presentation tatt

Information about presentation tatt

Published on January 17, 2008

Author: Tirone

Source: authorstream.com

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Slide1:  Mobile Opportunities: Poverty and Telephony Access in Latin America and the Caribbean Kim Mallalieu Innette Cambridge The University of the West Indies St. Augustine Trinidad and Tobago West Indies Slide2:  LAC Regional Dialog on the Information Society, funded by the IDRC Research and capacity building aimed at expanding the Information Society among the poor and disenfranchised in region Comprises roughly 10 LAC researchers 2007 research: BOP Mobile Opportunities 2007 Research:  2007 Research Mobile Opportunities: Poverty and Telephony Access in Latin America and the Caribbean Field studies in 7 countries: Caribbean: Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago Southern Cone: Argentina and Brazil Andean Region: Peru and Colombia Central America: Mexico Country reports October 2007 Regional report to follow Poverty Estimates:  Poverty Estimates *Unpublished T&T Sampling Strategy - Size:  T&T Sampling Strategy - Size [1]Source: CSO (2000) [2] Source: IADB (2004) using data derived from 1997/1998 Household Budgetary Survey [3] Calculated using [((N(z/2e)2)/(N-1+ (z/2e)2)] Sample Distribution: Geographic Regions:  Sample Distribution: Geographic Regions Sample: Pockets of Poverty:  Sample: Pockets of Poverty Poverty Measure Vague:  Poverty Measure Vague No Poverty Map Respondents reluctant to provide income info BOP communities 'pockets of poverty', estimated from: The Electoral List provided by the Elections and Boundaries Commission and the version utilised was the list as of first quarter 2007 CSO 2000 Population and Housing Census data as well as the CSO – Geographic Information Section – Map of Population Distribution of communities by Municipal Corporations. Contractor’s rich experience of socio-economic characteristics of communities Possible Proxy - Water:  Possible Proxy - Water Formulating poverty measure complex No universally accepted computation model exists Models vary based on attempts to capture cultural specificities DIRSI Survey does not adequately capture variables used in past studies and existing measures of poverty Income values and sources Water used as single proxy because DIRSI Survey does not adequately capture housing (materials, overcrowding, sanitation, amenities) Housing is a compound measure All housing parameters (amenities; materials ambiguous) Rationale: Access to water:  Rationale: Access to water Used internationally as a reliable proxy for living standards In T&T, “those with higher incomes were more likely to have a piped-in water supply” (Henry et al. in Suarez et al. 2006: 82) 1992 SLC revealed that residents in Quintile V were more than twice as likely to have piped water into their homes than those in Quintile 1 (Henry et al. in Suarez et al. 2006: 82) Use of Water as a Proxy:  Use of Water as a Proxy Population without sustainable access to improved water sources include those who access water from “… vendors, bottled water, tanker trucks and unprotected wells and springs” (UNDP Human Development Report 1996:410) Population with sustainable access to improved water sources include those who access it via “… household connections, public standpipes, boreholes, protected dug well, protected springs and rain water collection.” (UNDP Human Development Report 1996:410) Actual Sample by Proxy (Water) :  Actual Sample by Proxy (Water) Actual Sample by Proxy Walls :  Actual Sample by Proxy Walls Prefer: Weighted SEC Measure:  Prefer: Weighted SEC Measure e.g. using Basic Needs Index Basic Needs Index Cont.:  Basic Needs Index Cont. Actual Sample Distribution by Age:  Actual Sample Distribution by Age Actual Sample Distribution by Gender:  Actual Sample Distribution by Gender Actual Sample by Education:  Actual Sample by Education Actual Sample by Occupation :  Actual Sample by Occupation Actual Sample by Occupation :  Actual Sample by Occupation Actual Sample by Household Size:  Actual Sample by Household Size Actual Sample by Urban / Rural:  Actual Sample by Urban / Rural Fieldwork Notes:  Fieldwork Notes Questionnaire too long Little data revealed on income and source Different response rates for data on different sections Key Preliminary Findings:  Key Preliminary Findings Mobile: most widespread form of telecommunications access within the BOP communities in Trinidad and Tobago, both urban and rural Mobiles mostly used as a social tool and serve to maintain contact within the social frameworks incorporating the members of the BOP communities. Prepaid packages most prevalent on account of better control of expenditures over post-paid scheme Thank You:  Thank You Food Basket (2004) - Content:  Food Basket (2004) - Content Counter Flour Parboiled Rice Macaroni Green Bananas Yam Irish Potatoes Brown Sugar Split Peas Chick Peas Tomato Ketchup Calaloo Bush Melongene Pumpkin Orange Ripe Bananas Grapefruit Canned Grapefruit Juice Chicken Beef Powdered Milk Cheese Corned Beef Codfish Eggs Pork Oil Margarine Food Basket - Composition :  Food Basket - Composition Water (G) = 156.2 Riboflavin (Mg) = 1.28 Energy (Kcal) = 2400.0 Niacin (Mg) = 16.6 Protein (G) = 76.5 Vitamin C (Mg) = 132.9 Fat (G) = 63.1 Total Cost ($) = 7.62 Carbohydrate (G) = 386.0 Total Amount (Lb) = 2.86 Fibre (G) = 5.5 Total Amount (Kg) = 1.30 Calcium (Mg) = 624.0 Iron (Mg) = 20.2 Vitamin A (R.E.) = 528.5 Thiamin (Mg) = 1.9 Source: Generated from CFNI Programme Integrated T&T Poverty Measures:  Integrated T&T Poverty Measures 1992 Survey of Living Conditions (SLC) used known variables which correlate to causes of poverty (Report on SLC: World Bank 1995:2): Earned income and expenditure Access to potable water Access to sanitary services (flush toilets and septic tanks) Education (attendance of minors and level attained by adults) Access to and extent of use of health services Housing Adequacy of provision Type of tenancy Land tenancy Persons per room Extent of overcrowding Household Budgetary Survey (HBS 1997-98) Additionally used household expenditure levels Limitations of HBS and SLC:  Limitations of HBS and SLC As seen with the 1975,1981/82 and 1998 Household budgetary Surveys conducted by the CSO “households tended to show expenditure over and above their incomes…” (MOSD 1996:12) Poverty line measure does not allow for consideration of the role of social factors Poverty is more than just about not attaining the minimum needed for survival

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