Acid and EDTA. Journal of Food Protection. 64:885-889. 3. Padgett, T., Han, I.Y. and Dawson, P.L. 1998. Incorporations of food-grade antimicrobial compounds into biodegradable packaging films. Journal of Food Protection, 61 (10):1330-1335. 4. Dawson, P.L., Birk, T.L., Nielsen, H.J.S., Han, I.Y and Acton, J.C. 1999. Nisin-impregnated corn Zein films inhibit bacterial growth. International Congress-Improved Traditional Foods for the Next Century. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank the Research Management Centre, UTM and Bioprocess Engineering Department, UTM for financial support. Figure 3. Inhibition of E. Coli by the starch-based film containing AM compound in a liquid culture medium at 37oC. Figure 1. Diagrammatic representation of AM active packaging (Han et. al). Figure 2. The agar plate contained (a) control film and (b) AM-incorporated film. (a) (b) Table 1. Inhibition of E. Coli on agar plates expressed as an area (cm2) of inhibition zone. From the observations in Figure 2, the AM-incorporated films showed clear zone formed on the agar plate after in contact with the microbe colonies. Table 1 lists calculated inhibition area for each plate test. Lysozyme shows better inhibition on E. Coli followed by nisin and lauric acid. Figure 3 shows the inhibition of E. Coli by the starch-based film containing AM compound in a liquid culture medium at 37oC where lysozyme shows the largest reduction of exponential growth phase.