PP 08 Conditioning

Information about PP 08 Conditioning

Published on November 16, 2007

Author: Jolene

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Behavioral Learning (1):  Behavioral Learning (1) “...any technology of control will be bought, adapted, and monopolized by the powerful for their own not always benevolent purposes.” Why Study Behavioral Learning?:  Why Study Behavioral Learning? Train a pet Clinical significance Control your friends (?) Habituation:  Habituation The simplest of all behavioral learning forms A decline in the tendency to respond to familiar stimuli The faster we habituate the faster we recover and the slower we habituate the slower we recover Why habituate? Darwin would say...It narrows the range of stimuli that elicit escape reactions, thus freeing resources to focus on new stimuli that might be dangerous Habituation to Conditioning:  Habituation to Conditioning In habituation, one learns a familiar event but doesn’t learn to associate it with anything Association is the basis for Conditioning Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) is credited with the advancement of conditioning The Conditioned Reflex:  The Conditioned Reflex Repeated bell-food pairings led to salivation when the bell was presented alone Pavlov described this phenomena in terms of unconditioned and conditioned reflexes Unconditioned stimuli (US) is normally associated with an unconditioned response (UR) A conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with a (US) Giving a number of presentations the (CS) will be perceived as a (US) and lead to a conditioned response (CR) Extinction:  Extinction The (CS) will gradually disappear of repeatedly presented without being enforced Reconditioning can occur with fewer reinforcement trials Thus, the learning wasn’t completely gone but rather masked Generalization:  Generalization Will a response be given only if the stimulus is identical? A dog conditioned to a tone of 1000 Hz will give a response when the tone is 900 or 1100 Hz However, there is a generalization decrement such that a weaker (CR) will be elicited if not the original (CS) Discrimination:  Discrimination Even if a stimulus is similar we may not want to generalize our behavior to it (may be dangerous) Thus, we need to discriminate A dog is conditioned to a black square. The dog will also salivate to a gray square (generalization). After withholding reinforcement to the gray square the dog will gradually discriminate and only respond to the black square Blocking:  Blocking When a stimulus is redundant (information that an organism already has) it will not become connected to the CS Group I - (stage 1) noise-shock, (stage 2) noise+light-shock, (test) light alone, (result) no conditioned fear Group II - (stage 1) no stimulus, (stage 2) noise+light-shock, (test) light alone, (result) conditioned fear Once they’ve discovered a stimulus that signals the US they no longer connect other stimuli to the US Proactive Interference? Bases for Prejudice The Drug Effect:  The Drug Effect Opiates (morphine or heroin) have effects such as euphoria, relief from pain, and relaxation (UR) The needle becomes the CS The sight of the needle produces depression, restlessness, and increased sensitivity to pain thus increasing the likelihood of an overdose The CR is actually the opposite of the UR Given a different environment the Drug Effect is weaker Classical to Instrumental Conditioning:  Classical to Instrumental Conditioning Instrumental conditioning is also called operant conditioning Differences: Instrumental - reinforcement (reward) depends upon the proper response. The response must also be selected from a sometimes large set of alternatives Classical - the US is presented regardless of behavior Instrumental Conditioning:  Instrumental Conditioning Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) is credited with Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning The idea was developed by observing hungry cats in a Puzzle Box Through random movements the cat would hit the trigger to open the door Give enough trials and the cat would trigger the door right away Law of Effect:  Law of Effect According to Thorndike, some responses get strengthened and other weakened as learning proceeds The response determines whether the tendency to perform is strengthened or weakened If followed by a reward it will be strengthened; if followed by a the absence of reward (or punishment) it will be weakened No intellectual process required Skinner’s Distinction:  Skinner’s Distinction In Classical, the animal’s behavior is elicited by the CS (from the outside) In Instrumental, reactions are voluntary (emitted from within) Tendencies for reactions are strengthened or weakened Measured response rate with the Skinner box Skinner’s Terminology:  Skinner’s Terminology Appetitive Stimulus = Positive Reinforcement Aversive Stimulus = Negative Reinforcement Shaping:  Shaping Method of Successive Approximations Start by reinforcing a general behavior Change the reward placement so there needs to be a more specific behavior Change the reward placement so there needs to be another more specific behavior Your dog puts the paper on the table Partial Reinforcement (Schedules):  Partial Reinforcement (Schedules) Fixed-Ratio Schedule - produce a