Presentation by Dr Jyoti Parikh

Information about Presentation by Dr Jyoti Parikh

Published on July 27, 2014

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Gender and Renewable Energy: Role of Women, Health, hardship and climate change: Gender and Renewable Energy: Role of Women, Health, hardship and climate change Jyoti Parikh Integrated Research and Action for Development New Delhi India 12 th December 011 PowerPoint Presentation: Activity Areas Research projects Training and capacity building Policy advocacy Networking and dissemination Workshops and conclaves Focal Areas Energy systems, policy and pla poverty and gender Natural resources and environment management Infrastructure, industry and institutions Rural and urban Development Climate change and Clean Development Mechanism IRADe: Profile IRADe’s Efforts in Gender: IRADe’s Efforts in Gender Large scale surveys Dissemination workshops such as the national consultation workshop and subsequently national paper for India Policy Advocacy Planning Commission CSD Training and awareness programmes Newspaper articles by Dr. Jyoti Parikh Work done for Energia: Work done for Energia Hardship for women in gathering fuels UN CSD events Planning Commission where we held a meeting for mainstreaming gender in energy policy Gender audit for renewable energy Gender in Green India Mission Significance of Energy Access for Women : Significance of Energy Access for Women Drudgery for women PowerPoint Presentation: Distance travelled Households HHs collecting from up to 1 km 42% HHs collecting between 1 - 2 km 31% HHs collecting from 2 - 3 km 12% HHs collecting from more than 3 km 14% Average time spent per trip (hours) 2. 7 Average no. of trips per household per month 15.0 Average time spent per month per household (hours) 40.8 Source: IRADe Survey (Himachal Pradesh) Women have to walk every month in the state , spending 40 hours during 15 trips , each of about 3 hrs to fetch fuels Drudgery in absence of access to fuels Difference In Responsibilities due to difference in needs and uses: Difference In Responsibilities due to difference in needs and uses Fuel Type Gender (%) Age (Average) Shimla Shimla Male Female Male Female Dung cake 4.00 96.00 57.00 34.00 Agri. Residue 24.50 75.50 19.00 32.50 Wood 38.00 62.00 53.50 29.00 Kerosene 58.50 41.50 21.50 36.00 Cooking gas (LPG) 100.00 0.00 29.00 NA Others * (specify) 60.00 40.00 51.5 41.5 ( Source:IRADe study: The Energy Poverty and Gender Nexus in Himachal Pradesh, India:The Impact of Clean Fuel Access Policy on Women’s Empowerment) Young female and senior women – biomass Young men- kerosene, LPG Significance of Energy Access for Women : Significance of Energy Access for Women Health Impacts Health impacts of Collection of Fuels: Health impacts of Collection of Fuels Results in backache (50%), neck ache, headache and bruises every week (80 %) 19% persons in HP have some symptoms IRADe survey : Himachal Pradesh HEALTH HAZARDS AT EVERY STEP: HEALTH HAZARDS AT EVERY STEP Search and Collect Biomass Walking Cutting Processing and Stacking Bundling Drying Activity Health Impact Bruises Snake bites Insect bites Allergies Chapped hands Solutions Bringing fuelwood closer Plantations Biogas LPG/Kerosene BIO-FUEL CHAIN AND HEALTH: BIO-FUEL CHAIN AND HEALTH Transportation Of Heavy Loads Cooking Activity Health Impact Backache Headache Knee pain Solutions Community transportation, cycle rickshaws Clean fuels Superior stoves Renewable technologies Respiratory Eye diseases Infant mortality Adverse pregnancy Significance of Energy Access for Women : Significance of Energy Access for Women Other Key Issues Economic Impacts of lack of energy access : Economic Impacts of lack of energy access The economic problem of lack of energy access: In Rural India Nearly 3 billion days are spent in gathering fuels and 700 million days in processing them About 800 million days are spent due to diseases Add to these 12 billion days to fetch water and water related diseases Are women willing to use clean fuels and Renewable energy? : Are women willing to use clean fuels and Renewable energy? Example in HP, Shimla Source: IRADe Study Yes (82.5%) No (17.5%) Reason Response % Reason Response % Convenient (to turn on/off) 18.00 It is expensive 49.00 Time Saving 39.00 The place is too far 5.00 Cleaner Household 36.00 Supply is Inadequate 7.50 Easy Accessibility 7.00 We do not need it 26.00 We Forgo our Share of Ration 12.50 Total 100.00 Total 100.00 Willingness to pay: Willingness to pay Willingness To Reduce Kitchen Smoke Willingness to pay for better indoor