ppt CHAP018

Information about ppt CHAP018

Published on February 24, 2008

Author: funnyside

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Slide1:  18 Families, Kinship, and Descent Anthropology: The Exploration of Human Diversity 11th Edition Conrad Phillip Kottak Families, Kinship, and Descent:  Families, Kinship, and Descent Families Descent Kinship Calculation Kinship Terminology Families:  Families Nuclear family—consists of a married couple and their children, normally living together in same household Extended family—consists of three or more generations Understanding kinship system is essential part of anthropology Families:  Families Nuclear and Extended Families Family of orientation—family in which one is born and grows up Family of procreation—formed when one marries and has children Nuclear family widespread, but not universal Descent groups—lineages and clans Families:  Families In societies where the nuclear family is important, it acts as primary arena for sexual, reproductive, economic, and enculturative functions It is not the only structure used by societies for these functions Families:  Families Among the Muslims of western Bosnia, nuclear families embedded within large extended families called zadrugas headed by male household head and his wife Nayars are matrilineal society in which extended families live in compounds called tarawads headed by a senior woman In many societies, the extended families are the primary unit of social organization Families:  Families Location of the Nayars in India’s Kerala Province Insert Figure 18.1 Families:  Families Most prevalent residence pattern in U.S. is family of procreation living neolocally. In U.S., as in other large, industrialized societies, patterns of residence and family types may change from class to class Industrialism and Family Organization Families:  Families In 2000, 24 percent of American households were inhabited by nuclear families Increasing representation of women in the work force is associated with a rise in marriage age Between 1970 and 2000 the number of divorced Americans jumped by factor of 4.4 The number of single-parent families outstripped population growth Changes in North American Kinship Families:  Families Americans (especially middle class) identify a smaller range of kindred than members of nonindustrial societies One of the most striking contrasts exists between the U.S. and Brazil Changes in North American Kinship Only 52 percent of American women and 56 percent of American men were currently married in 2000 Families:  Families Changes in Family and Household Organization in the United States: 1970 versus 2000 Insert Table 18.1 Families:  Families The two basic units of social organization among foragers are the nuclear family and the band Typically, band exists only seasonally, breaking up into nuclear families when subsistence means require The Family among Foragers Descent:  Descent Permanent social unit whose members claim common ancestry Matrilineal descent—individuals automatically join mother’s descent group when they are born Patrilineal descent—individuals automatically join father’s descent group when they are born Descent Groups Descent:  Descent Clan—descent group who claims common descent from an apical ancestor but cannot demonstrate it (stipulated descent) When clan’s apical ancestor is nonhuman, called totem Descent Groups Lineage—descent group who can demonstrate their common descent from apical ancestor Descent:  Descent A Matrilineage Five Generations Deep Insert Figure 18.4 Descent:  Descent A Patrilineage Five Generations Deep Insert Figure 18.5 Descent:  Descent In tribal societies, descent group, not nuclear family, is fundamental unit In many societies, descent groups are corporate, sharing resources and property Lineages, Clans, and Residence Rules Descent:  Descent Patrilocality—married couple lives with husband’s family; associated with patrilineal descent and more common than matrilocality Matrilocality—married couple lives with wife’s family; associated with matrilineal descent and less common than patrilocality Lineages, Clans, and Residence Rules Unilocal Residence Descent:  Descent People can choose the descent group they want to belong to Membership is fluid With unilineal descent, membership ascribed For ambilineal descent, membership achieved Ambilineal Descent Descent:  Descent Many societies have both families and descent groups Obligations to one may conflict with obligations to the other Compared to patrilineal systems, matrilineal societies tend to have higher divorce rates and greater female promiscuity Family versus Descent Kinship Calculation:  Kinship Calculation Genealogical Kin Types and Kin Terms Kin terms—labels given in particular culture to different kinds of relatives Biological kin type—degree of actual genealogical relatedness Bilateral kinship—people tend to perceive kin links through males and females as being similar or equal System by which people in a society reckon kin relationships Kinship Terminology:  Kinship Terminology Native taxonomy developed over generations by the people who live in particular society Kinship Terminology:  Kinship Terminology Distinguishes lineal, collateral, and affinal relatives Most Americans and Canadians use lineal terminology Lineal Terminology Kinship Terminology:  Kinship Terminology Splits mother’s side from father’s side, but also merges same-sex siblings of each parent Associated with unilineal descent and unilocal residence Bifurcate Merging Terminology Kinship Terminology:  Kinship Terminology Uses same term for parents and their siblings, but lumping is more complete Typical of ambilineal societies Generational terminology Kinship Terminology:  Kinship Terminology Separate terms used for each of the six kin types of the parental generation Common to North Africa and the Middle East Most particular system Bifurcate collateral terminology Kinship Terminology:  Kinship Terminology Kinship Symbols and Genealogical Kin Type Notation Insert Figure 18.6 Kinship Terminology:  Kinship Terminology Lineal Kinship Terminology Insert Figure 18.7 Kinship Terminology:  Kinship Terminology The Distinctions among Lineals, Collaterals, and Affinals as Perceived by Ego Insert Figure 18.8 Kinship Terminology:  Kinship Terminology Bifurcate Merging Kinship Terminology Insert Figure 18.9 Kinship Terminology:  Kinship Terminology Generational Kinship Terminology Insert Figure 18.10 Kinship Terminology:  Kinship Terminology Bifurcate Collateral Kinship Terminology Insert Figure 18.11 Kinship Terminology:  Kinship Terminology The Four Systems of Kinship Terminology, with Their Social and Economic Correlates Insert Table 18.3

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