specified number of responses for every reward Variable-Ratio Schedule - reinforcement comes after a certain number of responses, but that number varies irregularly Fixed-Interval Schedule - Reinforced after a certain interval (i.e. every 2 min) Variable-Interval Schedule - Interval varies irregularly around some average period (i.e. 4 min) Question:  Question What kind of reinforcement is better? Partial or Continuous Both receive the same number of trials but no the same number of reinforcements Partial seems to be better, but which schedule? Ratio engender greater resistance to extinction if they are variable Aversive Conditioning:  Aversive Conditioning What is the reward in aversive reinforcement? It is not absence of the aversive condition that is the reward, but rather the absence of the aversive condition when it is expected Behavioral Learning (2):  Behavioral Learning (2) Cognitive Interpretations Question:  Question What are test animals actually learning? Simple associations or causal links? Behaviorists - learning is in terms of associations, either between events, or action and consequences. Learning can only be achieved by doing, thus performance is indispensable Cognitive psychologists - learning is in terms of causal links Cognitive View - Classical Conditioning:  Cognitive View - Classical Conditioning Hilgard (1938) - Two lights (left & right), when one light became brighter there as an airpuff delivered to one eye causing a blink. Conditioning occurred. When subjects were told that no airpuff would result given a right light the conditioning in that right eye was immediately extinguished Instruction works; thus, subjects need to be aware of the stimulus-response relationships Support for Cognitive View (2):  Support for Cognitive View (2) Gleitman (1963) Rats were ferried from one end of a large room to another in transparent trolley cars Latter tests showed that they had learned something about the general features of the room even thought they had not performed any relevant responses Relation Between CR and UR:  Relation Between CR and UR Are the two the same? Pavlov believed that they are the same However, his own data show that they look the same but under are not identical There was a greater amount of salivation measured under UR conditions compared to CR conditions Thus, the CS serves as a preparatory signal but does not become a substitute for it (cognitive link) Cognitive View - Instrumental Conditioning:  Cognitive View - Instrumental Conditioning Evidence for Act-Outcome Associations Rats were run in an enclosed maze that had a black end-box on one side and a white end-box on the other side, both had food Later, rats were placed into each box w/out running the maze. In the black box they found food and in the white box they were shocked When put back in the maze they ran to the black box The rats combined two experiences; this doesn’t fit into the instrumental learning framework Clinical Considerations:  Clinical Considerations Maladaptive Learning & Application of the Conditioning Theories Learned Helplessness:  Learned Helplessness How do people reach the state of helplessness and depression? Experiment - Two groups of dogs who received electric shocks. Dogs were linked such that Group 1 could turn off the shock by pushing a panel. Group 2 had no power but rather received the same shocks as Group 1 (same fate). Given a new situation Group 1 dogs learned to push the button quickly. Group 2 dogs ended up becoming passive. They lay down and took whatever shocks were delivered Group 2 dogs had learned helplessness Learning Fear:  Learning Fear While fear and phobias may be generated by conditioning in some cases, there seems to be more at work Fear of the Dentist may be conditioned but fear of snakes and spiders may be cause by a cognitive association Someone tells you a story of a tick that ate someone’s brain will make you fear ticks Overcoming fear and depression are difficult Treatment Methods:  Treatment Methods Desensitization - brief approaches Modeling - Therapist approaches object then subject Flooding - Rapid prolonged approach to the stimulus Operant Shaping - Rewarded for a steady approach to object Treating Panic Attacks:  Treating Panic Attacks Behavior modification has been helpful in treating panic attacks The problem is a feedback loop between the initial chance symptom and the patient’s fearful interpretation of it Teaching relaxation and breathing exercises alleviate the physical symptoms Treating Self-Injurious Behavior:  Treating Self-Injurious Behavior Maladaptive behavior is often associated with anxiety (caused by need for attention, feeling of vulnerability, confronting difficulty...) Replace self-injurious behavior with relaxation Relaxation drugs are often used (nitrous oxide or anesthetic) Thus, relaxation becomes associated with anxiety When Conditioning Fails:  When Conditioning Fails Token economies have been experimented with for a number of years Rewards for good behavior are tokens which can be exchanged for things Often subjects will not perform unless directly rewarded. Thus, behavior is conditional In real life rewards are not always given for being good Question:  Question Why don’t we use conditioning more often in humans? Why does conditioning often fail in human subjects?

