Processing of Herbal and Medicinal Crops

Information about Processing of Herbal and Medicinal Crops

Published on August 4, 2014

Author: ramabhau

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Processing and Value Addition of Medicinal and Herbal Crops: Processing and Value Addition of Medicinal and Herbal Crops Dr. R.T. Patil Former Director, CIPHET, Ludhiana Chairman & ED, Benevole for PHT, Chief Technical Advisor, Khyati Foods, Bhopal Madhya Pradesh in Medicinal and Herbal Crops: Madhya Pradesh in Medicinal and Herbal Crops Madhya Pradesh is known for a wide range of herbs. It caters to about 40 percent of Indian herbal industry's requirement spread across the country. The main herbal centers are Shivpuri, Betul, Katni, Neemuch and Lalitpur. The natural occurrence & mass scale cultivation has made the state the herbal hub of the country. Madhya Pradesh is the raw material bowl of the herbal industry and can become the main processing center for several herbal products Processing of Medicinal Crops: Processing of Medicinal Crops Isolate pure active compounds for formulation into drugs (quinine, reserpine , digoxin , etc.)  Isolate intermediates for the production of semi-synthetic drugs  Prepare standardised galenicals (extracts, powders, tinctures, etc.) Raw Material Selection : Raw Material Selection Authentication of plant material and elimination of foreign matter completely Use the right plant part, right age of plant & the time, season and place of collection. Proper drying of plant material Low temperature grinding methods should be followed Powdered plant material should be screened for uniform particle size. Unit Operations in Extraction : Unit Operations in Extraction 1. Size reduction 2. Extraction Cold aqueous percolation Hot aqueous extraction (decoction) Solvent extraction (cold or hot) 3. Filtration 4. Concentration 5. Drying Selection of Solvents for Extraction: Selection of Solvents for Extraction The solvent should be used based on nature of constituents: For non-polar constituents a non-polar solvent is used eg . lupeol is the active constituent of Crataeva nurvala and, for its extraction, hexane is generally used. For plants like Bacopa monnieri and Centella asiatica , the active constituents are glycosides and hence a polar solvent like aqueous methanol may be used. For thermolabile constituents cold maceration, cold percolation and CCE are preferred. For thermostable constituents, Soxhlet extraction (if nonaqueous solvents are used) and decoction (if water is the menstruum ) are useful. Precautions during Extraction : Precautions during Extraction In hot extraction, avoid higher temperatures than required. Some glycosides break upon continuous exposure to higher temperature. Standardize time of extraction be done, insufficient time means incomplete extraction & longer time results in unwanted constituents. The quality of water or medium used should be specified and controlled. Concentration and drying procedures should ensure the safety and stability of the active constituents. Drying under reduced pressure (e.g. using a Rotavapor) & freeze drying although expensive be employed. The design and material of fabrication of the extractor should be food grade stainless steel PowerPoint Presentation: Basket Centrifuge to Remove Surface Moisture after Washing Accumulation of surface water after washing is a matter of concern as it helps in growth of pathogens and microorganisms. A Basket centrifuge consisting of a detachable perforated cylinder, rotating at 500 RPM was fabricated to remove surface water from surface. It can process 10 kg load per batch of 10 sec PowerPoint Presentation: Controlled Solar Drying Low cost poly solar dryer Poly House Solar Dryer Solar Cabinet Dryers Solar ovens for pretreatment Dehumidifier Dryer : Dehumidifier Dryer Micro-processor based temperature controller to regulates the drying temperature. For blanched Amla drying, the dryer reduced vitamin-C loss up to 87% as compared to the open sun drying. The products such as sliced fruits and vegetables is dried in 20-25 h and medicinal herbs and leaf crops are 12-20 h. The cost of the prototype is Rs. 1,50,000 and capacity is 30 kg/batch. Size Reduction Equipment : Size Reduction Equipment These modern granulators are quiet, energy efficient, conserve floor space while producing quality regrind from robot-fed