Information about PREGNANCY TOXAEMIA

Published on December 21, 2009

Author: PRABUS



PREGNANCY TOXAEMIA IN EWES : PREGNANCY TOXAEMIA IN EWES K.M.PRABAKARAN BVN 05034 V Year B.V.Sc., VC&RI,NAMAKKAL Synonyms : Synonyms Ovine ketosis Twin lamb disease Gestational toxemia Definition : Definition It is metabolic disorder of ewes in last few weeks of pregnancy ,which carry more than one fetus. It is characterized by, Clinically – dullness , anorexia nervous signs , recumbency and death. Biochemically - hypoglycemia & ketosis Predisposing / Risk factors : Predisposing / Risk factors Falling plane of nutrition Ewes carrying twins or triplets Older ewes Sudden feed restriction Intercurrent disease – foot abscess , foot rot, hypocalcemia, gastrointestinal parasitism Risk factors : Risk factors Sudden change of diet Stress Over fat ewes Occurrence All breeds and age of sheep Intensive farming system Types of pregnancy toxemia : Types of pregnancy toxemia Based on etiology Primary pregnancy toxemia Fat ewe pregnancy toxemia Starvation pregnancy toxemia Secondary pregnancy toxemia Primary pregnancy toxemia : Primary pregnancy toxemia Most common manifestation of pregnancy toxemia in ewes. Fall in the plane of nutrition Management procedures during late pregnancy- crutching, shearing, drenching Stress- transport, change in the environment, poor housing system Fat ewe pregnancy toxemia : Fat ewe pregnancy toxemia Over fat ewes have Decreased voluntary fed intake Due to reduction in the rumen volume by intra- abdomial pressure Starvation pregnancy toxemia : Starvation pregnancy toxemia Occurs in extremely thin ewes Prolonged draught condition No alternative feed supply Secondary pregnancy toxemia : Secondary pregnancy toxemia Occur as sporadic disease Effect of Intercurrent disease such as, Foot rot Foot abscess Gastro-intestinal parasitism- Haemonchus contortus Economic significance : Economic significance Highly fatal disease- untreated case 100% mortality High neonatal mortality Reduction in wool quality Pathophysiology : Pathophysiology During last 2 moths of pregnancy the energy requirements increases twice the maintenance level. The glucose demand of the fetus is obligatory Blood glucose – derived from propionate and amino acid by gluconeogenesis . Contd… : Contd… Inadequate energy & protein intake Demand growing fetuses high Hypoglycemia Mobilization of fat from body reserve Increased hepatic lipogenesis Increased FFA Contd.. : Contd.. Accumulation of lipid in enlarged hepatocytes Fatty liver Ketosis Renal failure Incresed cortisol – wool break and shedding of the fleece Clinic signs : Clinic signs Ewes separate herself from the rest of flock Anorexia Bilateral blindness Disinclination to move Constipation Drowsiness Aimless wandering Stagger & lean awkwardly against obstacles Tremors of muscle in the head – twitching of lips ,champing of jaws & salivation Contd… : Contd… Convulsion Star gazing posture Unconsciousness Recumbency Diifficulty in lambing Foetal death Toxemia due to decomposing fetus Coma Death Clinical pathology : Clinical pathology Hypoglycemia – less than 1.5 mmol /l Ketonemia and ketonuria Metabolic acidosis Uremia – increased BUN Necrospy findigs – pale ,fatty and friable liver Diagnosis : Diagnosis Diagnosis is difficult . It is based on History Clinical signs Laboratory findigs : Rothera’s test – ketone bodies Differential diagnosis : Differential diagnosis Listeriosis Hypocalcemia Rabies Cerebral abscess Treatment : Treatment It is difficult and result invariable Prognosis poor in renal failure & foetal death Guiding principles for treatment Early vigorous treatment Maintaning appetite Contd… : Contd… Glucose and glucose precursor administraion Parentral glucose administration- 5 to 7 g of glucose I/V 6 to 8 times in day Oral glucose therapy- propylene glycol 60 to 90 ml orally Removal of fetus by induction of parturition and cesarean Prevention : Prevention Feeding plan for pregnant ewes Avoid stress Early pregnancy diagnosis & care of twin fetus ewes Proper housing management Treatment of intercurrent diseases Slide 23: Thank you

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