Related presentations


Other presentations created by Jolene

Smart Dust and Micro Robots
07. 01. 2008
0 views

Smart Dust and Micro Robots

2509 9h20 kessler usoinseguro
02. 05. 2008
0 views

2509 9h20 kessler usoinseguro

whats driving emerging markets
27. 09. 2007
0 views

whats driving emerging markets

Barrie Peter Pan Text Only
12. 10. 2007
0 views

Barrie Peter Pan Text Only

rutherford winterjohnson
13. 10. 2007
0 views

rutherford winterjohnson

chap3 2
16. 10. 2007
0 views

chap3 2

IntroDNACloningDNARep
16. 10. 2007
0 views

IntroDNACloningDNARep

MOAC204
17. 10. 2007
0 views

MOAC204

nile hydrology
23. 10. 2007
0 views

nile hydrology

12 HACCPJuiceSeafood French
24. 10. 2007
0 views

12 HACCPJuiceSeafood French

politiques Sant Boi Pere Dorca
24. 10. 2007
0 views

politiques Sant Boi Pere Dorca

thomson
15. 10. 2007
0 views

thomson

climate change and poverty
29. 11. 2007
0 views

climate change and poverty

botnet underground economics
04. 12. 2007
0 views

botnet underground economics

Macroevolution
12. 10. 2007
0 views

Macroevolution

Roman Religion powerpoint
29. 10. 2007
0 views

Roman Religion powerpoint

2268Atakan
31. 10. 2007
0 views

2268Atakan

Banned Books
31. 10. 2007
0 views

Banned Books

Bob
01. 11. 2007
0 views

Bob

Week 3 DW Design Kimball
07. 11. 2007
0 views

Week 3 DW Design Kimball

STILLEHAVSKRIGEN3
13. 11. 2007
0 views

STILLEHAVSKRIGEN3

enhancing osh standards
14. 11. 2007
0 views

enhancing osh standards

ELISA 2004
12. 10. 2007
0 views

ELISA 2004

Climate McBean f
21. 10. 2007
0 views

Climate McBean f

Ontologies in Bioinformatics
20. 11. 2007
0 views

Ontologies in Bioinformatics

laminas centroamÃrica
22. 10. 2007
0 views

laminas centroamÃrica

1World War II
23. 12. 2007
0 views

1World War II

NOAA Fisheries NMFS
28. 12. 2007
0 views

NOAA Fisheries NMFS

ClassDay4
31. 12. 2007
0 views

ClassDay4

ENGR310 1 07
03. 01. 2008
0 views

ENGR310 1 07

PAN Villarreal
22. 10. 2007
0 views

PAN Villarreal

gpr
05. 01. 2008
0 views

gpr

hansen
29. 10. 2007
0 views

hansen

3 El Hattab Ahamed
25. 10. 2007
0 views

3 El Hattab Ahamed

marrocos2
24. 10. 2007
0 views

marrocos2

NWS Partnering
05. 10. 2007
0 views

NWS Partnering

Lyster
16. 10. 2007
0 views

Lyster

webcast1
29. 10. 2007
0 views

webcast1

Chicago
15. 10. 2007
0 views

Chicago

Faridah Noor Indian Dance New
23. 11. 2007
0 views

Faridah Noor Indian Dance New

xmm UG 051606
28. 11. 2007
0 views

xmm UG 051606

ISOM7
15. 10. 2007
0 views

ISOM7

Thermocouple
16. 02. 2008
0 views

Thermocouple

Gubler
21. 10. 2007
0 views

Gubler

test5
30. 10. 2007
0 views

test5

pit 2
26. 02. 2008
0 views

pit 2

m6 Eyler
28. 02. 2008
0 views

m6 Eyler

PSCM
07. 03. 2008
0 views

PSCM

pfl powerpoint may06
10. 03. 2008
0 views

pfl powerpoint may06