sprues, runners and small parts. They have tangential feed cutting chambers; low-speed motors; and staggered rotors with replaceable cassette knives. Low-speed rotor, Higher throughput, less dust No knife resharpening needed Safe, tool-less, full-front access Reversible screen,Sealed hopper and vacuum bin design Cryogenic Grinder : Cryogenic Grinder The capacity grinder is 30 to 50 kg/h The grinding system consists of a self-pressurized liquid nitrogen cylinder of 185 litre capacity, Cryo-precooler of capacity 30-50 kg/h. All contact parts of machine are made of stainless steel. The ground spice is collected through cyclone system and immediately sieved into different grades. Product with natural flavour & all medicinal attributes is obtained. Solvent Extractor : Solvent Extractor It is ultra-compact solvent extraction method combining both soxhlet extraction and dynamic heat reflux extraction. The extraction with vacuum unit effectively reduces the loss of heat-sensitive active ingredients. The extractor uses frames mixing so that a there is effective of raw material with solvents. It is a compact structure requiring only 2 M 2 area & can be equipped with mobile casters for easy operation. Distillation Plants for Medicinal Crops-IHBT: Distillation Plants for Medicinal Crops-IHBT Capacity of 4-5 Kg and 8-10 Kg plant material under water, steam and water & steam distillation. Capacity 200 kg per batch. Unit contains built-in water head tanks, distillate/coolant transfer pumps, furnace, vertical condenser and oil receiver-separator, DG set etc., Spray Dryer: Spray Dryer The filtered extract is subjected to spray drying with a high pressure pump at a controlled feed rate and temperature, to get dry powder. The desired particle size of the product is obtained by controlling the inside temperature of the chamber and by varying the pressure of the pump. The dry powder is mixed with suitable diluents blended in a double cone mixer to obtain a homogeneous powder that can be straightaway used, for example, for filling in capsules or making tablets. Commercial Products : Commercial Products Chironji - Mewa for khir & sweets Amchur -condiments & masala Vaybidaing -For insecticides & medicines. Karanji - For soap & medicines Shikakai -For shampooing the hair Ghotpal -For ayurvedic medicines Kosa cocoons -For silk manufacture Peng seeds -For herbal oil & medicines Karkatia seeds -For medical uses Nirmali seeds -For ayurvedic medicines. Contd ……. Commercial Products : Ambadi -Pharma oil Charota seeds -For soap manufacture Chirayta -For medicinal uses Mahua -For brewing liquor Harra -For tanning industry Tora –Oil for soap manufactures, cake as cattle feed Dhavai phool –Colouring agent in drugs/ medicines Bhilawan seeds -For inks/paints. Commercial Products Major Concerns in Value Addition: Major Concerns in Value Addition Inadequate infrastructure, and post-harvesting facilities and skills The Forest Department, procurement agencies, Gram sabha / Panchayat or the institutions of primary collectors should have proper storage facilities. Most medicinal and herbal products being seasonal products; and several being perishable require appropriate storage facility. Inadequate storage facility results in distress sale or sale at a low price. The medicinal and herbal plants require cold storage The products like char seeds and kalmegh fail to provide the potential return without intermediate level value addition. Recommendations: Recommendations Develop appropriate technologies for processing and intermediate product development adaptable at forest or rural locations. Development of downstream processing to produce value added products. Strengthening of R&D institutes with pilot plant processing facilities for training, demonstration and incubation. Setting up facilities for design and fabrication of appropriate process equipment and pilot plants for scale up operations. Establish agro processing centres in production catchment with custom processing facility Create 1 Vanaspati Mitra in each village who can be facilitator between experts and collectors of these crops Thank you, Let us scientifically preserve & process Medicinal and Herbal Plants to bring prosperity to tribals: Thank you, Let us scientifically preserve & process Medicinal and Herbal Plants to bring prosperity to tribals

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