air quality Facility % of HHs Fitting a window/ventilator 71.75 Fitting a chimney 55.73 Installation of improved cook stove 25.95 Switch to clean fuel 4.58 More doors 2.29 Others 6.87 Base: Households willing to spend money: 131 Source: IRADe Study Gender Audit methodology: Gender Audit methodology Not at all Partially for women Both for men and women Specially for women Photovoltaic solar Wind power Roof top solar Biogas, solar cookers or improved stoves Gender Role : Gender Role Beneficiary Engagement Decision making Use of public funds should go to all. As masons, carpenters, income generation Ministers, administration, public sector, village level Households Using Different Fuels for Cooking (Households in Thousands) Year 1991, 2001 and 2004-05: Households Using Different Fuels for Cooking (Households in Thousands) Year 1991, 2001 and 2004-05   %age Share of total Year 1991 2001 2004-05 1991 2001 2004-05 No cooking - 630 4743   0.3 2 Crop Residue - 19255 -   10 - Cowdung Cake 23263 18759 13665 15 10 7 Wood 92935 100843 124979 62 53 60 Kerosene 10824 12529 5809 7 7 3 Coal/coke/Lignite/charcoal 6413 3933   4 2 - Bio Gas 745 849   0.5 0.4 - LPG 11999 33597 45434 8 18 22 Others 4399 1232 12484 3 1 6 Total 151049 191964 207114 100 100 100 Source: Census of India 1991, 2001 and NSSO 2004-05 PowerPoint Presentation: Source: Census of India 1991, 2001 and NSSO 2004-05 Number of Households Using Electricity, Year 1991,2001 and 2004-05:   Electricity   %age Share of Total Year Available Not Available Total Households Available Not Available 1991 64028 87083 151111 42 58 2001 107209 84755 191964 56 44 2004-05 135006 72108 207114 65 35 Number of Households Using Electricity, Year 1991,2001 and 2004-05 Source: Census of India 1991, 2001 and NSSO 2004-05 PowerPoint Presentation: Factors Affecting Use of Clean Cooking Fuel Probability of use of clean cooking fuels in rural areas of India increases with Increase in household income Increase in average education level of the household Households with greater number of literate females (age group 10-50) Major occupation is not agriculture Regular source of income Probability of use of clean cooking fuels in rural areas of India decreases with Increase in household size Agriculture as a major occupation Size of land holding Belong to under privileged category (SC/ST/OBC) Source: Vijay Laxmi Pandey and Aditi Chaubal (2011). “Comprehending household cooking energy choice in rural India”, Biomass and Bio-energy , vol. 35 (11), 4724-31. Materials Used for Roof in India (Households in Thousands) in the Year 2001 : Materials Used for Roof in India (Households in Thousands) in the Year 2001 Materials Number %age Share of Total Grass Thatch, Bamboo, Wood, Mud 42087 22 Plastic Polythene 917 0.5 Tiles 62506 33 Slate 1809 1 G.I. , Metal, Asbestos Sheet 22266 12 Brick 10696 6 Stone 12517 7 Concrete 37985 20 Any Other Material 1183 1 Total 191964 100 Source: Census of India 2001 PowerPoint Presentation: Materials Used for Wall in India (Households in Thousands) in the Year 2001 Materials Number %age Share of Total Grass, Thatch, Bamboo etc. 19593 10 Plastic, Polythene 552 0.3 Mud, Unburnt brick 61792 32 Wood 1763 1 G.I., Metal, Asbestos sheets 1239 1 Burnt brick 83825 44 Stone 18073 9 Concrete 4680 2 Any other material 447 0.2 Total 191964 100 Source: Census of India 2001 Materials Used for Floor in India (Households in Thousands) in the Year 2001 : Materials Used for Floor in India (Households in Thousands) in the Year 2001 Materials Number %age Share of Total Mud 109628 57 Wood, Bamboo 1279 1 Brick 4410 2 Stone 11046 6 Cement 50894 27 Mosaic, Floor tiles 14007 7 Any other  material 700 0.4 Total 191964 100 Source: Census of India 2001 Comparison of Floor, Roof, Wall and Households in 1991 and 2001 (Households in Thousands): Comparison of Floor, Roof, Wall and Households in 1991 and 2001 (Households in Thousands ) India 1991 2001 Difference %age Share of Total in 1991 %age Share of Total 2001 Difference of Share Decadal Growth Rate Floor               Pucca 45610 80357 34747 30 42 12 5.8 Kutcha 105423 111605 6182 70 58 -12 0.57 Sub Total 151033 191962 40929 100 100     Wall               Pucca 70413 107816 37403 47 56 10 4.35 Kutcha 80620 84146 3526 53 44 -10 0.43 Sub Total 151033 191962 40929 100 100     Roof               Pucca 99363 147777 48414 66 77 11 4.05 Kutcha 51670 44185 -7485 34 23 -11 -1.55 Sub Total 151033 191962 40929 100 100     Households               Pucca 62162 99432 37270 41 52 11 4.8 Semi Pucca 45452 57664 12212 30 30 0 2.4 Kutcha 43419 34816 -8603 29 18 -11 -22 Unclassified 