Prasa2001
13. 03. 2008
0 views

Prasa2001

PresentationANALYSTE SSNI2006
24. 10. 2007
0 views

PresentationANALYSTE SSNI2006

Perine I2 22april04
16. 03. 2008
0 views

Perine I2 22april04

Panel B Igor Hansen
20. 03. 2008
0 views

Panel B Igor Hansen

kapil kaul
25. 03. 2008
0 views

kapil kaul

part1 intro
07. 10. 2007
0 views

part1 intro

ans1 ffa program
03. 04. 2008
0 views

ans1 ffa program

Jonah
07. 04. 2008
0 views

Jonah

051208 Osawa
09. 10. 2007
0 views

051208 Osawa

3arq
18. 10. 2007
0 views

3arq

Bourgeat Siam
06. 12. 2007
0 views

Bourgeat Siam

allen
08. 04. 2008
0 views

allen

Fry 2005
10. 04. 2008
0 views

Fry 2005

ValueofNonpartisan
14. 04. 2008
0 views

ValueofNonpartisan

lovelock12
16. 04. 2008
0 views

lovelock12

Pumpkin SmallSat 2006
17. 04. 2008
0 views

Pumpkin SmallSat 2006

CSAM DOJ Briefing Day2
22. 04. 2008
0 views

CSAM DOJ Briefing Day2

SOUTHEAST pp
03. 01. 2008
0 views

SOUTHEAST pp

Arbetslagsplan 04 05
02. 11. 2007
0 views

Arbetslagsplan 04 05

dentist
06. 05. 2008
0 views

dentist

critical care slides
07. 05. 2008
0 views

critical care slides

origins
08. 05. 2008
0 views

origins

mas info
08. 05. 2008
0 views

mas info

18 4
22. 10. 2007
0 views

18 4

Vulvodynia
01. 05. 2008
0 views

Vulvodynia

014 Robot Control Architectures
02. 05. 2008
0 views

014 Robot Control Architectures

3678s1 03 schechter
02. 05. 2008
0 views

3678s1 03 schechter

Dana Guerrieri
02. 05. 2008
0 views

Dana Guerrieri

Anestezja
02. 05. 2008
0 views

Anestezja

lezersp1
15. 10. 2007
0 views

lezersp1

20050928 Yasuyuki Fuchita
09. 10. 2007
0 views

20050928 Yasuyuki Fuchita

S Pathi
16. 10. 2007
0 views

S Pathi

Thompson Adjusted
30. 04. 2008
0 views

Thompson Adjusted

Poretti dscut Gdor CW8
15. 11. 2007
0 views

Poretti dscut Gdor CW8

2002 04 maintenance
19. 11. 2007
0 views

2002 04 maintenance

N1 Richard News from ELAN Paris
29. 09. 2007
0 views

N1 Richard News from ELAN Paris

cal20050303
09. 10. 2007
0 views

cal20050303

2007 FL GHC ICC Tezak Kilcollins
05. 10. 2007
0 views

2007 FL GHC ICC Tezak Kilcollins

TUD About the institution
18. 03. 2008
0 views

TUD About the institution

iPOP2007 OIF Berthold
09. 10. 2007
0 views

iPOP2007 OIF Berthold

patricia arsene
15. 10. 2007
0 views

patricia arsene

IHS 2003
27. 03. 2008
0 views

IHS 2003

MOTIVATE 1 slides
29. 10. 2007
0 views

MOTIVATE 1 slides

Alia2003
05. 10. 2007
0 views

Alia2003

RE SUNUM ppt2
23. 11. 2007
0 views

RE SUNUM ppt2

grid2000 welcome
17. 10. 2007
0 views

grid2000 welcome

Larry
07. 01. 2008
0 views

Larry

Abel
25. 10. 2007
0 views

Abel

Weitz Tracy 1 24 07
03. 01. 2008
0 views

Weitz Tracy 1 24 07

del rel
07. 11. 2007
0 views

del rel

ilc analyse
23. 10. 2007
0 views

ilc analyse

CAS 07 MDHS
02. 05. 2008
0 views

CAS 07 MDHS