0 52 52   0.03 0.03   Grand Total 151033 191964 40931 100 100     Source: Census of India 1991 and 2001 PowerPoint Presentation: Gender Audit Objective And Study Objective of the study To identify and analyze the factors hindering efforts to mainstream gender in energy policies and programs. To identify and assess gender gaps- mismatch between commitments and implementation. To work with stakeholders so that gaps are addresses with effective and efficient strategy formulation. Review Of Policy Documents- Integrated Energy Policy Report (IEP) and Programs and schemes of the MNRE. PowerPoint Presentation: MNRE Policies and Program Village Energy Security Test Project (VESP )- 120 test projects in 10 states. Biogas Activities – provides cooking fuel and manure for rural households ,reduce pressure on forests and drudgery of women and improve in village sanitation. Improved Chulhas (Stoves)- 34 million improved chulhas were supplied wrt to the estimated potential of 120 million in 2001-02. Solar energy and Biofuel s- The aspect of biofuels such as Jatropha plantation needed to be studied for earning of carbon credits. PowerPoint Presentation: Findings and Recommendations Persistent challenges due to lack of gender data, limited impact of energy programs on women, need for inter-ministerial coordination etc. Link Women’s Empowerment with Energy Development . Gender Rating for MNRE Programs. - Gender specific MNRE Programs such as Solar Energy, Biomass Gassifiers, Chulhas Etc. Reorient Monitoring and Evaluation Mechanism to Reflect Gender Concerns. Departmental Coordination for Energy Security Operationalize the Cooking Fuel Availability within 1 Km of Rural Habitants Recommendations: Recommendations Gender Role: Gender Role Beneficiary : of public funds Engagement: Biogas manufacturing Solar : lanterns related ownership and business model connections,repairs, Decision making: village heads, engineers, public sector ,Ministers, Improving access to energy: Improving access to energy Bring cooking fuel to rural women within 1km to women who travel more than 1 km How to achieve it Identify problem districts, blocks and villages Request women ’ s suggestions for needed solutions Women groups can form tree growing cooperatives for fuelwood These groups can identify land and the species of plants Women’s role as Energy Managers : Women’s role as Energy Managers Biodiesel plantation and extraction Charcoal and briquette production Installation of biogas plants Operating gasifier systems Upgrade women’s work by reducing drudgery Women are a part of solution: Women are a part of solution Micro enterprise development for energy Efficient energy management Go beyond cooking energy and aim for expansion of livelihood, security and community needs Some Energy related goals : Some Energy related goals 50% reduction in unelectrified clinics 50% reduction in unelectrified schools 50% increase in access to clean fuels Bringing closer to 1 km How Women’s Groups, NGOs and SHGs can help: How Women’s Groups, NGOs and SHGs can help E nhance the employment opportunities for women Promotion of local resources Provide special trainings to Women Capacity building and assistance to manage energy programs Market based approach: Market based approach Paradigm shift from “subsidy mind set” to micro credits and loans. Set criteria to select area for market based approach - mechanism that can assist women in gaining access to improved energy services to expand livelihood. - Access to credit - Energy for livelihood is more likely to be paid for The role of Self help groups in providing financial services must be enhanced Role of financial institutions. Other initiatives by the Govt.: Other initiatives by the Govt. Widen access to rural electrification, including decentralized programs Continuation of current energy programs “Fuel, Water, Electricity” should be given political priority over “Fuel, Electricity” PowerPoint Presentation: “One-third of India’s total energy, is ‘managed’ mostly by women with too little inputs of investment, management or technology (IMT) and no political or administrative backing. These women energy suppliers or “managers” need to be helped without taking this role away from them and instead provide them IMT and improve their lives.” Jyoti Parikh, Business Standard Thank you: Thank you Contact us Integrated Research and Action for Development (IRADe) C -50, Chhota Singh Block, Asian Games Village Complex, Khelgaon, New Delhi – 110 049 India Telefax: +91 11 26495522 / 23

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